Variationist SociolinguisticsChange, Observation, Interpretation
Language in Society, Band 39 1. Aufl.
Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation presents a comprehensive, intermediate level examination of Language Variation and Change, the branch of sociolinguistics concerned with linguistic variation in spoken and written language. Represents the most up-to-date coverage of the history, developments, and methodologies of variationist sociolinguistics Addresses all aspects of linguistic variation, including areas not usually covered in introductory texts, e.g. the phonological, morpho-syntactic, discourse/pragmatic Outlines comparative sociolinguistic approach, data collection, methodological issues; and addresses state-of-the-art contemporary quantitative methods and statistical practice Features cutting-edge research at an appropriate level to facilitate student learning Engages students throughout with a variety of pedagogical features, including Mini Quizzes to test comprehension, extensive Exercises at the end of each chapter, the opportunity to do hands-on quantitative analysis of a never-before published data set, and Notes and Tips that offer insight into conducting sociolinguistic research. Extra materials and answers to the exercises are available at www.wiley.com/go/tagliamonte
Acknowledgments x Foreword xii Series Editor’s Preface xiii Preface xiv List of Figures xvii List of Tables xx 1 Sociolinguistics as Language Variation and Change 1 Sociolinguistics 1 The Linguistic Variable 3 Linguistic Change 8 The Principle of Accountability 9 Circumscribing the Variable Context 10 Evolution of the Linguistic Variable 15 The Importance of Accountability 19 Language Variation and Change and Linguistic Theory 21 Exercises 22 2 Social Patterns 25 Social Class 25 Sex (or Gender) 32 Style and Register 34 Mobility in Space and Mobility in Class 35 Social Network, Communities of Practice 36 Ethnicity and Culture 38 The Mass Media 41 Age 43 Types of Change 56 Principles of Linguistic Change 62 Summary 65 Exercises 66 3 Linguistic Patterns 71 Sound Change 74 Morphological Change 76 Syntactic Change 80 Semantic Change 84 Grammaticalization 87 Lexical Effects 91 Exemplar Theory 94 Exercises 97 4 Data and Method 100 The Speech Community 100 Corpus Building 101 Creating Sociolinguistic Corpora 102 The Individual and the Group 108 Constructing an LVC Study 110 Research Ethics 115 The Gold – Your Data 116 The Real World 117 5 Quantitative Analysis 120 The Quantitative Paradigm 120 Distributional Analysis 121 Statistical Modeling 121 The Three Lines of Evidence 122 The Case Study – Variable (that) 124 Goldvarb Logistic Regression 126 Challenging the Variable Rule Program 129 Drawbacks to the Variable Rule Program 137 New Toolkits for Variationist Sociolinguistics 138 Summary 156 Exercises 157 6 Comparative Sociolinguistics 162 Comparison 162 The Comparative Method 163 Comparison in Origins 165 Comparison in Language Contact 166 Standards for Comparison 167 Variable (did) 168 Exercises 173 7 Phonological Variables 177 Variable (t,d) 179 Variable (ing) 187 Tips for Studying Phonological Variables 195 Exercises 203 8 Morpho-Syntactic Variables 206 Verbal (s) 207 Adverb (ly) 217 Modal (have to) 228 Studying Morpho-Syntactic Variables 235 Exercises 241 9 Discourse/Pragmatic Features 247 Quotative (be like) 247 General Extenders 258 Studying the Discourse/Pragmatic Variable 269 Exercises 277 10 Tense/Aspect Variables 279 Grammaticalization and Tense/Aspect Variables 280 Future (going to) 281 Perfect (have) 296 Studying Tense/Aspect Variables 308 Exercises 311 11 Other Variables 314 Variable (come) 315 Variable (Intensifi ers) 320 Language and the Internet 336 Studying Unusual Variables 342 Exercises 345 12 Sociolinguistic Explanations 349 What Are the Constraints on Change? 349 How Does Language Change? 350 How Is a Change Embedded in Social and Linguistic Systems? 350 Evaluation of a Change 351 Statistical Modeling 353 Traditional Explanations 354 The Principle of Interaction 355 Appendix A: Corpora Cited 358 Appendix B: Time Periods in the History of English 359 References 360 Subject Index 392 Index of Linguistic Variables 400
“The author's aims of introducing the field of LVC to learners, discussing its principle goals and achievements, and opening up discussion for advances in the field have been successfully achieved in this volume.” (LINGUIST, 16 May 2012) Featured on CBC Radio One's Ontario Today (17th October), http://www.cbc.ca/ontariotoday/2011/10/17/tuesday-northern-and-southern-expressions/#socialcomments
Sali A. Tagliamonte is a Professor in the Linguistics Department at the University of Toronto, Canada. She is author of Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation (2006), co-author of African American English in the Diaspora: Tense and Aspect (Wiley-Blackwell, 2001), and has published on African American varieties; British, Irish, and Canadian dialects; as well as child, teen, television, and Internet languages.
Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation is a comprehensive and authoritative survey of systematic variation in language, both present and past. Tagliamonte, a leading and influential scholar in the field, provides a broad introduction to the foundational theory of Language Variation and Change, by synthesizing many of the early observations and findings that have shaped the field. She not only discusses the classic work of scholars including Labov, Trudgill, Milroy, and Wolfram, but she also advances the current discussion and debate in the field by highlighting contemporary work, including cutting-edge research that opens yet more questions for future scholars. The textbook, aimed at students taking intermediate and advanced courses in sociolinguistics, outlines the methodologies of research and data collection in the field, with explanations that go beyond the facts and into the philosophy of the field. The work is set in the context of all aspects of linguistic variation, including phonological, morpho-syntactic, and discourse-pragmatic variables. The text engages students throughout with a variety of pedagogical features, including Mini Quizzes to test comprehension, extensive Exercises at the end of each chapter, the opportunity to do hands-on quantitative analysis of a never-before published data set, and Notes and Tips that offer insight into conducting sociolinguistic research. Extra materials and answers to the exercises are available at www.wiley.com/go/tagliamonte. The first real textbook of its kind, Variationist Sociolinguistics is an ambitious and exciting work that will be a must-have for students and researchers alike.
"This book is a landmark in the study of language variation, with coverage that ranges from the practical details of gathering and processing data to the use of data in descriptive and theoretical argumentation. Best of all, it is embedded in the incredibly rich array of firsthand studies conducted by Tagliamonte and her colleagues; her research engagement and enthusiasm are truly inspiring." – Walt Wolfram, North Carolina State University "Readers of this authoritative, up to date survey from an experienced and influential researcher are sure to catch the excitement that comes from finding out how and why language varies.” – Jenny Cheshire, Queen Mary, University of London "This is more than an introduction: it provides a thorough training in the analysis of linguistic change and variation by a master of the trade. Tagliamonte's book will launch students into the field ready to do important work." – William Labov, University of Pennsylvania
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