Clinical Psychology

A Global Perspective



Edited by Stefan G. Hofmann






Title Page
Cover Page

Notes on Contributors

Gerhard Andersson is full professor of clinical psychology at Linköping University in the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, and an affiliated researcher at Karoliniska Institutet, Stockholm. He is clinically active as psychologist at the local hearing clinic. Andersson has a PhD in psychology and one in medicine and is trained as CBT therapist and supervisor. He is also interested in religion and atheism and has a BSc in theology. Professor Andersson is an internationally recognized leader in the field of cognitive‐behavior therapy delivered through information and communication technology as evidenced by his over 500 peer‐reviewed publications. His research spans somatic and psychiatric conditions; he is a leading researcher in the field of tinnitus and has published extensively on depression and anxiety disorders. Andersson is also the editor‐in‐chief for the journal Internet Interventions. In 2014 he was awarded the Nordic Prize in Medicine. For more information see (retrieved April 3, 2017).

Martin M. Antony, PhD, is professor in the department of psychology at Ryerson University, in Toronto Canada. He has published more than 275 books, articles, and chapters, mostly in the area of anxiety and related disorders. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the American and Canadian Psychological Associations, the Association for Psychological Science, and several other professional associations.

Elisabeth A. Arens received her PhD in clinical psychology from Heidelberg University in 2013. She currently holds a position as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy at the Goethe University of Frankfurt. Dr. Arens has a special research expertise in depressive disorders, with a particular focus on the assessment of emotion regulation deficits. Her clinical practice (cognitive behavioral therapy) includes a special consulting service for individuals with depressive disorders.

Borwin Bandelow, born in Göttingen, Germany, is Professor at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the University of Göttingen. As a specialist in psychiatry and neurology, a psychologist, and a psychotherapist, Dr. Bandelow specializes mainly in anxiety disorders, but also in schizophrenia, depression, psychotherapy, and psychopharmacology. He is currently the Deputy Director of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Göttingen.

Rosa M. Baños  is full professor in psychopathology at the Universitat de Valencia, Spain, and has been a Senior lecturer at Universitat Jaume I, in Spain. She is the director of the Master in Multidisciplinary Intervention in Eating Disorders, Personality Disorders and Emotional Disorders course at the University of Valencia. Her research activity has focused in the study of psychopathology and the treatment of various psychological disorders (emotional disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, etc.). She has also been working in recent years on the application of new technologies to clinical psychology for the understanding and treatment of mental disorders and the promotion of wellbeing.

Thomas Berger holds a Swiss National Science Foundation Professorship in Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy at the University of Bern, Switzerland and leads the research group investigating Internet interventions. He earned his PhD degree in clinical psychology and psychotherapy in 2005 from the University of Freiburg, Germany. Since then he has received several grants and awards such as the Outstanding Early Achievement Award of the Society for Psychotherapy Research.

Susan M. Bögels is clinical psychologist, psychotherapist and mindfulness trainer, professor in developmental psychopathology at the University of Amsterdam, and director of academic treatment center for children and parents UvA minds. Her research interests concern the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology, with a specific focus on the role of the father, and the effects of mindfulness‐based and cognitive‐behavioral family interventions on child and parental psychopathology. She was a member of the anxiety disorder workgroup preparing the DSM‐5.

Cristina Botella is full professor of clinical psychology at Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Spain, director of Labpsitec (, retrieved April 3, 2017), and director of the doctorate program in psychology. She has been principal investigator in more than 40 research projects and has published over 200 papers. Her main line of research is the treatment of psychological disorders, and the use of information and communication technology (virtual reality, augmented reality, the Internet, and mobile apps) to promote health and wellbeing.

Michelle L. Bourgeois received her BA with Honors in psychology from Wellesley College and is currently a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Boston University (BU), where she works as a graduate student researcher and clinician at the BU Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders. Under the mentorship of Timothy A. Brown Psy.D. she studies the classification, time course, and transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders.

Timothy A. Brown is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Boston University, and director of research at Boston University's Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders. He has published extensively in the areas of the classification of anxiety and mood disorders, vulnerability to emotional disorders, psychometrics, and methodological advances in social sciences research. In addition to conducting his own grant‐supported research, Dr. Brown serves as a statistical investigator or consultant on numerous federally funded research projects. He has been on the editorial boards of several scientific journals, including a longstanding appointment as associate editor for the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Richard A. Bryant, DSc, is a Scientia Professor of Psychology at the University of New South Wales, Sydney. He is also an NHMRC senior principal research fellow and director of the UNSW Traumatic Stress Clinic. He has conducted extensive research into assessment, mechanisms, and treatment of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and has conducted research trials in diverse settings across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.

Matthew Calamia, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Louisiana State University. He earned his doctorate in clinical psychology at the University of Iowa and completed his predoctoral psychology internship at the University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Psychiatry. His research interests include neuropsychological assessment and psychometrics.

Rachel N. Casas is an assistant professor of graduate psychology at California Lutheran University, and a licensed clinical neuropsychologist with expertise in cognitive assessment of ethnic and linguistic minority populations. Her research focuses on understanding how cultural factors influence brain functioning and behavior, and her work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the American Psychological Association, and the Foundation for Psychocultural Research (FPR).

Brad Cini, BPsych (Hons), completed a research thesis at the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Research Unit, Monash University, Australia (, retrieved April 3, 2017) under the supervision of Dr. Nikolaos Kazantzis, on change processes in psychological therapy. Specifically, his research focused on the effects of collaboration between therapist and client on symptom reduction in cognitive behavior therapy. He has a keen interest in cognitive behavioral therapy and is currently pursuing a career in clinical practice.

Christopher C. Conway graduated with a B.S. in psychology from Duke University, and he earned his PhD in clinical psychology from UCLA in 2013. He went on to hold postdoctoral fellowships at the UCLA Anxiety Disorders Research Center and the Boston University Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders. He joined the William & Mary faculty as an assistant professor in 2015. Along with his team, he studies the onset, time course, and classification of emotional disorders.

Robert J. Craig, PhD, ABPP, is a licensed and board certified clinical psychologist who attained fellow status in the American Psychological Association and in the Society for Personality Assessment, where he was the recipient of the Martin Mayman award for “distinguished contributions to the literature of personality assessment.” He has published 10 academic books, contributed over a hundred scientific papers in peer‐reviewed journals and served as consulting editor for the Journal of Personality Assessment as well as for journals in psychology, psychiatry and substance abuse. He served as the director of the drug abuse treatment program at the VA Medical Center, Chicago.

Jan Christopher Cwik is postdoctoral researcher and licensed psychotherapist (cognitive behavior therapy) at the Mental Health Research and Treatment Center of the Ruhr‐Universität Bochum (Germany). He received a postgraduate grant from the Bergische Universität Wuppertal while completing his PhD. His research focuses on diagnostics in clinical psychology, diagnostic decisions and processes, and psychophysiological processes of mental disorders. He is member of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science.

Cecilia A. Essau, PhD, is full professor in developmental psychopathology and director of the Centre for Applied Research and Assessment in Child and Adolescent Wellbeing at the University of Roehampton, United Kingdom. Her research focuses on understanding the interacting factors that can lead children and adolescents to have serious emotional and behavioral problems. She uses this research to enhance the assessment of childhood and adolescent psychopathology, and design more effective interventions to prevent and treat such problems.

Nicole Everitt, BA (Hons), is a doctor of clinical psychology student at Deakin University, Australia. She completed a prior research thesis at the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Research Unit (, retrieved April 3, 2017) under the supervision of Dr. Nikolaos Kazantzis, on process‐outcome relationships in the treatment of depression. Specifically, she examined the moderating effect of client characteristics on alliance‐outcome and collaboration‐outcome relationships in cognitive behavior therapy for depression. Recently, she presented this research at the World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies.

Azucena García‐Palacios is professor of abnormal psychology and member of Labpsitec research team at Universitat Jaume I, Spain. Her main research field is the study of the psychopathology and improvement of psychological treatments, mainly for emotional disorders, personality disorders, and chronic pain, using information and communication technologies. She has participated in more than 20 research projects funded by national institutions and the European Union, and she is the author of more than 90 scientific papers.

Amie E. Grills, PhD, is an associate professor at Boston University, United States. Dr. Grills is a licensed clinical psychologist whose work focuses on internalizing disorders and trauma, particularly among children and young adults. Dr. Grills' research includes investigations of risk and resiliency factors that influence the development of psychopathology, as well as on designing and evaluating cognitive‐behavioral assessments and interventions, including those conducted using novel delivery systems (e.g., web‐based designs, school‐based services).

Devon E. Hinton, MD, PhD, is an anthropologist and psychiatrist, and an associate clinical professor of psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. He is the author of over a hundred articles, and is the co‐editor of three volumes: Culture and panic disorder (Stanford University Press, 2009); Culture and PTSD: Trauma in global and historical perspective (University of Penn Press, 2015); and Genocide and mass violence: Memory, symptom, and recovery (Cambridge University Press, 2015).

Stefan G. Hofmann, PhD, is professor of psychology in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Boston University, where he directs the Psychotherapy and Emotion Research Laboratory. His main research focuses on the mechanism of treatment change, translating discoveries from neuroscience into clinical applications, emotion regulation strategies, and cultural expressions of psychopathology. He is the author of more than three hundred scientific publications and twenty books. He is a Highly Cited Researcher by Thomson Reuters, and has many other awards. For more information see

Melissa K. Holt, PhD, is an assistant professor at Boston University's School of Education. She is a counseling psychologist whose clinical work with adolescents and adults has focused on trauma and disordered eating. Dr. Holt studies how multiple victimization forms affect children and adolescents, with attention to their influence on psychological and academic functioning. Within this body of research, she has conducted numerous studies on bullying, and tied findings to implications for prevention and intervention.

Nikolaos Kazantzis, PhD, is associate professor of clinical psychology and program director for clinical psychology at Monash University. He is an expert on cognitive behavior therapy. His scientific work has been supported by grants from the NIMH and various private foundations. His research focuses on change processes in treatment and the effects of therapeutic relationship elements on symptom reduction. He has published more than a hundred scholarly publications, including six books. For more information visit (retrieved April 3, 2017).

Maria Kleinstäuber, assistant professor, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany. Dr. Kleinstäuber is a licensed cognitive behavior therapist, specializing in therapy efficacy as well as pathomechanisms in the area of behavioral medicine. In 2014 she worked as postdoctoral research fellow under supervision of Prof. Dr. Michael J. Lambert at the Psychology Department of Brigham Young University, Provo, United States. Since 2015 she has been Secretary of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine and Research Fellow of the Department of Health Psychology, KU Leuven, Belgium. In 2013 she received the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Cochrane Review Incentive Scheme and in 2016 the ICMB Early Career Award.

Kirstyn L. Krause is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada. Her research interests include (a) the relationship between anxiety disorders and related constructs (e.g., perfectionism), and (b) mechanisms of fear reduction (e.g., expectancy violation) during exposure‐based practice. Her research has been presented at a number of national and international meetings.

Tania Lincoln studied psychology in Marburg, Germany. She completed her PhD in 2003 and her training as a clinical psychologist in 2004. From 2003 to 2005 she worked in a forensic mental health setting, where she became increasingly interested in psychological therapy for psychosis. From 2005 to 2011 she was the principal investigator in a randomized controlled trial on CBT for psychosis at the University of Marburg. Since 2011 she has been professor of clinical psychology and psychotherapy in Hamburg. Her research focuses on understanding the psychological mechanisms of how psychotic symptoms arise and on improving interventions for psychosis.

Wolfgang Lutz, PhD, full professor, is head of the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and the Director of the Outpatient Clinic and Postgraduate Clinic Training at the University of Trier, Germany. He is one of the pioneers of patient‐focused and feedback research and worked in this area in several countries using service research data from the United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Germany.

Jürgen Margraf, after a research scholarship at Stanford University, held professorships in Berlin, Dresden, Basel, and Bochum. In 2009 he was awarded an Alexander von Humboldt professorship, Germany´s most highly endowed scientific award, for his work on mental health. He is past president of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (EABCT) and the German Society of Psychology and member/fellow of the German National Academy of Science (Leopoldina), the Academia Europaea, and the Association for Psychological Science.

Anne Marie Meijer is a cognitive behavioral and family therapist. She worked as associate professor at the University of Amsterdam. She conducted studies in the field of childhood chronic illness, parental chronic illness and sleep problems of children and adolescents. The projects concerning sleep are focused on the influence of sleep and chronic sleep reduction on problem behavior and academic performance. In addition, efficacy of melatonin, light therapy and face‐to‐face and online CBTi on children's sleep problems are investigated.

Eva Charlotte Merten earned her M.Sc. in clinical psychology at Ruhr‐Universität Bochum and is currently a PhD. student at the Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology of the Ruhr‐Universität Bochum, researching diagnostics in children and adolescents, especially self‐evaluations in preschool children with externalizing disorders and consequences of discrepancies in self‐ and parent‐evaluations of child symptoms. (Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology of the Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr‐Universität Bochum, Massenbergstraße 9‐13, 44787 Bochum, Germany; eva.merten@ruhr‐uni‐

Peter Muris, PhD, is full professor in Clinical Psychology and Developmental Psychopathology at Maastricht University, the Netherlands, and part‐time working as a clinician at Virenze Maastricht, an outpatient treatment facility for children and adolescents with mental health problems. His clinical and research interests focus on various types of childhood psychopathology, but in particular on anxiety disorders. He is also the present chair of the Dutch‐Flemish research school on Experimental Psychopathology.

Pedro J. Nobre has a PhD in clinical psychology, and is director of the Laboratory for Research in Human Sexuality (SexLab) at Porto University, Portugal, and research fellow at the Kinsey Institute (United States). He is PI in various research projects on sexual health, has published over 70 papers in international journals, and serves in the editorial board of sex research and clinical psychology journals. He is past president of the Portuguese Society of Sexology (2008–2011) and is currently chair of the Scientific Committee of the World Association for Sexual Health (2013–2017).

Thomas H. Ollendick, PhD, is University Distinguished Professor in Clinical Psychology at Virginia Tech. He is the author of numerous research publications, book chapters, and books, and the past president of AABT (1995) and the Society for the Science of Clinical Psychology (2010). His clinical and research interests range from the study of diverse forms of child psychopathology to the assessment, treatment, and prevention of these disorders from a social cognitive theory and evidence‐based perspective.

Brian D. Ostafin is an associate professor in the experimental psychopathology and clinical psychology program at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He received his doctorate in clinical psychology from Boston University in 2004. His research focuses on the role of implicit processes in psychopathology (with an emphasis on addictive behaviors) and the usefulness of mindfulness interventions to overcome such processes. This work has been funded by the NIH and other agencies.

Anushka Patel is a clinical psychology doctoral student at the University of Tulsa. She studies the diagnosis and treatment of trauma‐related sequelae in global settings. During her graduate career, Anushka has examined psychological outcomes of trauma related to gender‐based violence among women from Indian slums using mixed methods. She plans to spend her career developing, testing, and refining culturally adapted treatments for populations in low‐ and middle‐income countries.

Soledad Quero is professor of clinical psychology at Universitat Jaume I, Spain. Her main research interest is the application of information and communication technologies to improve psychological treatments for emotional disorders. She has been principal investigator in five research projects, has participated in at least 20 projects funded by national and local institutions, and seven European projects. She has published over 70 papers in national and international journals and is co‐author of at least 30 book chapters.

Winfried Rief is a professor of clinical psychology and psychotherapy, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany. Head of the Clinic for Psychological Interventions. He holds a license for psychotherapy and supervision. Dr. Rief worked for many years in hospital settings (e.g., Roseneck Hospital for Psychosomatic Medicine, Prien a. Ch.). He specializes in placebo and nocebo effects, perception and coping with somatic symptoms, and optimization of clinical studies and interventions. He was guest professor at Harvard Medical School, Boston (2004/2005), University of Auckland Medical School (2002), and University of California San Diego (2009/2010). He was also nominated for the expert committee of WHO/APA for the revision of the classification of mental disorders according to DSM‐5, and he is co‐chairing the WHO working group on chronic pain diagnoses in ICD‐11. Dr. Rief is elected coordinator for grant applications to the German Research Foundation and he is spokesperson of the DFG‐research unit on placebo and nocebo mechanisms. His publication record summarizes more than 400 articles, in particular in the field of behavioral medicine and somatoform disorders. He received the Distinguished Researchers award in behavioral medicine in 2014.

Julian A. Rubel, PhD, is a research fellow at the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy at the University of Trier, Germany. His research focuses on the development and implementation of decision rules that support the personalized selection of treatment alternatives and their adaptation in the course of the treatment.

Elske Salemink is an assistant professor at the department of developmental psychology of the University of Amsterdam. Her research focuses on the role of implicit processes in anxiety, depression, and addiction, and on changing these processes by means of computerized training. She is also a licensed behavioral and cognitive therapist (member of the Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy).

Silvia Schneider, PhD, is Dean of the Faculty of Psychology and Professor of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology at the Ruhr‐Universität Bochum and Head of the Mental Health Research and Treatment Center in Bochum, Germany. She conducts research on the etiology of anxiety disorders in children, familial transmission of anxiety disorders, stress and emotion/self‐regulation in infancy, and diagnostics of mental disorders. (Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Ruhr‐Universität Bochum, Massenbergstraße 9–13, 44787 Bochum, Germany;

Ulrich Stangier, PhD, is a professor of clinical psychology and psychotherapy at the Goethe University of Frankfurt. He is also director of the Behavior Clinic and of the clinical training program at the department. He has conducted research trials in social anxiety disorder, chronic and recurrent depression, and body dysmorphic disorder. An additional focus of research is on therapy process and therapists' competence and adherence in cognitive therapy.

Mehmet Zihni Sungur is a professor of psychiatry at the Psychiatry Department of Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. He received training in cognitive behavior therapy, and sexual and marital therapies at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. He is certified as a cognitive therapist and supervisor by the Academy of Cognitive Therapy (ACT). He is president elect of the International Association for Cognitive Psychotherapy (IACP). He is also a past presidents of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapy (EABCT), and is a board member of the European Federation of Sexology (EFS).

Jennifer Svaldi works as a full professor at the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy at the University of Tübingen. Her research themes focus on mechanisms that cause and maintain pathological eating behavior and body‐image disturbances in at‐risk populations, overweight individuals, and individuals with eating disorders. To this end, a variety of designs and methods are used, ranging from fundamental studies (eye tracking, EEG, reaction‐time tasks, fMRI) to laboratory‐based behavioral studies, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies and applied clinical studies (treatment processes and treatment effects).

Rosemary Toomey completed her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Montana, and her clinical internship, neuropsychology fellowship, and research fellowship from Harvard Medical School (HMS), Psychiatry Department at Massachusetts Mental Health Center, where she was also assistant professor. She previously worked at the Brockton VAMC and the Brookline Mental Health Center. She is currently research associate professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Boston University, where she is Director of Neuropsychological Assessment at the Psychological Services Center.

Daniel Tranel graduated from the University of Notre Dame in 1979, and then earned a PhD in clinical psychology at the University of Iowa in 1982. He completed postdoctoral training at Iowa under Drs. Arthur Benton and Antonio Damasio, and joined the faculty in the Department of Neurology in 1986, where he has been ever since. Tranel currently holds joint appointments as a professor in the Department of Neurology and the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences. He heads the Benton Neuropsychology Laboratory, and he is Director of the Neuroscience PhD Program at Iowa. He has also served as the associate dean of graduate and postdoctoral studies at the Carver College of Medicine. Dr. Tranel studies the neural basis of higher order cognition and behavior, using the lesion method and functional neuroimaging in human participants. His clinical and research work has provided new insights into the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and mental health disorders.

Brunna Tuschen‐Caffier has been a full professor for clinical psychology and psychotherapy at the University of Freiburg, Department of Psychology, Germany since 2007. Before she moved to the University of Freiburg she had a professorship at the Universities of Bielefeld (2003–2007) and Siegen (2000–2003), both in Germany. Her research focuses on mechanisms of maintenance and change in mental disorders, especially eating disorders and anxiety disorders. Thus, she combines a variety of methods (e.g., psychophysiological and behavioral methods) to analyze patterns of psychopathology pre and post psychotherapy. Moreover, she developed and evaluated manuals for the psychotherapy of patients with eating disorders as well as anxiety disorders (social anxiety disorder).

Bram Van Bockstaele is a postdoctoral researcher of the YIELD research priority area at the University of Amsterdam. His main research interests are adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation, and interventions aiming to improve emotion regulation skills (e.g., mindfulness, attention training).


Clinical psychology is an international discipline with many international societies, journals, and training workshops. Although the geographical, sociological, cultural, and even political contexts are important variables that need to be considered for the understanding of the subject, existing clinical psychology textbooks have not attempted to capture this diversity.

In fact, most of the popular existing clinical psychology texts were written for English‐speaking European or Anglo‐American audiences and translated for other countries. There is no text that takes a global perspective of the field of clinical psychology. This text is an attempt to fill this gap. Written by experts from around the world, this book is unique in its breadth and depth. It is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students and serves as a modern and international alternative to existing clinical psychology textbooks. All chapters of this book cover the basic areas of clinical psychology, but integrate cultural issues into the discussion of the various topics.

The book begins with a review of research methods used in clinical psychology (Chapter 1 by Julian A. Rubel and Wolfgang Lutz) and classification systems across the globe (Chapter 2 by Jan Christoph Cwik and Jürgen Margraf). This is followed by an overview of clinical interviewing of adults (Chapter 3 by Christopher C. Conway, Michelle L. Bourgeois, and Timothy A. Brown) and of children and adolescents (Chapter 4 by Eva Charlotte Merten and Silvia Schneider). The most important psychological tests are described in Chapter 5 by Robert J. Craig. Neuropsychological tests are covered in Chapter 6 by Rachel N. Casas, Matthew Calamia, and Daniel Tranel (with a particular emphasis on clinical neuropsychology) and by Rosemary Toomey in Chapter 7, providing a complementary discussion on this subject.

Chapter 8 by Thomas H. Ollendick, Peter Murris, and Cecilia A. Essau provides an update on the discussion on evidence‐based treatments. Chapter 9 by Amie E. Grills and Melissa K. Holt covers some of the most common childhood and adolescent disorders. The subsequent chapters then discuss various disorders during adulthood, including mood disorders (Chapter 10 by Ulrich Stangier and Elisabeth A. Arens), anxiety and obsessive‐compulsive disorders (Chapter 11 by Kristyn L. Krause and Martin M. Antony), posttraumatic stress disorder (Chapter 12 by Richard A. Bryant), eating disorders (Chapter 13 by Brunna Tuschen‐Caffier and Jennifer Svaldi), sexual dysfunctions (Chapter 14 by Pedro J. Nobre), couple distress (Chapter 15 by Mehmet Zihni Sungur), somatic symptom disorders (Chapter 16 by Maria Kleinstäuber and Winfried Rief), and psychotic disorders (Chapter 17 by Tania Lincoln). These chapters primarily review the psychological treatments of these problems. A separate chapter specifically reviewing the neurobiology and pharmacological treatments of mental disorders is provided by Borwin Bandelow (Chapter 18).

More recent, less traditional, but increasingly popular approaches for dealing with psychological problems include mindfulness‐based interventions (Chapter 19 by Bram van Bockstaele, Elske Salemink, Brian D. Ostafin, Anne Marie Meijer, and Susan Bögels), Internet‐based treatments (Chapter 20 by Gerhard Andersson and Thomas Berger), and virtual reality (Chapter 21 by Cristina Botella, Rosa Banos, Azucena Garcia‐Palacios, and Soledad Quero). Finally, the chapter by Nicole Everitt, Brad Cini, and Nikolaos Kazantzis (Chapter 22) highlights the importance of working alliance in psychological treatments, and Chapter 23 by Anushka Patel and Devon Hinton concludes with a summary of the importance of adapting treatments to the person’s culture.

Thanks to the diverse background of the authors, who are some of the world’s leaders in their respective fields, this text provides an international perspective on clinical psychology. My hope is that this book has the potential to become the leader of clinical psychology textbooks.

Stefan G. Hofmann, PhD
Professor of Psychology, Boston University
Boston, Massachusetts.