Details

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development


Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development


1. Aufl.

von: Moe Toghraei

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Aiche
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 13.03.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119329343
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 496

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

An essential guide for developing and interpreting piping and instrumentation drawings Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development is an important resource that offers the fundamental information needed for designers of process plants as well as a guide for other interested professionals. The author offers a proven, systemic approach to present the concepts of P&ID development which previously were deemed to be graspable only during practicing and not through training.  This comprehensive text offers the information needed in order to create P&ID for a variety of chemical industries such as: oil and gas industries; water and wastewater treatment industries; and food industries. The author outlines the basic development rules of piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) and describes in detail the three main components of a process plant: equipment and other process items, control system, and utility system. Each step of the way, the text explores the skills needed to excel at P&ID, includes a wealth of illustrative examples, and describes the most effective practices. This vital resource: Offers a comprehensive resource that outlines a step-by-step guide for developing piping and instrumentation diagrams Includes helpful learning objectives and problem sets that are based on real-life examples Provides a wide range of original engineering flow drawing (P&ID) samples Includes PDF’s that contain notes explaining the reason for each piece on a P&ID and additional samples to help the reader create their own P&IDs Written for chemical engineers, mechanical engineers and other technical practitioners, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development reveals the fundamental steps needed for creating accurate blueprints that are the key elements for the design, operation, and maintenance of process industries.
Preface xix Acknowledgement xxiii About the Companion Website xxv Part I Fundamentals of P&ID Development 1 1 What Is P&ID 3 1.1 Why Is P&ID Important? 3 1.2 What Is a P&ID? 4 1.3 P& ID Media 4 1.4 P& ID Development Activity 5 2 Management of P&ID Development 9 2.1 Project of Developing P&IDs 9 2.2 P& ID Milestones 9 2.3 Involved Parties in P&ID Development 11 2.4 P& ID Set Owner 12 2.5 Required Quality of the P&ID in Each Stage of Development 12 2.6 P& ID Evolution 12 2.7 Tracking Changes in P&IDs 12 2.8 Required Man?Hours for the Development of P&IDs 13 3 Anatomy of a P&ID Sheet 15 3.1 Title Block 15 3.2 Ownership Block 15 3.3 Reference Drawing Block 15 3.4 Revision Block 15 3.5 Comments Block 16 3.6 Main Body of a P&ID 19 4 General Rules in Drawing of P&IDs 21 4.1 Items on P&IDs 21 4.1.4 Signals 22 4.2 How to Show Them: Visual Rules 22 4.3 Item Identifiers in P&IDs 26 4.4 Different Types of P&IDs 32 4.5 A Set of P&IDs 39 4.6 P&IDs Prepared in Engineering Companies Compared to Manufacturing or Fabricating Companies 42 4.7 Dealing with Vendor or Licensor P&IDs 43 5 Principles of P&ID Development 45 5.1 Plant Stakeholders 45 5.2 The Hierarchy of P&ID Development Rules 45 5.3 Plant Operations 46 5.4 What Should a P&ID Address? 53 5.5 Conflicting Check and Merging Opportunities Check 63 5.6 Dealing with Common Challenges in P&ID Development 64 5.7 Example: Development of P&ID of a Typical Pump 65 Part II Pipes and Equipment 69 6 Pipes 71 6.1 Fluid Conductors: Pipes, Tubes, and Ducts 71 6.2 Pipe Identifiers 71 6.3 Pipe Tag Anatomy 74 6.4 Pipes Crossing “Borders” 79 6.5 Goal of Piping 82 6.6 Piping Arrangements 84 6.7 Pipe Route 88 6.8 Piping Movement 91 6.9 Dealing with Unwanted Two?Phase Flow in Pipes 92 6.10 Tubes 94 6.11 Double–Wall Pipes 95 6.12 Pipesfor Special Arrangements 96 6.13 Pipe Size Rule of Thumbs 97 6.14 Pipe Appurtenances 97 6.15 Other Approach about Piping 103 6.16 “Merging” Pipes 103 6.17 Wrapping–Up: Addressing Requirements of Pipe during the Life Span 103 6.18 Transferring Bulk Solid Materials 104 Reference 104 7 Manual Valves and Automatic Valves 105 7.1 Valve Naming 105 7.2 Valve Functions 105 7.3 Valve Structure 105 7.4 Classification of Valves 105 7.5 Valve Operators 110 7.6 Different Types of Actuators 111 7.7 Basis of Operation for Automatic Valves 112 7.8 Tagging Automatic Valves 113 7.9 Tagging Manual Valves 113 7.10 Valve Positions 113 7.11 Valve Arrangement 117 7.12 Control Valves and RO Combinations 119 7.13 Operating in the Absence of Valves 119 7.14 Valves in Role of Unit Operation 122 7.15 Special Valves 123 7.16 Valve Combinations 126 7.17 End of Valve Arrangements 126 7.18 Valve Sizing Rule of Thumbs 127 7.19 Merging Valves 127 7.20 Wrapping Up: Addressing Requirements of Valve During the Life Span 127 References 128 8 Provisions for Ease of Maintenance 129 8.1 Introduction 129 8.2 Different Types of Equipment Care 129 8.3 In?place In?line Equipment Care 129 8.4 In?place Off?line Equipment Care 130 8.5 In?workshop Off?line Equipment Care 131 8.6 Preparing Equipment for Off?line Care 131 8.7 Isolation 131 8.8 Bringing the Equipment to a Non?harmful Condition 136 8.9 Cleaning 139 8.10 Ultimate Destination of Dirty Fluids 140 8.11 Making Equipment Easy to Remove 141 8.12 Wrap?up 142 9 Containers 143 9.1 Introduction 143 9.2 Selection of Containers 143 9.3 Containers Purposes 144 9.4 Transferring Fluids Between Containers 145 9.5 Container Positions 146 9.6 Container Shapes 147 9.7 Container Identifiers 148 9.8 Levels in Non?flooded Liquid Containers 151 9.9 Container Nozzles 151 9.10 Overflow Nozzles 157 9.11 Breathing of Non?flooded Containers 158 9.12 Blanketed Tanks 160 9.13 Heating (or Cooling) in Containers 161 9.14 Mixing in Containers 162 9.15 Container Internals 162 9.16 Tank Roofs 162 9.17 Tank Floors 163 9.18 Container Arrangement 164 9.19 Merging Containers 164 9.20 Secondary Containment 165 9.21 Underground Storage Tanks 166 9.22 Sumps 167 9.23 Wrapping? up: Addressing the Requirements of the Container During its Lifespan 167 10 Pumps and Compressors 169 10.1 Introduction 169 10.2 Fluid Mover Roles 169 10.3 Types of Fluid Movers 169 10.4 A Brief Discussion on the Function of Fluid Movers in a System 169 10.5 Fluid Mover Identifiers 171 10.6 Liquid Movers: Dynamic Pumps 173 10.7 Liquid Movers: PD Pumps 190 10.8 Gas Movers: Fans, Blowers, Compressors 196 10.9 Wrapping?up: Addressing Requirements of Fluid Movers During the Life Span 200 Reference 200 11 Heat Transfer Units 201 11.1 Introduction 201 11.2 Main Types of Heat Transfer Units 201 11.3 Different Types of Heat Exchangers and Their Selection 202 11.4 Different Types of Heat Transfer Fluids and Their Selection 203 11.5 Heat Exchangers: General Naming 204 11.6 Heat Exchanger Identifiers 204 11.7 Heat Exchanger P&ID 206 11.8 Heat Exchanger Arrangement 207 11.9 Aerial Coolers 209 11.10 Merging Heat Exchangers 212 11.11 Wrapping?up: Addressing the Requirements of a Heat Exchanger During its Life Span 212 11.12 Fired Heaters and Furnaces 213 11.13 Fire Heater Arrangement 215 11.14 Merging Fired Heaters 216 11.15 Wrapping?up: Addressing the Requirements of Fired Heaters During their Lifespan 216 12 Pressure Relief Devices 217 12.1 Introduction 217 12.2 Why Pressure Is So Important? 217 12.3 Dealing with Abnormal Pressures 217 12.4 Safety Relief System 219 12.5 What Is an “Enclosure,” and Which “Side” Should Be Protected? 220 12.6 Regulatory Issues Involved in PRVs 220 12.7 PRD Structure 222 12.8 Six Steps to Providing a Protective Layer 222 12.9 Locating PRDs 223 12.10 Positioning PRDs 223 12.11 Specifying the PRD 225 12.12 Selecting the Right Type of PRD 225 12.13 PRD Identifiers 226 12.14 Selecting the Right Type of PRD Arrangement 228 12.15 Deciding on an Emergency Release Collecting Network 230 12.16 Deciding on a Disposal System 232 12.17 Protecting Atmospheric Containers 235 12.18 Merging PRDs 236 12.19 Wrapping?Up: Addressing the Requirements of PRDs During their Lifespan 238 Part III Instrumentation and Control System 239 13 Fundamentals of Instrumentation and Control 241 13.1 What Is Process Control? 241 13.2 Components of Process Control Against Violating Parameters 241 13.3 Parameters Versus Steering/Protecting Components 242 13.4 How Many Steering Loops Are Needed? 242 13.5 ICSS System Technology 243 13.6 ICSS Elements 245 13.7 Basic Process Control System (BPCS) 245 13.8 Instruments on P&IDs 247 13.9 Instrument Identifiers 248 13.10 Signals: Communication Between Instruments 252 13.11 Different Instrument Elements 255 13.12 Simple Control Loops 264 13.13 Position of Sensor Regarding Control Valves 266 14 Application of Control Architectures 269 14.1 Introduction 269 14.2 Control System Design 269 14.3 Selecting the Parameter to Control 269 14.4 Identifying the Manipulated Stream 270 14.5 Determining the Set Point 271 14.6 Building a Control Loop 272 14.7 Multi?Loop Control Architectures 274 14.8 Feedforward Plus Feedback Control 276 14.9 Monitoring Parameters 289 15 Plant Process Control 293 15.1 Introduction 293 15.2 Plant?Wide Control 293 15.3 Heat and Mass Balance Control 293 15.4 Surge Control 295 15.4.6 The Purpose of Containers in Process Plants 301 15.5 Equipment Control 302 15.6 Pipe Control System 304 15.7 Fluid Mover Control System 309 15.8 Heat Transfer Equipment Control 320 15.9 Container Control System 331 15.10 Blanket Gas Control Systems 332 Reference 332 16 Plant Interlocks and Alarms 333 16.1 Introduction 333 16.2 Safety Strategies 333 16.3 Concept of a SIS 333 16.4 SIS Actions and SIS Types 333 16.5 SIS Extent 336 16.6 Deciding on the Required SIS 336 16.7 The Anatomy of a SIS 336 16.8 Showing Safety Instrumented Functions on P&IDs 340 16.9 Discrete Control 343 16.10 Alarm System 344 16.11 Fire and Gas Detection System (FGS) 347 16.12 Electric Motor Control 351 Part IV Utilities 357 17 Utilities 359 17.1 Utility System Components 359 17.2 Developing P&IDs for Utility Systems 359 17.3 Different Utilities in Plants 363 17.4 Air as a Utility in Process Plants 363 17.5 Water as a Utility in Process Plants 364 17.6 Heat Transfer Media 364 17.7 Condensate Collection Network 366 17.8 Fuel as Utility 366 17.9 Inert Gas 367 17.10 Vapor Collection Network 367 17.11 Emergency Vapor/Gas Release Collection Network 368 17.12 Fire Water 368 17.13 Surface Drainage Collection Network or Sewer System 370 17.14 Utility Circuits 372 17.15 Connection Between Distribution and Collecting Networks 375 Part V Additional Information and General Procedure 379 18 Ancillary Systems and Additional Considerations 381 18.1 Introduction 381 18.2 Safety Issues 381 18.3 Dealing with Environment 384 18.3.4 Summary of Insulation 390 18.4 Utility Stations 390 18.5 Off?Line Monitoring Programs 392 18.6 Corrosion Monitoring Program 396 18.7 Impact of the Plant Model on the P&ID 397 18.8 Design Pressure and Temperature Considerations 398 19 General Procedures 405 19.1 Introduction 405 19.2 General Procedure for P&ID Development 405 19.3 P& ID Reviewing and Checking 409 19.4 Methods of P&ID Reviewing and Checking 412 19.5 Required Quality of P&IDs at Each Stage of Development 413 20 Examples 417 Index 453
MOE TOGHRAEI is an independent consultant and instructor. He has more than 20 years of experience in the chemical process industries. He provides consultancy in process and project engineering areas. He also has developed and instructed dozens of technical courses, including tailor-made courses for companies, public courses and online courses. His online courses are available through the University of Kansas and University of Dalhousie.
AN ESSENTIAL GUIDE FOR DEVELOPING AND INTERPRETING PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWINGS Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development is an important resource that offers the fundamental information needed for designers of process plants as well as a guide for other interested professionals. The author offers a proven, systemic approach to present the concepts of P&ID development which previously were deemed to be graspable only during practicing and not through training. This comprehensive text offers the information needed in order to create P&ID for a variety of chemical industries such as: oil and gas industries; water and wastewater treatment industries; and food industries. The author outlines the basic development rules of piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) and describes in detail the three main components of a process plant: equipment and other process items, control system, and utility system. Each step of the way, the text explores the skills needed to excel at P&ID, includes a wealth of illustrative examples, and describes the most effective practices. This vital resource: Offers a comprehensive resource that outlines a step-by-step guide for developing piping and instrumentation diagrams Includes problem sets that are based on real-life examples Provides a wide range of original engineering flow drawing (P&ID) samples Written for chemical engineers, mechanical engineers and other technical practitioners, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development reveals the fundamental steps needed for creating accurate blueprints that are the key elements for the design, operation, and maintenance of process industries.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation
Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation
von: Jürgen Gmehling, Michael Kleiber, Bärbel Kolbe, Jürgen Rarey
PDF ebook
97,99 €
Nanocellulose
Nanocellulose
von: Jin Huang, Alain Dufresne, Ning Lin
PDF ebook
142,99 €