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Aquaculture Production Systems


Aquaculture Production Systems


World Aquaculture Society Book series 1. Aufl.

von: James H. Tidwell

85,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 29.02.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9781118250068
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 440

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Beschreibungen

<p>Aquaculture is an increasingly diverse industry with an ever-growing number of species cultured and production systems available to professionals. A basic understanding of production systems is vital to the successful practice of aquaculture.</p> <p>Published with the <b>World Aquaculture Society</b>, <i>Aquaculture Production Systems</i> captures the huge diversity of production systems used in the production of shellfish and finfish in one concise volume that allows the reader to better understand how aquaculture depends upon and interacts with its environment.</p> <p>The systems examined range from low input methods to super-intensive systems. Divided into five sections that each focus on a distinct family of systems, <i>Aquaculture Production Systems</i> serves as an excellent text to those just being introduced to aquaculture as well as being a valuable reference to well-established professionals seeking information on production methods.</p>
<p>Contributors xi</p> <p>Preface xiv</p> <p>Acknowledgments xvi</p> <p><b>1 The Role of Aquaculture 3<br /></b><i>James H. Tidwell and Geoff Allan</i></p> <p>1.1 Seafood demand 3</p> <p>1.2 Seafood supply 4</p> <p>1.3 Seafood trade 6</p> <p>1.4 Status of aquaculture 7</p> <p>1.5 Production systems 12</p> <p>1.6 The future and the challenge 13</p> <p>1.7 References 13</p> <p><b>2 History of Aquaculture 15<br /></b><i>Robert R. Stickney and Granvil D. Treece</i></p> <p>2.1 Beginnings of aquaculture 16</p> <p>2.2 Expansion prior to the mid-1800s 17</p> <p>2.3 The explosion of hatcheries 18</p> <p>2.4 Art becomes science 20</p> <p>2.5 Commercial finfish species development 23</p> <p>2.6 Shrimp culture 33</p> <p>2.7 Mollusk culture 42</p> <p>2.8 Controversy 43</p> <p>2.9 References 44</p> <p><b>3 Functions and Characteristics of All Aquaculture Systems 51<br /></b><i>James H. Tidwell</i></p> <p>3.1 Differences in aquatic and terrestrial livestock 51</p> <p>3.2 Ecological services provided by aquaculture production systems 53</p> <p>3.3 Diversity of aquaculture animals 53</p> <p>3.4 Temperature classifications of aquacultured animals 54</p> <p>3.5 Temperature control in aquaculture systems 56</p> <p>3.6 Providing oxygen in aquaculture systems 58</p> <p>3.7 Waste control in aquaculture systems 59</p> <p>3.8 Aquaculture systems as providers of natural foods 61</p> <p>3.9 References 62</p> <p><b>4 Characterization and Categories of Aquaculture Production Systems 64<br /></b><i>James H. Tidwell</i></p> <p>4.1 Open systems 65</p> <p>4.2 Semi-closed systems 68</p> <p>4.3 Closed systems 73</p> <p>4.4 Hybrid systems 75</p> <p>4.5 References 77</p> <p><b>5 Shellfish Aquaculture 79<br /></b><i>Robert Rheault</i></p> <p>5.1 Major species in culture (oysters, clams, scallops, mussels) 80</p> <p>5.2 History 81</p> <p>5.3 Biology 84</p> <p>5.4 Culture basics 86</p> <p>5.5 Extensive versus intensive culture 88</p> <p>5.6 Spat collection: hatchery, nursery, growout 89</p> <p>5.7 Cultured algae 91</p> <p>5.8 Spawning 92</p> <p>5.9 Larval development 93</p> <p>5.10 Setting 94</p> <p>5.11 Nursery and growout scale considerations 96</p> <p>5.12 Nursery methods 97</p> <p>5.13 Growout methods 100</p> <p>5.14 Fouling 104</p> <p>5.15 Fouling control strategies 104</p> <p>5.16 Predation 105</p> <p>5.17 Harvest 106</p> <p>5.18 Food safety 107</p> <p>5.19 Shellfish diseases 108</p> <p>5.20 Disease management options 108</p> <p>5.21 Genetics: selective breeding 109</p> <p>5.22 Triploidy 110</p> <p>5.23 Harmful algal blooms 110</p> <p>5.24 Site selection 111</p> <p>5.25 Carrying capacity 112</p> <p>5.26 Permitting challenges 113</p> <p>5.27 Nonnative species 114</p> <p>5.28 References 115</p> <p><b>6 Cage Culture in Freshwater and Protected Marine Areas 119<br /></b><i>Michael P. Masser</i></p> <p>6.1 Current status of cage culture 121</p> <p>6.2 History and evolution of cage culture 122</p> <p>6.3 Advantages and disadvantages of cages 123</p> <p>6.4 Site selection 124</p> <p>6.5 Stocking cages 125</p> <p>6.6 Feeding caged fish 126</p> <p>6.7 Polyculture and integrated systems 126</p> <p>6.8 Problems with cage culture 127</p> <p>6.9 Economics of cage culture 129</p> <p>6.10 Sustainability issues 129</p> <p>6.11 References 130</p> <p><b>7 Ocean Cage Culture 135<br /></b><i>Richard Langan</i></p> <p>7.1 The context for open ocean farming 135</p> <p>7.2 Characterization and selection of open ocean sites 137</p> <p>7.3 Technologies for open ocean farming 139</p> <p>7.4 Finfish species cultivated in open ocean cages 148</p> <p>7.5 Environmental considerations 149</p> <p>7.6 Future prospects and challenges 153</p> <p>7.7 References 154</p> <p><b>8 Reservoir Ranching 158<br /></b><i>Steven D. Mims and Richard J. Onders</i></p> <p>8.1 Reservoir ranching vs. culture-based fisheries 158</p> <p>8.2 Reservoir 159</p> <p>8.3 Natural processes of reservoirs 160</p> <p>8.4 Selection of reservoirs for reservoir ranching 162</p> <p>8.5 Fish species selection 164</p> <p>8.6 Stocking density and size 165</p> <p>8.7 Status of reservoir ranching around the world 166</p> <p>8.8 Summary 170</p> <p>8.9 References 171</p> <p><b>9 Flow-through Raceways 173<br /></b><i>Gary Fornshell, Jeff Hinshaw, and James H. Tidwell</i></p> <p>9.1 Types of raceways 174</p> <p>9.2 Physical requirements 177</p> <p>9.3 Water requirements 179</p> <p>9.4 Carrying capacity 180</p> <p>9.5 Water consumption and waste management 183</p> <p>9.6 Feeding and inventory management 186</p> <p>9.7 Summary 187</p> <p>9.8 References 189</p> <p><b>10 Ponds 191<br /></b><i>Craig Tucker and John Hargreaves</i></p> <p>10.1 Species cultured 193</p> <p>10.2 Pond types 195</p> <p>10.3 Water use 198</p> <p>10.4 Pond culture intensity and ecological services 201</p> <p>10.5 Food in pond aquaculture 202</p> <p>10.6 Life support in pond aquaculture 208</p> <p>10.7 Land use and the ecological footprint of pond aquaculture 222</p> <p>10.8 Consequences of unregulated algal growth 227</p> <p>10.9 Practical constraints on pond aquaculture production 230</p> <p>10.10 Comparative economics of culture systems 234</p> <p>10.11 Sustainability issues 237</p> <p>10.12 Trends and research needs 240</p> <p>10.13 References 242</p> <p><b>11 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems 245<br /></b><i>James M. Ebeling and Michael B. Timmons</i></p> <p>11.1 Positive attributes 246</p> <p>11.2 Overview of system engineering 247</p> <p>11.3 Culture tanks 249</p> <p>11.4 Waste solids removal 250</p> <p>11.5 Cornell dual-drain system 250</p> <p>11.6 Settling basins and tanks 252</p> <p>11.7 Mechanical filters 252</p> <p>11.8 Granular media filters 253</p> <p>11.9 Disposal of the solids 254</p> <p>11.10 Biofiltration 254</p> <p>11.11 Choice of biofilter 258</p> <p>11.12 Aeration and oxygenation 259</p> <p>11.13 Carbon dioxide removal 261</p> <p>11.14 Monitoring and control 262</p> <p>11.15 Current system engineering design 262</p> <p>11.16 Recirculation system design 263</p> <p>11.17 Four major water-treatment variables 265</p> <p>11.18 Summary of four production terms 268</p> <p>11.19 Stocking density 270</p> <p>11.20 Engineering design example 270</p> <p>11.21 Conclusion 276</p> <p>11.22 References 277</p> <p><b>12 Biofloc-based Aquaculture Systems 278<br /></b><i>Craig L. Browdy, Andrew J. Ray, John W. Leffler, and Yoram Avnimelech</i></p> <p>12.1 Bioflocs 280</p> <p>12.2 Oxygen dynamics 284</p> <p>12.3 Resuspension, mixing, and sludge management 287</p> <p>12.4 Nitrogenous waste products 290</p> <p>12.5 Temperature 296</p> <p>12.6 Feeds and feeding 297</p> <p>12.7 Economics 299</p> <p>12.8 Sustainability 300</p> <p>12.9 Outlook and research needs 302</p> <p>12.10 Acknowledgment 303</p> <p>12.11 References 303</p> <p><b>13 Partitioned Aquaculture Systems 308<br /></b><i>D. E. Brune, Craig Tucker, Mike Massingill, and Jesse Chappell</i></p> <p>13.1 High rate ponds in aquaculture—the partitioned aquaculture system 311</p> <p>13.2 PAS fingerling production 324</p> <p>13.3 Flow-through PAS: the controlled eutrophication process 326</p> <p>13.4 Photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic PAS for marine shrimp production 329</p> <p>13.5 Alabama in-pond raceway system 331</p> <p>13.6 Mississippi split-pond aquaculture system 333</p> <p>13.7 California pondway system 336</p> <p>13.8 References 340</p> <p><b>14 Aquaponics—Integrating Fish and Plant Culture 343<br /></b><i>James E. Rakocy</i></p> <p>14.1 System design 345</p> <p>14.2 Fish production 349</p> <p>14.3 Solids 352</p> <p>14.4 Biofiltration 357</p> <p>14.5 Hydroponic subsystems 360</p> <p>14.6 Sump 362</p> <p>14.7 Construction materials 363</p> <p>14.8 Component ratios 364</p> <p>14.9 Plant growth requirements 366</p> <p>14.10 Nutrient dynamics 368</p> <p>14.11 Vegetable selection 372</p> <p>14.12 Crop production systems 373</p> <p>14.13 Pest and disease control 375</p> <p>14.14 Approaches to system design 376</p> <p>14.15 Economics 380</p> <p>14.16 Prospects for the future 382</p> <p>14.17 References 383</p> <p><b>15 In-pond Raceways 387<br /></b><i>Michael P. Masser</i></p> <p>15.1 Development of the in-pond raceway 388</p> <p>15.2 Stocking and feeding 390</p> <p>15.3 Backup systems and disease treatments 391</p> <p>15.4 Comparison to other culture systems 391</p> <p>15.5 Sustainability issues 393</p> <p>15.6 Future trends 393</p> <p>15.7 References 393</p> <p><b>16 On the Drawing Board 395<br /></b><i>James H. Tidwell</i></p> <p>16.1 Future trends 395</p> <p>16.2 References 412</p> <p>Index 415</p>
<p>“The book provides both a valuable introduction to aquaculture for new students or the curious layman and serves as an indispensable reference for the seasoned academic or industry professional seeking the latest comprehensive information addressing aquaculture production systems and how they interact with the environment.” (<i>Journal of aquatic Food Product Technology</i>, 27 February 2013)</p> <p>“It will, however, be a useful resource for students and early-career aquaculture scientists. In addition, the book should be of interest to non-aquaculture professionals and practitioners who wish to have a compilation volume that gives concise overviews of the production systems that are used to farm aquatic animals.” (<i>Aquaculture International</i>, 1 October 2012)</p>
<b>James H. Tidwell </b>is Professor and Chair of the Division of Aquaculture at the Aquaculture Research Center at Kentucky State University.
Aquaculture is an increasingly diverse industry with an ever-growing number of species cultured and production systems available to professionals. A basic understanding of production systems is vital to the successful practice of aquaculture. <i>Aquaculture Production Systems</i> provides a valuable survey of key production systems that will allow the reader to better understand how aquaculture depends upon and interacts with its environment.<br /> <p><br /> </p> <p><i>Aquaculture Production Systems</i> looks at a variety of systems currently used in the production of shellfish and finfish. These systems range from low input methods to super-intensive systems. Divided into five sections that each focus on a distinct family of systems, <i>Aquaculture Production Systems</i> will serve as an excellent text to those just being introduced to aquaculture as well as being a valuable reference to well-established professionals seeking information on production methods.</p>

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