Technological changes have often produced important social changes that translate into spatial and planning practice. Whereas the intelligent city is one of the unavoidable and even dominant concepts, digital uses can influence urban planning in four different directions. These scenarios are represented by a compass composed of a horizontal axis opposing institutional and non-institutional actors, and a second axis with open and closed opposition.
Foreword ix Introduction xi Acknowledgments xxiii Chapter 1. Algorithmic Urban Planning: The Return of Experts 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2. From technological breakthroughs to urban planning transformations 2 1.2.1. City and technique: centralization or decentralization? 2 1.2.2. Cities in the age of Big Data 6 1.2.3. Big Data to better understand the territories and urban planning actors 8 1.3. What is the genesis of the smart city? 14 1.3.1. Origins of the smart city 14 1.3.2. Dissemination of the models 16 1.3.3. Local acceptance of models 20 1.4. The return of rational planning under a smart veneer 28 1.4.1. Actors: behind the geek urban planner aspect, the return of the engineer 29 1.4.2. Processes and methods: toward an algorithmic governance? 30 1.4.3. Projects: the dominance of smart 32 1.5. Conclusion 35 Chapter 2. Uberized Urban Planning: Extension of the Area of Urban Capitalism 37 2.1. Introduction 37 2.2. A new stage in the privatization of cities: from the enhancement of large groups to uberization 38 2.2.1. Capitalism in the age of digital technology 38 2.2.2. GAFA: Internet giants 43 2.2.3. Development of a “sharing” economy 47 2.3. Territorial effects on the ability of public actors to develop and manage the city 53 2.3.1. Paris, the world capital of Airbnb 53 2.3.2. The legitimacy of planning challenged by the sharing economy 57 2.4. No longer planning against but with the sharing economy? 58 2.5. Renewal of strategic planning under an innovative veneer 60 2.5.1. Actors: behind the start-up’s figure, challenging the planner 62 2.5.2. Processes and methods: from disintermediation to the city of offer 63 2.5.3. Projects: the dominance of private technological devices 64 2.6. Conclusion 65 Chapter 3. A Wiki-Urban Planning: Searching for an Alternative City 67 3.1. Introduction 67 3.2. New digital resources for non-governmental actors 68 3.2.1. Review of the liberal and libertarian origins of the Internet 68 3.2.2. From an expansion of public space and activist resources to the development of solutions 69 3.2.3. Digital and common goods in the city 76 3.3. Civic mobilizations 2.0 for spatial planning 79 3.3.1. Controversies and resistances 2.0 in planning, the example of China 79 3.3.2. Public debate 2.0 on planning, the example of Marseille 85 3.4. The renewal of communicative planning under a veneer 2.0 96 3.4.1. Actors: behind the image of the hacker, the return of an activist urban planner 97 3.4.2. Processes and methods: towards an urban cyberdemocracy? 100 3.4.3. Projects: the challenge of platform design creating the conditions for deliberation 102 3.5. Conclusion 103 Chapter 4. Open-Source Urban Planning: The Renewal of Planning Institutional Practices 105 4.1. Introduction 105 4.2. Introduction of planning processes 106 4.2.1. From the increase in challenges to the emergence of participatory mechanisms 106 4.2.2. The digital, new imagination of participation 109 4.3. The challenge of defining and testing the sociotechnical devices of online participation: the case of Paris 117 4.3.1. From participatory to digital milestone 117 4.3.2. Public debate on social networks: the case of exchanges around the Paris Council on Twitter 119 4.3.3. The digitization of a regulatory urban planning procedure: the case of the consultation for the modification of the PLU 125 4.3.4. Creation of a new digital device: the case of the participatory budget and “Madame la Maire, j’ai une idée!” (Madam Mayor, I have an idea) platform 132 4.4. New tools to make the collaborative milestone of planning effective? 137 4.4.1. Actors: behind the figure of Civic Tech, the evolution of the urban planner’s role as a digital mediator 138 4.4.2. Processes and methods: from the platform to participatory urban planning? 139 4.4.3. Projects: in search of the public 142 4.5. Conclusion 143 Conclusion 145 Bibliography 153 Index 173
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