Details

Food Security and Climate Change


Food Security and Climate Change


1. Aufl.

von: Shyam Singh Yadav, Robert J. Redden, Jerry L. Hatfield, Andreas W. Ebert, Danny Hunter

162,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 14.12.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119180654
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 568

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Beschreibungen

This book looks at the current state of food security and climate change, discusses the issues that are affecting them, and the actions required to ensure there will be enough food for the future. By casting a much wider net than most previously published books—to include select novel approaches, techniques, genes from crop diverse genetic resources or relatives—it shows how agriculture may still be able to triumph over the very real threat of climate change.Food Security and Climate Change integrates various challenges posed by changing climate, increasing population, sustainability in crop productivity, demand for food grains to sustain food security, and the anticipated future need for nutritious quality foods. It looks at individual factors resulting from climate change, including rising carbon emission levels, increasing temperature, disruptions in rainfall patterns, drought, and their combined impact on planting environments, crop adaptation, production, and management. The role of plant genetic resources, breeding technologies of crops, biotechnologies, and integrated farm management and agronomic good practices are included, and demonstrate the significance of food grain production in achieving food security during climate change.Food Security and Climate Change is an excellent book for researchers, scientists, students, and policy makers involved in agricultural science and technology, as well as those concerned with the effects of climate change on our environment and the food industry.
List of Contributors xvii 1 Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security 1Shyam S. Yadav, V. S. Hegde, Abdul Basir Habibi,Mahendra Dia, and Suman Verma 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Climate Change and Agriculture 3 1.1.2 Impact of Dioxide on Crop Productivity 4 1.1.3 Impact of Ozone on Crop Productivity 5 1.1.4 Impact of Temperature and a Changed Climate on Crop Productivity 6 1.2 Climate Change and Food Security 6 1.2.1 Climate Change and Food Availability 7 1.2.2 Climate Change and Stability of Food Production 8 1.2.3 Climate Change and Access to Food 8 1.2.4 Climate Change and Food Utilization 9 1.3 Predicted Impacts of Climate Change on Global Agriculture, Crop Production, and Livestock 10 1.3.1 Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation, and Resilience 11 1.3.2 Mitigation 12 1.3.3 Adaptation and Resilience 12 1.3.4 Policies, Incentives, Measures, and Mechanisms for Mitigation and Adaptation 13 1.4 Impact of Divergent & Associated Technologies on Food Security under Climate Change 14 1.4.1 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 15 1.4.2 Technological Options for Boosting Sustainable Agriculture Production 15 1.4.3 Mechanization in Agriculture Sector 16 1.4.4 Food Processing and Quality Agro-Products Processing 16 1.4.5 Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Climate-Smart Agriculture in Smallholder Farming Systems17 1.5 The Government of India Policies and Programs for Food Security 17 1.6 Conclusions 18 References 19 2 Changes in Food Supply and Demand by 2050 25Timothy S. Thomas 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 Model Description 26 2.3 Model Assumptions 26 2.3.1 Economic and Demographic Assumptions 26 2.4 Climate Assumptions 28 2.5 Results 30 2.5.1 Production 30 2.6 Underutilized Crops 38 2.7 Consumption 38 2.8 Trade and Prices 42 2.9 Food Security 46 2.10 Conclusion 48 References 50 3 Crop Responses to Rising Atmospheric [CO2] and Global Climate Change 51Pauline Lemonnier and Elizabeth A. Ainsworth 3.1 Introduction 51 3.1.1 Rising Atmospheric [CO2] and Global Climate Change 51 3.1.2 Measuring Crop Responses to Rising [CO2] 53 3.1.3 Physiological Responses to Rising [CO2] 54 3.2 Crop Production Responses to Rising [CO2] 58 3.2.1 Effects of Rising [CO2] on Food Quality 59 3.2.2 Strategies to Improve Crop Production in a High CO2 World 61 3.2.2.1 Genetic Variability in Elevated [CO2] Responsiveness:The Potential and Challenges for Breeding 62 3.2.2.2 Strategies for Genetic Engineering 63 Acknowledgements 64 References 64 4 Adaptation of Cropping Systems to Drought under Climate Change (Examples from Australia and Spain) 71Garry J. O’Leary, James G. Nuttall, Robert J. Redden, Carlos Cantero-Martinez,and M. InesMinguez 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Water Supply 72 4.2.1 Changing Patterns of Rainfall 72 4.2.2 Rotations, Fallow, and Soil Management 74 4.3 Interactions of Water with Temperature, CO2 and Nutrients 77 4.3.1 High Temperature Response of Wheat 77 4.3.2 High Temperature and Grain Quality of Wheat 79 4.3.3 Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Crop Growth 79 4.3.4 Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Grain Quality 80 4.4 Matching Genetic Resources to The Environment and the Challenge to Identify the Ideal Phenotype 80 4.5 Changing Climate and Strategies to Increase Crop Water Supply and Use 82 4.6 Beyond Australia and Spain 84 4.7 Conclusions 85 Acknowledgments 85 References 86 5 Combined Impacts of Carbon, Temperature, and Drought to Sustain Food Production 95Jerry L. Hatfield 5.1 Introduction 95 5.1.1 Need for Food to Feed the Nine Billion by 2050 95 5.2 Changing Climate 96 5.3 Carbon Dioxide And Plant Growth 97 5.3.1 Responses of Plants to Increased CO2 97 5.3.2 Effect of Increased CO2 on Roots 100 5.3.3 Effect of Increased CO2 on Quality 100 5.4 Temperature Effects on Plant Growth 102 5.4.1 Responses of Plants to High Temperatures 102 5.4.2 Mechanisms of Temperature Effect on Plants 104 5.5 Water Effects on Plant Growth 106 5.5.1 Mechanisms of Water Stress 107 5.6 Interactions of Carbon Dioxide, Temperature, And Water in a Changing Climate 108 References 110 6 Scope, Options and Approaches to Climate Change 119S. Seneweera, Kiruba Shankari Arun-Chinnappa, and Naoki Hirotsu 6.1 Introduction 119 6.2 Impact of CO2 and climate stress on growth and yield of agricultural crop 120 6.3 The Primary Mechanisms of Plants Respond to Elevated CO2 121 6.4 Interaction of Rising CO2 With Other Environmental Factors – Temperature And Water 121 6.5 Impact of Climate Change on Crop Quality 122 6.6 Climate Change, Crop Improvement, and Future Food Security 123 6.7 Intra-specific Variation in Crop Response to Elevated [CO2] – Current Germplasm Versus Wild Relatives 124 6.8 Identification of New QTLs for Plant Breeding 124 6.9 Association Mapping for Large Germplasm Screening 125 6.10 Genetic Engineering of CO2 Responsive Traits 125 6.11 Conclusions 126 References 127 7 Mitigation and Adaptation Approaches to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change 131Li Ling and Xuxiao Zong 7.1 Technology and its Approaches Options to Climate Change in Agriculture System 132 7.1.1 Adjusting Agricultural Farming Systems and Organization, with Changes in Cropping Systems 133 7.1.2 Changing Farm Production Activities 135 7.1.3 Developing Biotechnology, Breeding New Varieties to Adapt to Climate Change 135 7.1.4 Developing Information Systems, and Establishing a Disaster PreventionSystem 136 7.1.5 Strengthening the Agricultural Infrastructure, Adjusting Management Measures 137 7.2 Development and Implementation of Techniques to Combat Climatic Changes 137 7.2.1 Improving Awareness of Potential Implications of Climate Change Among All Parties Involved (from grassroots level to decision makers) 138 7.2.2 Enhancing Research on Typical Technology 138 7.2.2.1 Enhancing Research on Typical Technology for Different Areas 138 7.2.2.2 Enhancing Research on Food Quality Under Climate Change 138 7.2.2.3 Enhancing Research on Legumes and Its Biological Nitrogen Fixation 139 7.2.3 Developing Climate-Crop Modelling as an Aid to Constructing Scenarios 140 7.2.4 Development and Assessment Efforts of Adaptation Technology 140 References 141 8 Role of Plant Breeding to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change 145Rodomiro Ortiz 8.1 Introduction 145 8.2 Sources of Genetic Diversity and their Screening for Stress Adaptation 146 8.2.1 Crop-related Species 146 8.2.2 Domestic Genetic Diversity 146 8.2.3 Crossbreeding 147 8.2.4 Pre-breeding 148 8.2.5 Biotechnology and Modeling as Aids for Breeding Cultivars 148 8.3 Physiology-facilitated Breeding and Phenotyping 149 8.3.1 Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Resource-use Efficiency 150 8.3.2 Precise and HighThroughput Phenotyping 150 8.4 DNA-markers for Trait Introgression and Omics-led Breeding 151 8.5 Transgenic Breeding 152 References 153 9 Role of Plant Genetic Resources in Food Security 159Robert J. Redden, Hari Upadyaya, Sangam L. Dwivedi, Vincent Vadez,Michael Abberton, and Ahmed Amri 9.1 Introduction 159 9.2 Climate Change and Agriculture 160 9.3 Adjusting Crop Distribution 160 9.4 Within Crop Genetic Diversity for Abiotic Stress Tolerances 160 9.5 Broadening the Available Genetic Diversity Within Crops 161 9.6 Crop Wild Relatives as a Novel Source Of Genetic Diversity 161 9.7 Genomics, Genetic Variation and Breeding for Tolerance of Abiotic Stresses 162 9.8 Under-utilised Species 163 9.9 Genetic Resources in the Low Rainfall Temperate Crop Zone 164 9.10 Forage and Range Species 166 9.11 Genetic Resources in the Humid Tropics 166 9.12 Genetic Resources in the Semi-arid Tropics and Representative Subsets 168 9.13 Plant Phenomics 168 9.14 Discovering Climate Resilient Germplasm Using Representative Subsets 170 9.14.1 Multiple Stress Tolerances 170 9.14.2 Drought Tolerance 170 9.14.3 Heat Tolerance 173 9.14.4 Tolerance of Soil Nutrient Imbalance 174 9.15 Global Warming and Declining Nutritional Quality 174 9.16 Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) -The Source of Allelic Diversity 174 9.17 Introgression of Traits from CWR 175 9.18 Association Genetics to Abiotic Stress Adaptation 176 9.19 Strategic Overview 177 9.20 Perspectives 177 9.21 Summary 179 References 179 10 Breeding New Generation Genotypes for Conservation Agriculture in Maize-Wheat Cropping Systems under Climate Change 189Rajbir Yadav, Kiran Gaikwad, Ranjan Bhattacharyya, Naresh Kumar Bainsla,Manjeet Kumar, and Shyam S. Yadav 10.1 Introduction 189 10.2 Challenges Before Indian Agriculture 191 10.2.1 Declining Profit 191 10.2.2 Depleting Natural Resources: 193 10.2.2.1 Water: 193 10.2.2.2 Soil Health/ Soil Quality 193 10.2.3 Changing Climate 195 10.2.4 Climate Change Adaptation:Why it is Important in Wheat? 198 10.3 CA as a Concept to AddressThese Issues Simultaneously 199 10.4 Technological Gaps for CA in India 199 10.4.1 Machinery Issue 199 10.4.2 Non-availability of Adapted Genotypes for Conservation Agriculture 200 10.4.3 Designing the Breeding Strategies 201 10.5 Characteristics of Genotypes Adapted for CA 202 10.5.1 Role of Coleoptiles in Better Stand Establishment Under CA 202 10.5.2 Spreading Growth Habit During Initial Phase for Better Moisture Conservation and Smothering of Weeds 204 10.5.3 Exploitation of Vernalization Requirement for Intensification 205 10.5.4 Integrating Cropping System and Agronomy Perspective in Breeding for CA 209 10.6 Wheat Ideotype for Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems of Northern India 214 10.7 Breeding Methodology Adopted in IARI for CA Specific Breeding 215 10.8 Countering the Tradeoff Between Stress Adaptation and Yield Enhancement Through CA Directed Breeding 216 10.8.1 Yield Enhancement by IncreasingWater Use EfficiencyThrough CA 218 10.9 Conclusions 220 References 221 11 Pests and Diseases under Climate Change; Its Threat to Food Security 229Piotr Tr?bicki and Kyla Finlay 11.1 Introduction 229 11.2 Climate Change and Insect Pests 231 11.3 Climate Change and Plant Viruses 235 11.4 Climate Change and Fungal Pathogens 238 11.5 Climate Change and Effects on Host Plant Distribution and Availability 240 Acknowledgments 241 References 241 12 Crop Production Management to Climate Change 251Sain Dass, S. L. Jat, Gangadhar Karjagi Chikkappa, and C.M. Parihar 12.1 Introduction 251 12.2 Maize Scenario in World and India 251 12.3 The Growth Rate of Maize 254 12.4 Maize Improvement 256 12.5 Single Cross Hybrids 256 12.6 Pedigree Breeding for Inbred Lines Development 257 12.6.1 Seed multiplication 258 12.6.2 Single Cross Development 258 12.7 Preferred Characteristics for Good Parent 259 12.7.1 Female or Seed Parent 259 12.7.2 Development of Specialty Corn Schs 259 12.7.3 Baby Corn and Sweet Corn 259 12.7.4 Quality Protein Maize (QPM) 260 12.7.4.1 Improvement of Inbred Lines 260 12.7.4.2 Improvement of Inbred Lines through MAS 260 12.7.4.3 Foreground selection 260 12.7.4.4 Background selection 261 12.7.4.5 Marker Assisted Backcross Breeding strategies (MABB) 262 12.7.4.6 MABB at What Cost? 262 12.7.5 Doubled Haploid (DH) Technique 263 12.7.5.1 Steps Involved In Vivo DH Inbred Lines Development 263 12.7.5.2 Advantages of DH Lines over Conventional Inbred Lines 265 12.7.6 Transgenic Maize and its Potential 265 12.7.6.1 Abiotic Stresses 266 12.7.6.2 Drought Tolerance 267 12.7.6.3 Screening Techniques 267 12.7.7 Hybrid Seed Production 268 12.7.7.1 Pre-requisites of Single Cross Hybrid Seed Production 268 12.7.8 Important Considerations for Hybrid Seed Production 268 12.7.8.1 Isolation Distance 268 12.7.8.2 Male:female Ratio 269 12.7.8.3 How to Bring Male: female Synchrony? 269 12.7.8.4 Hybrid Seed Production Technology 269 12.7.8.5 Hybrid Seed Production Sites 272 12.7.9 Crop Production 272 12.7.9.1 Cropping System Optimization 272 12.7.9.2 Crop Sequence 273 12.7.9.3 Best Management Practices (BMP) for Crop Establishment 274 12.7.9.4 Crop Establishment 274 12.7.9.5 Raised Bed / ridge and Furrow Planting 276 12.7.9.6 Zero-till Planting 278 12.7.9.7 Conventional Till Flat Planting 278 12.7.9.8 Furrow Planting 278 12.7.9.9 Transplanting 279 12.7.9.10 BMP for Water Management 279 12.7.9.11 BMP for nutrient management 281 12.8 Nutrient Management Practices for Higher Productivity and Profitability in Maize Systems 283 12.8.1 Timing and method of fertilizer application 284 12.8.2 Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) 284 12.8.3 Biofertilizers 285 12.8.4 Micronutrient Application 285 12.8.5 Slow Release Fertilizers 285 12.8.6 Precision Nutrient Management 285 12.8.7 Conservation Agriculture and Smart Mechanization 286 References 287 13 Vegetable Genetic Resources for Food and Nutrition Security under Climate Change 289Andreas W. Ebert 13.1 Introduction 289 13.2 Global vegetable production 290 13.3 The Role of Genetic Diversity to Maintain Sustainable Production Systems Under Climate Change 290 13.4 Ex Situ Conservation of Vegetable Germplasm at The Global Level 296 13.5 Access to Information on Ex Situ Germplasm Held Globally 302 13.5.1 SINGER: Online Catalog of International Collections Managed by the GCIAR And WorldVeg 303 13.5.2 EURISCO: the European Genetic Resources Search Catalog 303 13.5.3 GRIN of USDA-ARS 304 13.5.4 GENESYS: the global gateway to plant genetic resources 304 13.5.5 The CropWild Relatives Portal 305 13.5.6 Crop Trait Mining Platforms 305 13.5.6.1 Crop Trait Mining Informatics Platform 305 13.5.6.2 The Diversity Seek Initiative 306 13.5.7 Trait information portal for CWR and landraces and crop-trait ontologies 307 13.5.8 Summary and Outlook 308 13.6 In Situ and On-farm Conservation of Vegetable Resources 310 13.7 Summary and Outlook 311 Acknowledgment 312 References 312 Annex 1 315 14 Sustainable Vegetable Production to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change at Global Level 319Andreas W. Ebert, Thomas Dubois, Abdou Tenkouano, Ravza Mavlyanova, Jaw-FenWang, Bindumadhava Hanumantha Rao, Srinivasan Ramasamy, Sanjeet Kumar, Fenton D. Beed, Marti Pottorff, Wuu-Yang Chen, Ramakrishnan M. Nair, Harsh Nayyar, and James J. Riley 14.1 Introduction 319 14.2 Regional Perspective: Sub-Saharan Africa 320 14.2.1 The Effects of Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa 320 14.2.2 Interactions Between Climate Change and Other Factors Driving Vegetable Production and Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa 321 14.2.3 Implications of Climate Change and Other Factors on Vegetable Production and Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa 321 14.3 Regional Perspective: South and Central Asia 325 14.3.1 The Effects of Climate Change in South Asia 325 14.3.2 The Effects of Climate Change in Central Asia 326 14.3.3 Climate Change Adaptation Options in South and Central Asia 326 14.4 The Role of Plant Genetic Resources for Sustainable Vegetable Production 328 14.5 Microbial Genetic Resources to Boost Agricultural Performance of Robust Production Systems and to Buffer Impacts of Climate Change 329 14.6 Physiological Responses to a Changing Climate: Elevated CO2 Concentrations and Temperature in The Environment 330 14.6.1 CO2 and Photosynthesis 330 14.6.2 CO2 and Stomatal Transpiration 331 14.6.3 Dual Effect of Increased CO2 and Temperature 331 14.6.3.1 High Temperature (HT) Effect on Mungbean 332 14.6.3.2 Current and Proposed Mungbean Physiology Studies at Worldveg South Asia 332 14.6.4 Conclusion 334 14.7 Plant Breeding for Sustainable Vegetable Production 335 14.7.1 Formal Vegetable Seed System –Lessons Learned 335 14.7.2 Role ofWorldVeg’s International Breeding Programs 336 14.7.3 Impact ofWorldVeg’s Breeding Programs 337 14.7.4 Future Outlook 337 14.8 Management of Bacterial and Fungal Diseases for Sustainable Vegetable Production 338 14.9 Management of Insect and Mite Pests 342 14.10 Grafting to Overcome Soil-borne Diseases and Abiotic Stresses 344 14.11 Summary and Outlook 347 Acknowledgment 347 References 348 15 Sustainable Production of Roots and Tuber Crops for Food Security under Climate Change 359Mary Taylor, Vincent Lebot, Andrew McGregor, and Robert J. Redden 15.1 Introduction 359 15.2 Optimum Growing Conditions for Root and Tuber Crops 361 15.2.1 Sweet Potato 361 15.2.2 Cassava 361 15.2.3 Edible Aroids 362 15.2.3.1 Taro 362 15.2.3.2 Cocoyam 362 15.2.3.3 Giant Taro 363 15.2.3.4 Swamp Taro 363 15.2.4 Yams 363 15.3 Projected Response of Root and Tuber Crops to Climate Change 364 15.3.1 Sweet Potato 364 15.3.2 Cassava 364 15.3.2.1 Edible Aroids 365 15.3.2.2 Yam 365 15.4 Climate Change and Potato Production 366 15.5 Sustainable Production Approaches 367 15.5.1 Agroforestry Systems 367 15.5.1.1 Combining Tree Crops and Roots and Tubers 367 15.5.2 Soil Health Management 368 15.5.3 Utilizing Diversity 368 15.6 Optimization of Root and Tuber Crops Resilience to Climate Change 369 15.7 Conclusion 371 References 371 16 The Roles of Biotechnology in Agriculture to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change 377Rebecca Ford, Yasir Mehmood, Usana Nantawan, and Chutchamas Kanchana-Udomkan 16.1 Introduction 377 16.2 ReducedWater Availability and Drought 378 16.3 Drought-proofing Wheat and Other Cereals 378 16.4 Drought Tolerance in Temperate Legumes 380 16.5 Drought Tolerance in Tropical Crops 381 16.6 Rainfall Intensity, Flooding and Water-logging Tolerance 383 16.7 Heat Stress And Thermo–tolerance 385 16.8 Thermo-tolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Food Crops 385 16.9 Heat Stress Tolerance in Temperate Legumes 388 16.10 Salinity Stress, Ionic and Osmotic Tolerances 388 16.11 Salinity Tolerance in Rice 389 16.12 Salinity Tolerance in Legumes 390 16.13 Transgenics to Overcome Climate Change Imposed Abiotic Stresses 390 16.14 Conclusion 392 References 393 17 Application of Biotechnologies in the Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food Security 413Toshiro Shigaki 17.1 Introduction 413 17.2 Climate change 413 17.2.1 Population Explosion 414 17.2.2 Vandalism 414 17.3 Collecting Germplasm 415 17.4 Conservation 415 17.4.1 In situ Collection 415 17.4.2 Ex situ Collection 416 17.4.3 Slow Growth in Tissue Culture 416 17.4.4 Cryopreservation 417 17.4.5 Herbarium 419 17.4.6 Svalbard Global Seed Vault 419 17.5 Characterization of Germplasm 420 17.5.1 Early Developments 420 17.5.1.1 RFLP 420 17.5.1.2 RAPD 421 17.5.2 New Developments 421 17.5.2.1 Genotyping by Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) 421 17.5.2.2 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) 421 17.5.3 Recent Developments 422 17.5.3.1 Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) 422 17.5.4 Future Prospects 422 17.6 Germplasm Exchange 422 17.6.1 Bioassay 423 17.6.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 423 17.6.3 PCR 423 17.6.4 Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) 423 17.7 Germplasm Utilization 425 17.7.1 Embryo Rescue 425 17.7.2 Somatic Hybridization 426 17.7.3 Molecular Breeding 426 17.7.4 Genetic Engineering 426 17.7.5 Biosafety 428 17.8 Future Strategies and Guidelines for the Preservation of Plant Genetic Resources 428 References 430 18 Climate Change Influence on Herbicide Efficacy andWeed Management 433Mithila Jugulam, Aruna K. Varanasi, Vijaya K. Varanasi, and P.V.V. Prasad 18.1 Introduction 433 18.2 Herbicides in Weed Management 434 18.3 Climate Factors and Crop-Weed Competition 434 18.4 Climate Change Factors, Herbicide Efficacy and Weed Control 438 18.4.1 Effects of Elevated CO2 and High Temperatures 438 18.4.2 Effects of Precipitation and Relative Humidity 440 18.4.3 Effects of Solar Radiation 441 18.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Direction 442 Acknowledgments 442 References 442 19 Farmers’ Knowledge and Adaptation to Climate Change to Ensure Food Security 449Lois Wright Morton 19.1 Farmers and Climate Change 449 19.2 Knowledge About Climate 451 19.3 Weather and Climate 452 19.4 Values and Beliefs About Climate Change 453 19.5 Farmer Climate Beliefs 454 19.6 Vulnerability, Experiences of Risk, Concern About Hazards and confidence 456 19.7 Climate Related Hazards 458 19.8 Adaptation Factors 460 19.9 Water is the Visible Face of Climate 462 19.10 Making Sense of Climate: Local, Indigenous and Scientific knowledge 463 19.11 System Adaptation or Transformation 465 References 467 20 Farmer and Community-led Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation of Agriculture Using Agricultural Biodiversity and Genetic Resources 471Tony McDonald, Jessica Sokolow, and Danny Hunter 20.1 Introduction 471 20.2 Impact of Climate Change on Farming Communities 472 20.3 Inequity of Climate Change across Farming Communities 474 20.4 Impact of Climate Change on the Many Elements of Genetic Resources and Agricultural Biodiversity 475 20.5 Monocultures 475 20.6 Wild Species 476 20.7 Role of Genetic Resources and Agricultural Biodiversity in Coping with Climate Change 477 20.8 Brief Overview of Approaches Using Genetic Resources and Agricultural Biodiversity to Cope with Climate Change 478 20.9 Identification of a Spectrum of Examples of Farmer-led Approaches 482 20.10 Examination of Barriers to Implementation of Farmer-led Approaches 483 20.10.1 Farmers & their Communities 490 20.10.2 Institutional & Collaborative mechanisms 491 20.10.3 Contextual & Background 492 20.11 Systems that are working 493 20.12 Conclusion 494 References 494 21 Accessing Genetic Diversity for Food Security and Climate Change Adaptation in Select Communities in Africa 499Otieno Gloria 21.1 Introduction 499 21.2 Methodology 501 21.2.1 Reference Sites and Crops 501 21.2.2 Data and Methods 502 21.3 Results and Discussion 504 21.3.1 Summary of Climate Change in Selected Sites 504 21.3.2 Finding Potentially Adaptable Accessions from a Pool of National and International Plant Genetic Resources 504 21.3.2.1 Zambia 505 21.3.2.2 Zimbabwe 508 21.3.2.3 Benin 508 21.4 Conclusions and Policy Implications 520 References 521 Index 523
About the Editors SHYAM S. YADAV, Freelance International Consultant in Agriculture, Manav Memorial Trust/ Manav Foundation, Vikaspuri, New Delhi, India and Manav Mahal International School, Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh, India. ROBERT J. REDDEN, RJR Agricultural Consultants, Horsham, Victoria, Australia. JERRY L. HATFIELD, USDA-ARS National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Ames, Iowa, USA. ANDREAS W. EBERT, Freelance International Consultant in Agriculture and Agrobiodiversity, Schwaebisch Gmuend, Germany. DANNY HUNTER, Senior Scientist, Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems Initiative, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy and Adjunct Researcher, Plant and Agricultural Biosciences Centre (PABC), National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG).
COMPREHENSIVELY EXAMINES THE LINKS BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE, CROP PRODUCTION, AND FOOD SECURITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY This book looks at the current state of food security and climate change, discusses the issues that are affecting them, and the actions required to ensure there will be enough food for the future. By casting a much wider net than most previously published books—to include select novel approaches, techniques, genes from crop diverse genetic resources or relatives—it shows how agriculture may still be able to triumph over the very real threat of climate change. Food Security and Climate Change integrates various challenges posed by changing climate, increasing population, sustainability in crop productivity, demand for food grains to sustain food security, and the anticipated future need for nutritious quality foods. It looks at individual factors resulting from climate change, including rising carbon emission levels, increasing temperature, disruptions in rainfall patterns, drought, and their combined impact on planting environments, crop adaptation, production, and management. The role of plant genetic resources, breeding technologies of crops, biotechnologies, and integrated farm management and agronomic good practices are included, and demonstrate the significance of food grain production in achieving food security during climate change. Highlights individual numerous factors responsible for climate change Demonstrates the significance of food grain production in achieving food security during climate change Examines the effects of climate change on crop production Includes novel approaches, techniques, and genes from crop diverse genetic resources/relatives Looks at international projections on climate change for mitigation, adaptation, and adoption of recommendations in agriculture to sustain food security around the world Food Security and Climate Change is an excellent book for researchers, scientists, students, and policy makers involved in agricultural science and technology, as well as those concerned with the effects of climate change on our environment and the food industry.

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