Clinical PsychologyA Global Perspective
Notes on Contributors xv Preface xxiii 1 Research Methods 1Julian A. Rubel and Wolfgang Lutz Introduction 1 Research on the Frequency, Cause, and Prevention of Psychological Problems, and Disorders 1 Epidemiology 1 Etiology and Analytical Epidemiology 2 Prevention 3 Evaluating Clinical Interventions and Treatments 3 Does the Intervention Work? 4 External Validity 5 Quantifying the Effects of an Intervention 6 Integrating the Results from Multiple Studies—Meta-analyses 7 Is the Intervention Effective for this Specific Patient? 8 How, for Whom, and under which Conditions do Clinical Interventions Work? 10 Summary 12 2 Classification Systems across the Globe 15Jan Christopher Cwik and Jürgen Margraf Introduction 15 Classification Systems in Western Cultures 16 Atheoretical Classification Systems 16 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 16 The International Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD) 17 Theory-based Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Classification Systems 18 Classification Systems in Non-Western Cultures 19 The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD) 20 Specific Classification Systems 22 Specific categorical classification systems 22 Specific Noncategorical Classification Systems 23 3 Clinical Interviewing with Adults 29Christopher C. Conway, Michelle L. Bourgeois, and Timothy A. Brown Introduction 29 Goals of the Clinical Interview 29 Elements of the Clinical Interview 30 Diagnostic Criteria 30 Risk Assessment 32 Behavioral Observation 33 Psychosocial Assessment 34 Interviewing Techniques 35 Reliability and Validity of Interviews 36 Integrating Cultural Context in Interviews 38 Actuarial Judgment 38 Functional Analysis 39 Differential Diagnosis 40 Summary 40 4 Clinical Interviews with Children and Adolescents 43Eva Charlotte Merten and Silvia Schneider Introduction 43 Clinical Interviews with Children and Adolescents 45 Implementation of Clinical Interviews 51 Diagnostics with Children Needs Training! 51 Age, Age, Age . . . 52 Interviews with Preschool Children 52 Are Children Reliable Informants? 53 Difficulties in Daily Practice 56 Difficulties on the Patient’s Side 56 Difficulties regarding Taxonomy 57 Difficulties on the Diagnostician’s Side 57 Everything Perfect? How Often are Structured Interviews used in Clinical Practice? 58 Summary 59 5 Psychological Tests 65Robert J. Craig Introduction 65 Principles and Properties of Psychological Tests 66 Types of Psychological Tests 66 Objective Personality Tests 67 The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI/MMPI-2) 67 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) 69 The Personality Assessment Inventory 72 The NEO-PI-R 72 Conclusion 73 Projective Clinical Assessment Instruments 73 Rorschach Inkblot Test 73 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 73 Other Instruments 74 Computer Test Interpretation 74 Recent Challenges 75 6 A Global Perspective on Neuropsychological Assessment 81Rachel N. Casas, Matthew Calamia, and Daniel Tranel Introduction 81 Overlapping Histories: Neuropsychological Assessment 82 Purposes of Neuropsychological Assessment 83 Classification of Behavior and Cognition in Neuropsychological Assessment 85 Emotionality 86 Executive Functions 87 Neuropsychological Assessment: Approaches and Methods 87 Approaches Emphasizing Qualitative Methods 87 Approaches Emphasizing Quantitative Methods 88 Critical Considerations for Neuropsychological Assessment in a Global Society 89 Interpretation of Neuropsychological Assessment Results 91 Feedback and Recommendations 93 Future Directions for Neuropsychological Assessment: A Global Perspective 94 7 Culturally Informed Neuropsychological Assessment 99Rosemary Toomey Introduction 99 The Field of Clinical Neuropsychology 99 Clinical Neuropsychology Assessment 100 Intelligence 101 Achievement 103 Attention 103 Memory 103 Language 104 Executive Functioning 104 Visual Spatial 105 Motor Functioning 105 Crosscultural Considerations in Clinical Neuropsychology 105 Are Nonverbal Tests Culture Free? 106 Bilingualism 106 Translating Tests 107 Literacy 107 Norming by Race or Country 108 Acculturation 108 Interaction of Different Subject Characteristics 109 Child Neuropsychology 109 Reading Disorder: A Lens through which to View Crosscultural Issues 109 Research Study 110 Clinical Case Study 111 Background 111 Test Performance 111 Interpretation 112 Diagnosis and Recommendations 112 Summary 112 8 Evidence-Based Treatments: The Debate 119Thomas H. Ollendick, Peter Muris, and Cecilia A. Essau Introduction 119 Defining Evidence-Based Treatments 120 Evidence-Based Treatments: The Debate 121 Conclusions 128 9 Childhood and Adolescent Disorders 135Amie E. Grills and Melissa K. Holt Neurodevelopmental Disorders 136 Intellectual Disabilities 136 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) 137 Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) 138 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 138 Communication Disorders 139 Motor Disorders 141 Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders 142 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) 143 Conduct Disorder (CD) 144 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) 144 Summary 145 10 Mood Disorders 153Ulrich Stangier and Elisabeth A. Arens Symptomatology and Classification of Mood Disorders 153 Epidemiology 156 Depressive Disorders 156 Bipolar and Related Disorders 157 Assessment 157 Treatment 158 Basic Strategies 158 Behavioral Activation 160 Cognitive Therapy 161 Interpersonal Approaches 162 Psychological Treatments for Recurrent and Persistent Depression 163 Psychological Treatments for Bipolar Disorder 164 Empirical Evidence for the Efficacy of Psychological Treatments in Mood Disorders 165 Conclusions 166 11 Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorders 173Kirstyn L. Krause and Martin M. Antony Treatment of Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorders 173 Overview of Anxiety and OC-related Disorders 173 Diagnostic Features 173 Epidemiological Features 174 Treatment of Anxiety and OC-Related Disorders 177 Psychoeducation 177 Motivational Enhancement 177 Self-Monitoring 178 Cognitive Strategies 178 Exposure-Based Strategies 179 Relaxation-Based Strategies 180 Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Strategies 181 Habit Reversal 181 Social-Skills Training 182 Problem-Solving Training 182 Pharmacotherapy 182 Psychological Treatments for Particular Disorders 183 Cultural Considerations in Treatment 184 Summary 185 12 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 191Richard A. Bryant Definition 191 Prevalence of PTSD 193 The Course of PTSD 193 Comorbidity 194 Theoretical Models of PTSD 194 Risk Factors 195 Treating PTSD 197 Early Intervention for PTSD 198 Complex PTSD 199 Conclusions 200 13 Eating Disorders 209Brunna Tuschen-Caffier and Jennifer Svaldi Psychopathology of Eating Disorders 209 Classification of Eating Disorders 209 Epidemiology and Comorbidity 211 Physical Symptoms and Risks 212 Differential Diagnosis 212 Assessment 212 Development, First Onset and Maintenance Factors 213 Treatment 215 Cognitive-affective Preparation for Therapy 215 Nutritional Management 217 Improvement in Body Image Disturbances 218 Enhancement of Stress Management including Interpersonal Conflict Management 219 Cognitive Interventions 219 Maintenance of Therapeutic Gains and Prevention of Relapses 220 Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) 220 14 Sexual Dysfunctions 225Pedro J. Nobre Introduction 225 Classification of Sexual Dysfunctions 225 Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions 226 Risk Factors for Sexual Dysfunction 227 Sociodemographic, Relationship and Health Risk Factors 227 Psychological Factors and Sexual Dysfunction 228 Trait Factors 228 Psychological Processing Factors 229 Psychological Models of Sexual Dysfunction 230 Masters and Johnson Psychophysiological Model 230 Barlow’s Cognitive-Affective Model 230 Nobre’s Cognitive-Emotional Model 231 Treatments for Sexual Dysfunction 231 Review of Treatment Outcome Studies for Sexual Dysfunction 233 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexual Dysfunction 234 Cognitive Restructuring 235 Brief Summary 235 15 Couple Distress 243Mehmet Sungur Introduction 243 What are the Processes that Differentiate Functional Couples from Dysfunctional Ones? 244 Assessment of the Couples 245 Goal Setting in Couple Therapy 246 Couple Therapy: Strategies and Techniques 247 Difficulties with Promoting Change: Difficulties Encountered during Couple Therapy Practice 247 Treatment Issues: Couple Therapy 249 Treatment Approaches for Intervention 249 Behavioral Approaches 250 Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy (CBCT) Approaches 251 Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) 253 Behavioral Systems Approach to Couple Problems 253 Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy (EFCT) 254 Strategic Approaches and Brief Strategic Couple Therapy (BSCT) 255 Solution-Focused Approaches and Brief Solution-Focused Therapy (BSFT) 255 Psychoanalytical Approaches 256 16 Somatic Symptom Disorders 261Maria Kleinstäuber and Winfried Rief Introduction 261 Classifying and Diagnosing SSRD 262 Diagnostic Categories According to DSM-5, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 262 Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) 262 Illness Anxiety Disorder 264 Other SSRD 264 Critical Reflection on Changes from DSM-IV, and ICD-10 to DSM-5 265 Classifying Specific Functional Somatic Syndromes 266 Specific Cultural Syndromes of Distress 267 Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions for SSRD 267 Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) 267 Other Psychological Interventions for SSRD 273 Psychodynamic Interpersonal Therapy 273 General Practitioner (GP) and Reattribution Training 274 Empirical Evidence for Psychological Interventions in SSRD 274 Transcultural Aspects in Psychological Interventions for SSRD 276 Summary and Conclusion 276 17 Psychotic Disorders 283Tania Lincoln Introduction 283 Description of the Disorder 283 Symptoms 284 Diagnostic Criteria 285 Differential Diagnosis 285 Comorbid Disorders and Suicidality 286 Epidemiology, Course of the Disorder and Prognosis 286 Etiology 287 Genetic Risk Factors 287 Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors 287 Psychosocial Risk Factors 287 Psychological Models of Explanation: Interplay of Vulnerability, Stressors and Symptoms 288 Neurochemical Models of Explanation: Excess Dopamine 289 Integrative Models: Integrating Genes, Environment, Neurochemistry and Cognitive Schema 290 Assessment 291 Pharmacological Treatment 291 Psychological Interventions 293 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) 293 Empirical Evidence for CBTp in Schizophrenia 298 Family Behavioral Interventions 299 Effectiveness of Psychoeducational Behavioral Family Interventions 301 Other Psychological Approaches and their Effectiveness 301 Summary and Outlook 302 18 Neurobiology and Pharmacological Treatment of Mental Disorders 309Borwin Bandelow Introduction 309 Mood Disorders 312 Depression 312 Bipolar Disorders 314 Psychotic Disorders 314 Anxiety Disorders 316 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 317 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 317 Somatic Symptom Disorders 318 Substance-Related Disorders 318 Alcohol Addiction 318 Opioid Addiction 319 Dependence on Prescription Drugs 319 Eating Disorders 319 Personality Disorders 320 Borderline Personality Disorder 320 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) 320 Dementia 321 Sleep Disorders 321 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 321 Summary 322 19 Mindfulness-Based Interventions 327Bram Van Bockstaele, Elske Salemink, Brian D. Ostafin, Anne Marie Meijer, and Susan M. Bögels Popular Mindfulness-Based Interventions 327 Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction 327 Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy 328 Application of Mindfulness in Mental Health Care 328 Psychoeducation Example 329 Meditation Practice Example 329 Inquiry Example 330 Homework Example 330 Effects of Mindfulness-based Interventions on Psychological Disorders 330 Neurodevelopmental Disorders 330 Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders 331 Bipolar and Related Disorders 332 Depressive Disorders 332 Anxiety Disorders 333 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 334 Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders 334 Feeding and Eating Disorders 335 Sleep-Wake Disorders 336 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders 336 Neurocognitive Disorders 337 Discussion 338 Acknowledgements 340 20 Internet-Based Treatments 347Gerhard Andersson and Thomas Berger Introduction 347 Are Internet Treatments Effective? 348 The “How” Question 349 A Research Agenda for the World? 350 Challenges for the Future 351 Summary 353 21 Virtual Reality 361Cristina Botella, Rosa M. Baños, Azucena García-Palacios, and Soledad Quero Introduction 361 Virtual Reality for the Treatment of Different Psychological Disorders and Health Problems 362 Virtual Reality as an Ecological Context for Assessing Human Behavior 363 Virtual Reality as a Realistic Laboratory Setting for Psychopathology 365 Mood-Induction Procedures 365 Study of Cognitive Biases 365 Study of Psychotic Phenomena 366 Study of the Self and Embodiment Processes 367 Virual Reality Developments for the Treatment of Different Mental and Health Conditions 367 Specific Phobias 368 Social Anxiety Disorder 369 Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia 369 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 370 Stress-Related Disorders 370 Virtual Reality in the Treatment of Health Conditions 372 Future Perspectives and Ethical Implications of VR 373 Summary 374 22 Working Alliance 383Nicole Everitt, Brad Cini, and Nikolaos Kazantzis Measurement 384 California Psychotherapy Alliance Scales (CALPAS; Marmar & Gaston, 1988) 384 Penn Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq; Luborsky, 1976) 384 Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scale (VTAS; Hartley & Strupp, 1983) 384 Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) 384 Evidence for Relations with Outcome 384 Temporal Precedence 386 Impact of Alliance Rater and Time of Assessment 386 Adapting Working Alliance Based on Patient Characteristics 387 Evidence for Patient Characteristics in Alliance Research 388 Further Critique 388 Patient Matching 389 The Therapeutic Relationship is More Than the Working Alliance: The Case of Cognitive Behavior Therapy 389 Collaboration 390 Conclusion 391 23 Culture in Clinical Psychology: Adapting Treatments 399Anushka Patel and Devon E. Hinton Culture in Clinical Psychology: Adapting Treatments 399 Why do we Need Culturally Adapted Treatments? 400 How to Adapt: Develop New Treatments or Modify what Works? 401 Evidence for Efficacy of Cultural Adaptation: What to Adapt 402 A Model of Anxiety Generation across Cultural Contexts 403 How to Culturally Adapt Treatment? 405 Key Treatment Targets 405 Psychoeducation and Treatment Engagement 406 Teaching Emotion Regulation in a Culturally Appropriate Way 408 Culturally Appropriate Exposure 409 Summary 411 Index 419
STEFAN G. HOFMANN, PHD, is Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Boston University, where he directs the Psychotherapy and Emotion Research Laboratory. His main research focuses on the mechanism of treatment change, translating discoveries from neuroscience into clinical applications, emotion regulation strategies, and cultural expressions of psychopathology. He is the author of more than three hundred scientific publications and twenty books. He is a Highly Cited Researcher by Thomson Reuters, and has many other awards.
The first book to offer a truly global perspective on the theory and practice of clinical psychology While clinical psychology is practiced the world over, up to now there has been no text devoted to examining it within a global context. The first book of its kind, Clinical Psychology: A Global Perspective brings together contributions from clinicians and scholars around the world to share their insights and observations on the theory and practice of clinical psychology. Cultural differences are an important variable in the practice of clinical psychology. Yet, due partly to language barriers and entrenched cultural biases, there is little cross-cultural pollination within the field. In fact, most of the popular texts were written for English-speaking European and Anglo-American audiences and translated for other countries. As a result, most psychologists are unaware of how their profession is conceptualized and practiced in different regions, or how their own practices can be enriched by knowledge of the theories and modalities predominant among colleagues in other parts of the world. This book represents an important first step toward rectifying that state of affairs. This book: Explores key differences and similarities in how clinical psychology is conceptualized and practiced with children, adolescents, and adults across different countries and cultures Addresses essential research methods, clinical interviews, psychometric testing, neuropsychological assessments, and dominant treatment modalities Follows a consistent format with each chapter focusing on a specific area of the practice of clinical psychology while integrating cultural issues within the discussion Includes coverage of how to adapt one's practice to the differing cultures of individual clients and how to work in multidisciplinary teams within a global context Clinical Psychology: A Global Perspective is a valuable resource for students, trainees, and practicing psychologists, especially those who work with ethnic minority groups or with interpreters. It is also a must-read for practitioners who are considering working internationally.
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