Details

Volcanoes


Volcanoes

Global Perspectives
1. Aufl.

von: John P. Lockwood, Richard W. Hazlett

53,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 26.04.2013
ISBN/EAN: 9781118687949
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 552

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Beschreibungen

Volcanoes are essential elements in the delicate global balance of elemental forces that govern both the dynamic evolution of the Earth and the nature of Life itself. Without volcanic activity, life as we know it would not exist on our planet. Although beautiful to behold, volcanoes are also potentially destructive, and understanding their nature is critical to prevent major loss of life in the future. Richly illustrated with over 300 original color photographs and diagrams the book is written in an informal manner, with minimum use of jargon, and relies heavily on first-person, eye-witness accounts of eruptive activity at both "red" (effusive) and "grey" (explosive) volcanoes to illustrate the full spectrum of volcanic processes and their products. Decades of teaching in university classrooms and fieldwork on active volcanoes throughout the world have provided the authors with unique experiences that they have distilled into a highly readable textbook of lasting value. Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion, Suggestions for Further Reading, and a comprehensive list of source references make this work a major resource for further study of volcanology. Volcanoes maintains three core foci: Global perspectives explain volcanoes in terms of their tectonic positions on Earth and their roles in earth history Environmental perspectives describe the essential role of volcanism in the moderation of terrestrial climate and atmosphere Humanitarian perspectives discuss the major influences of volcanoes on human societies. This latter is especially important as resource scarcities and environmental issues loom over our world, and as increasing numbers of people are threatened by volcanic hazards Readership Volcanologists, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in earth science and related degree courses, and volcano enthusiasts worldwide. A companion website is also available for this title at www.wiley.com/go/lockwood/volcanoes
PREFACE vii PART I – INTRODUCTION 3 1. Eruptions, Jargon, and History 5 A “Grey Volcano” in Eruption – Galunggung – 1982 6 A “Red Volcano” in Eruption – Kilauea – 1974 16 Some Basic Terminology 22 History of Volcanology 27 Further Reading 39 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 40 PART II – THE BIG PICTURE 43 2. Global Perspectives – Plate Tectonics and Volcanism 45 Birth of a Theory 45 Volcanoes along Divergent Plate Boundaries 51 Volcanoes along Convergent Plate Boundaries 53 Intraplate Volcanoes 60 Further Reading 63 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 64 3. The Nature of Magma – Where Volcanoes Come From 65 Origins of Magma 65 The Physics and Chemistry of Melting 68 Classification of Magma and Igneous Rocks 72 Principal Magma Types 73 Magmatic and Volcanic Gases 78 Further Reading 86 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 87 4. The Physical Properties of Magma and Why it Erupts 89 Magma Temperatures 89 Magma Rheology 91 Magma Ascent and Emplacement 94 “Frozen Magma” – Subvolcanic Intrusives 100 Triggers for Volcanic Eruptions –Why Volcanoes Erupt 105 Repose Intervals 108 Further Reading 109 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 110 PART III – VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND THEIR PRODUCTS 113 5. Classifying Volcanic Eruptions 115 Lacroix Classification System 117 Rittman Diagrams 118 Geze Classification Diagram 119 Walker Classification System 119 Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 123 Further Reading 125 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 126 6. Effusive Volcanic Eruptions and Their Products 127 Mafic and Intermediate Effusive Eruptions 128 Pahoehoe and 0A0a 135 Pyroducts 138 Pahoehoe Surface Structures 147 Lava Flow Internal Structures 157 0A0a Surface Structures 162 Block Lavas 166 Radiocarbon Dating of Prehistoric Lava Flows 170 Further Reading 171 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 172 7. An Overview of Explosive Eruptions and Their Products 173 Ejecta Classification 174 Explosive Eruption Styles and Their Products 188 Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) 204 Further Reading 220 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 221 8. A Closer Look at Large-scale Explosive Eruptions 223 Measuring the Sizes of Plinian Eruptions 224 Plinian Eruption Dynamics 224 Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) 235 Directed Blasts 255 “Super-Eruptions” 258 Further Reading 261 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 262 PART IV – VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND SETTINGS 265 9. Constructional (“Positive”) Volcanic Landforms 267 Large Igneous Provinces 267 Shield Volcanoes 270 Composite Volcanoes 283 Minor Volcanic Landforms 290 Volcano Old Age and Extinction 308 Further Reading 314 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 315 10. “Negative” Volcanic Landforms – Craters and Calderas 317 Small Craters 318 Calderas 321 Post-caldera Resurgence 331 Caldera Formation Mechanisms 335 Caldera Roots – Relationships to Plutonic Rocks 336 Volcano-tectonic Depressions 336 Further Reading 338 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 339 11. Mass-wasting Processes and Products 341 Landslides, Avalanches, and Sector Collapses 341 Lahars 347 Causes of Lahars 350 Lahar Dynamics 354 Lahar Destructiveness 356 Further Reading 358 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 359 12. Volcanoes Unseen and Far Away 361 Submarine and Subglacial Volcanoes – The Meeting of Fire, Water, and Ice 362 Extraterrestrial Volcanoes 377 Further Reading 392 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 393 PART V – HUMANISTIC VOLCANOLOGY 395 13. Volcanoes: Life, Climate, and Human History 397 Volcanoes and the Origin of Life 397 Volcanoes, Atmosphere, and Climate 398 Volcanic Influence on Soil Fertility and Agriculture 406 Volcanoes and Human History 407 Social Impact of Volcanic Eruptions 408 Further Reading 411 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 412 14. Volcanic Hazards and Risk – Monitoring and Mitigation 413 Hazards and Risk 414 Active, Dormant, and Extinct Volcanoes 414 Volcanic Hazards 416 Volcanic Risk 425 Volcano Monitoring 443 Volcanic Crisis Management 455 Further Reading 462 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 463 15. Economic Volcanology 465 Earth Energy Relationships 465 Volcano Energy 466 Stored Energy: Geothermal Power 467 Volcanoes and Ore Deposits 470 Other Useful Volcanic Materials 475 Further Reading 477 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 478 Epilogue: The Future of Volcanology 479 References 481 Index 521 Appendix: List of Prominent World Volcanoes 538 Map: Prominent World Volcanoes 540 Companion website available at www.wiley.com/go/lockwood/volcanoes
“Overall I would highly recommend this work to anyone who wishes to understand volcanoes from a global perspective.” (Bull Volcanol, 2011) "Volcanoes will satisfy everybody interested in this fascinating topic, but most of all this textbook is written for volcanologists, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Earth sciences." (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2011) "This is an impressive new textbook on volcanoes written by two US volcanologists with considerable expertise. The text is informative, readable, well referenced and beautifully illustrated throughout with many helpful colour diagrams and photos . . . I expect many will purchase it and I strongly recommend it for all college libraries." (The Geographical Journal, 2011) "But these caveats notwithstanding, Featherstone has written an excellent and often passionate account of the relational geographies of counter-global resistance that makes important contributions to debates on social movements, resistance, and space; it will become a landmark text in the political geographies of resistance." (Area, 2011) "Overall I would highly recommend this work to anyone who wishes to understand volcanoes from a global perspective." (Bull Volcanol, 2011) "Essential. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals; general readers". (Choice, 1 November 2010) Included on the Outstanding Academic Title 2010 list by Choice Magazine (1 January 2011)
Jack Lockwood worked for the US Geological Survey for over 30 years, including 20 years in Hawaii, based at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. He now runs a consulting business, Geohazards Consultants International. Richard (Rick) Hazlett is Coordinator of the Environmental Analysis Program and a member of the Geology Department at Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he teaches an upper-level course in physical volcanology.
Volcanoes are essential elements in the delicate global balance of elemental forces that govern both the dynamic evolution of the Earth and the nature of Life itself. Without volcanic activity, life as we know it would not exist on our planet. Although beautiful to behold, volcanoes are also potentially destructive, and understanding their nature is critical to prevent major loss of life in the future. Richly illustrated with over 300 original color photographs and diagrams the book is written in an informal manner, with minimum use of jargon, and relies heavily on first-person, eye-witness accounts of eruptive activity at both "red" (effusive) and "grey" (explosive) volcanoes to illustrate the full spectrum of volcanic processes and their products. Decades of teaching in university classrooms and fieldwork on active volcanoes throughout the world have provided the authors with unique experiences that they have distilled into a highly readable textbook of lasting value. Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion, Suggestions for Further Reading, and a comprehensive list of source references make this work a major resource for further study of volcanology. Volcanoes maintains three core foci: Global perspectives explain volcanoes in terms of their tectonic positions on Earth and their roles in earth history Environmental perspectives describe the essential role of volcanism in the moderation of terrestrial climate and atmosphere Humanitarian perspectives discuss the major influences of volcanoes on human societies. This latter is especially important as resource scarcities and environmental issues loom over our world, and as increasing numbers of people are threatened by volcanic hazards Readership Volcanologists, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in earth science and related degree courses, and volcano enthusiasts worldwide.

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