Details

Metal-Polymer Systems


Metal-Polymer Systems

Interface Design and Chemical Bonding
1. Aufl.

von: Jörg Friedrich

149,00 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 18.09.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9783527679911
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

The result of decades of research by a pioneer in the field, this is the first book to deal exclusively with achieving high-performance metal-polymer composites by chemical bonding. Covering both the academic and practical aspects, the author focuses on the chemistry of interfaces between metals and polymers with a particular emphasis on the chemical bonding between the different materials. He elucidates the various approaches to obtaining a stable interface, including, but not limited to, thermodynamically driven redox reactions, bond protection to prevent hydrolysis, the introduction of barrier layers, and stabilization by spacer molecules. Throughout, chemical bonding is promoted as a simple and economically viable alternative to adhesion based on reversible weak physical interaction. Consequently, the text equips readers with the practical tools necessary for designing high-strength metal-polymer composites with such desired properties as resilience, flexibility, rigidity or degradation resistance.
 Preface xi 1 High-Performance Metal–Polymer Composites: Chemical Bonding, Adhesion, and Interface Design 1 1.1 Introduction 1 References 10 2 Interpretation of Adhesion Phenomena – Review of Theories 13 2.1 General 13 2.2 Mechanical Interlocking 20 2.2.1 Mechanical Interlocking in a Macroscopic Scale 20 2.2.2 Mechanical Adhesion on a Microscale 20 2.2.3 Mechanical Anchoring on a Molecular Scale 21 2.3 Interdiffusion 23 2.3.1 Diblock Copolymers for Interface-Crossing Adhesion Promotion 23 2.3.2 Interdiffusion andWelding 23 2.3.3 Diffusion of Metals into Polymers 25 2.4 Interphase Formation 28 2.4.1 Polymer–Polymer Blends 28 2.4.2 Nanoparticle Composites 29 2.4.3 Transcrystalline Layers 29 2.4.4 Redox Reactions across the Metal–Polymer Interface 30 2.4.5 Reactions of Transition Metals with Aromatic Polymers 32 2.4.6 Loss in Anisotropic Orientation of Polymers Caused by Pretreatment or by Contact to Metals 34 2.4.7 Weak Boundary Layer 36 2.5 Weak Molecular Interactions (Cohesive Forces) 38 2.5.1 Thermodynamic Adsorption,WettingModel 38 2.5.2 Contact Angle, Surface Properties, and Adhesion 39 2.5.3 Contact Angle Measurement 40 2.5.4 Advancing and Receding Contact Angles, Contact Angle Hysteresis 42 2.5.5 Real Surfaces 43 2.5.6 Critical Surface Tension – Zisman Plot 44 2.5.7 Surface TensionTheories 46 2.5.8 Polar and Dispersive Components of Surface Tension 47 2.5.9 Acid–Base Interactions 48 2.5.10 Rheological Model 51 2.5.11 Summary 51 2.6 Electrostatic Attraction 52 2.7 Contaminations, Role ofWater, or Humidity 54 2.8 Coupling Agents 55 2.9 Use of Glues (Adhesives) 59 2.10 Hydrophobic Recovery 70 References 72 3 Interactions at Interface 89 3.1 Composites and Laminates 89 3.2 Laminate Processing 90 3.3 Polymers as Substrate or as Coating 92 3.4 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces 92 3.4.1 Chemisorption 92 3.5 Reactions of Metal Atoms with Polyolefins 97 3.6 Reaction of Metal Atoms with O-Functional Groups at Polymer Surfaces 97 3.7 Reactions of Metal Atoms with Amino Groups on Polymer Surfaces 105 3.8 Silane and Siloxane Adhesion-Promoting Agents 105 References 107 4 Chemical Bonds 113 4.1 Bonds in Polymers 113 4.1.1 Covalent C—H and C—C Bonds in Polymers 113 4.1.2 C—C Double, Triple, Conjugated, and Aromatic Bonds 116 4.1.3 C—O, C=O, O—C=O, and O=CO—O Bonds in Polymers 117 4.1.4 N-Containing Functional Groups 118 4.1.5 Chemical Bonds in Other Materials 119 4.2 Reactions of Chemical Bonds during Pretreatment 119 4.2.1 Aliphatic Chains 119 4.2.2 Preformed Degradation Products and Preferred Rearrangement Processes 121 4.3 Chemical Bonds at Interface 122 4.3.1 Polymer–Polymer Linking 122 4.3.2 Carbon–Metal Bonds 123 4.3.3 Covalent Bonds between Oxides and Polymers 126 4.3.4 Interface between Polymers and Transition Metals 127 References 130 5 Functional Groups at Polymer Surface and Their Reactions 135 5.1 OH Groups at Surface 135 5.2 Primary Amino Groups at Polymer Surfaces 140 5.3 Carboxylic Groups as Anchor Points for Grafted Molecules 143 5.4 Bromination 146 5.5 Silane Bonds 147 5.6 Click Chemistry 148 5.7 ATRP 150 5.8 Grafting 152 5.8.1 Grafting of Fluorescence Markers onto Functional Groups at Polyolefin Surfaces 153 5.8.2 Covalent Linking of Spacer Bonded Dye Sensors onto Polyolefin Surfaces 154 5.8.3 Covalent Linking of Spacer Bonded Dye Sensors onto Polyolefin Surfaces Supported by a Cucurbituril Jacket 155 5.8.4 Grafting of Polyglycerols onto Polyolefin Surfaces for Introducing Antifouling Property 156 5.8.5 Summary of Complex Structures Covalently Grafted onto Polyolefin Surfaces 159 5.9 Polymers Deposited onto Silicon or Glass 162 5.10 Molecular Entanglement of Macromolecules of Coating and Substrate at Polymer Surfaces (Interpenetrating Network at Interface) 162 References 165 6 Pretreatment of Polyolefin Surfaces for Introducing Functional Groups 173 6.1 Situation at Polyolefin Surfaces 173 6.2 Physical and Chemical Attacks of Polyolefin Surfaces 173 6.3 A Few General Remarks to the Pretreatment of Polyolefins 179 6.4 Introduction of Functional Groups to polyolefin Surfaces 184 6.5 Usual Pretreatment Processes and Their Advantages and Disadvantages 186 6.5.1 Oxygen Plasma Exposure 186 6.5.2 Structural Degradation of Polymer on Exposure to Oxygen Plasma 187 6.5.3 Degradation of Polymers by Exposure to Oxygen Plasma 192 6.5.4 Cross-linking of Polymers by Plasma-Emitted UV Radiation 198 6.6 Surface Oxidation by Atmospheric-Pressure Plasmas (Dielectric Barrier Discharge-DBD, Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge-APGD or Corona Discharge, Spark Jet, etc.) 201 6.7 Flame Treatment 204 6.8 Silicoater Process (Pyrosil) 205 6.9 Laser Ablation 205 6.10 UV Irradiation with Excimer Lamps 206 6.12 Mechanical Pretreatment 213 6.13 Cryogenic Blasting 214 6.14 Skeletonizing 214 6.15 Roughening for Mechanical Interlocking and Increasing of Surface Area by Plasma and Sputter Etching 215 6.16 Solvent Cleaning 215 6.17 SolventWelding 217 6.18 Chemical Treatment by Chromic Acid and Chromo-Sulfuric Acid 218 6.19 Chemical Etching and Functionalizing of Fluorine-Containing Polymers 220 6.20 Oxyfluorination 221 6.21 Sulfonation 222 6.22 Sputtering for Film Deposition 223 6.23 Cross-linking as Adhesion Improving Pretreatment (CASING) 225 6.24 Monosort Functionalization and Selective Chemical Reactions 226 6.24.1 Well-Defined Functionalization of Polymer Surfaces by Classic Organic Chemistry 226 6.24.2 Selective Monosort Functionalization of Polymer Surfaces by Oxygen Plasma Exposure and Post-Plasma Chemical Treatment for Producing OH Groups 227 References 237 7 Adhesion-Promoting Polymer Layers 259 7.1 General 259 7.2 Historical Development 261 7.3 Influence of Plasma Wattage on Chemical Structure of Plasma Polymers 263 7.4 Pulsed-Plasma Polymerization 265 7.5 Pressure-Pulsed Plasma 267 7.6 Copolymerization in Pulsed Plasmas 271 7.7 Some Additional Details to the Mechanisms of Plasma Polymerization 275 7.8 Often-Observed Abnormal Side Reactions Occurring in the Plasma Only 278 7.9 Structure of Plasma Polymers 281 7.10 Use of Plasma Polymers as Adhesion-Promoting Layers 286 7.11 Adhesion Promotion of VeryThick Layers 289 7.12 Summary 290 References 290 8 Monosort Functional Groups at Polymer Surfaces 299 8.1 Introduction 299 8.2 Bromination of Polyolefin Surface by Exposure to the Br2 Plasma 305 8.3 Bromoform as Precursor 309 8.4 Deposition of Plasma Polymers Carrying C—Br Groups 312 8.5 Loss in BromineGroups byWet-Chemical Processing 313 8.6 Other Halogenations 314 8.6.1 Chlorination 315 8.6.2 Fluorination 317 8.6.3 Iodination 317 8.6.4 Measuring the Electron Temperature in Haloform Plasmas 317 8.6.5 Comparison of Halogenation Processes 318 8.7 C—Br as Anchoring Point for Grafting 319 8.7.1 Changing the C—Br Functionalization into NH2 Functionalization 319 8.7.2 Other Functional Groups 321 8.7.3 Grafting onto C—Br Groups 322 8.8 Underwater Capillary Discharge Plasma or Glow Discharge Electrolysis (GDE) 323 8.9 Conclusions 323 References 332 9 Chemical Grafting ontoMonosort Functionalized Polyolefin Surfaces 337 9.1 General Aspects 337 9.2 Grafting of Spacers onto Radicals 344 9.3 Grafting of Spacers and Oligomers by Reaction with C—OH Groups at the Polyolefin Surface 346 9.4 Grafting of Linear Spacers and Oligomers onto C—Br Groups 347 9.5 Introduction of Spacers with Siloxane Cages (POSS) 349 9.6 Grafting via Click Reaction 350 9.7 Influence of Spacers on the Metal–Polymer Adhesion 351 9.8 Summary 352 References 353 10 Conclusions and Outlook to the New Interface Design 357 10.1 Introduction 357 10.2 Physical Effects Produced by Covalent Bonding of Metal to Polymer 360 10.3 Introduction of Functional Groups onto Polyolefin Surfaces Associated with Damaging of Polymer Structure Near Surface 363 10.4 Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Metals and Polymers 365 10.5 Differences between Al–Polyolefin and Polyolefin–Al Laminates 366 10.6 Protection of CovalentMetal–Polymer Bonds along the Interface 367 10.7 Reaction Pays for Grafting Spacer Molecules onto Polyolefin Surfaces 368 10.8 Special Requirements for Metal Deposition Especially Aluminum 370 10.9 UsedWays to Introduce Spacers for Maximum Adhesion 372 10.9.1 Spacer Attachment onto NH2 Groups 372 10.9.2 Spacer Grafting onto OH-Groups at Polymer Surface 375 10.9.3 Spacer Anchoring onto C—Br Groups 376 10.9.4 Silane Attachment 376 10.9.5 Silane Hydrolysis and Subsequent Partial Cross-linking 377 10.9.6 Adhesion Strength Measurements 381 10.9.7 Summary and Conclusions 383 References 388 11 Short Treatise on Analysis Chemical Features 395 11.1 General 395 11.2 Bulk Analysis 395 11.2.1 Infrared Spectroscopy 396 11.2.2 UV–vis Spectroscopy 400 11.2.3 NMR Spectroscopy 401 11.2.4 MALDI- and ESI-ToF-MS 403 11.2.5 HPLC and GPC/SEC 405 11.3 Surface Analysis 406 11.3.1 Sampling Depth 406 11.3.2 XPS 408 11.3.3 ToF-SIMS 410 11.3.4 SEIRA and IRRAS 412 References 414Index 415
Jorg Friedrich was the Department Head of Polymer Surfaces at the Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Berlin, Germany. He has obtained his academic degrees from Humboldt University Berlin, Academy of Sciences Berlin (AdW) and the Technical University of Berlin. He spent most of his career working for AdW before taking up his present appointment at BAM. Professor Friedrich has authored more than 300 scientific publications and has received numerous scientific awards. He is member of the editorial boards of four international journals.

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