UNESCO Global GeoparksTension Between Territorial Development and Heritage Enhancement
Recently, UNESCO has gradually started to recognize world geoparks ? territorial spaces with a geological heritage of international importance. This classification presents real challenges. Development strategies must align with the recommendations advocated by various non-governmental organizations. It is also necessary to involve the local actors, both in the preparation of application forms and in the implementation of a management plan that is suitable for sustainable global development. Managing the tensions and asymmetries that exist between the different groups of actors (politicians, managers, scientists, representatives of local populations) constitutes another major issue. It is in this context and through various case studies that this book questions the aims of the UNESCO global geoparks ? in terms of heritage inventory and conservation, the participation of local populations, the local development of a territory and its enhancement through heritage interpretation.
Introduction xiYves GIRAULT Part 1. Objectives, Issues and Tensions Related to the Patrimonialization of Nature 1 Chapter 1. Natural Heritage, Participatory Democracy and UNESCO: a Structure of Disillusionment? 3Igor BABOU 1.1. Introduction 3 1.2. The participation in question 4 1.3. A brief history of participatory mechanisms and environmental democracy 4 1.4. Critical assessments of participatory mechanisms and environmental democracy 7 1.5. Points of tension within protected natural areas 11 1.5.1. The significant dimension of the devices 13 1.5.2. The proliferation and professionalization of intermediaries 14 1.5.3. Standardization of participation models 15 1.6. The example of the Lanzarote geopark: top-down approach and brand logic 15 1.7. Conclusion: the democratic consequences of the contradictions of participation 17 1.8. References 19 Chapter 2. The Ambivalences of the Co-construction of a Mental Territory: a Case Study on Spanish UGGs 23Catalina GONZALEZ TEJADA and Yves GIRAULT 2.1. Introduction 23 2.2. Problematic issues 24 2.3. Methodology and construction of the corpus 27 2.4. The construction of the story of the mental territory of the Spanish geoparks 28 2.4.1. First initiatives to protect geological aspects in Spain 29 2.4.2. Various definitions of geological heritage in Spain 31 2.4.3. Cultural enhancement of geological heritage: a disciplinary approach between protection and dissemination of geology 35 2.5. Conclusion 47 2.6. References 48 Chapter 3. The History of the Earth as a New Form of Territorial Marketing: the Case of the Geopark of the Tremp-Montsec Basin (Spain) 53Fabien VAN GEERT 3.1. Introduction 53 3.2. Economic development and the use of heritage in the Catalan Pyrenees 55 3.3. The protection of Catalan geological heritage and its valorization through geoparks 57 3.4. The Tremp-Montsec Basin Geopark Project and the creation of a territory brand 63 3.5. The declaration of the Tremp Geopark and the definition of its future challenges 71 3.6. References 74 Chapter 4. Patrimonialization and the Geopark Label: for Which Development Model in the South? The Case of Morocco 77Ouidad TEBAA and Saïd BOUJROUF 4.1. Introduction 77 4.2. Geopark in Morocco: new label, new territory and new heritage process 78 4.2.1. The relationship to heritage and patrimonialization in Morocco: between identity, museumization and commodification 78 4.2.2. What is the debate on the social acceptability and local utility of geoparks? 79 4.3. Challenges in the territorial construction of geoparks and their heritage development 82 4.3.1. Challenges in the fight against poverty and/or heritage preservation 83 4.3.2. Challenges of intersectoral articulation and integration 84 4.3.3. Governance challenges for geoparks projects: involving residents 86 4.4. Questions and reservations about the contribution of a UNESCO model of geoparks for development in the South 88 4.5. References 90 Chapter 5. The Evolution of the Economics of Culture and its Influence on the Development of Geoparks 91François MAIRESSE 5.1. Introduction 91 5.2. Museums and heritage sites in the market economy 92 5.3. The economic discourse on heritage 95 5.4. Economic evaluation 97 5.5. From the cultural economy to the creative economy 99 5.6. The economic challenges of geopark development 102 5.7. References 104 Part 2. Heritage Inventory and Conservation 109 Chapter 6. Methodological Proposal for the Valorization of the Geodiversity of Rural Areas Comparable with the Zat Valley 111Joan POCH, Antonio TEIXELL, David GÓMEZ-GRAS, Francisco José MARTÍNEZ, Esteve CARDELLACH and José Luis BRIANSÓ 6.1. Introduction 111 6.2. Geological context of the study area 111 6.3. Objectives 116 6.4. Methodology 116 6.5. SWOT analysis and diagnosis 116 6.6. Results: methodological proposal 118 6.6.1. Geoethics framework 118 6.6.2. Assessment of the geodiversity 119 6.6.3. Selection of sites of geological interest for scientific, didactic or tourist use 123 6.6.4. Geosites of scientific interest: fostering scientific research 126 6.6.5. Geosites of didactic interest: fostering the teaching of geology 126 6.6.6. Geosites of geotourism interest: fostering sustainable tourism 127 6.7. Discussion and conclusion 128 6.8. References 129 Chapter 7. Interpreting Landscapes from a Socioecological Perspective: a Methodological Approach from the Zat Valley (Morocco) 133Martí BOADA JUNCÀ, Roser MANEJA ZARAGOZA, Jaume MARLÈS MAGRE, Josep Antoni PUJANTELL ALBÓS, Sònia SÀNCHEZ-MATEO and Carles BARRIOCANAL LOZANO 7.1. Introduction 133 7.2. Methodology 136 7.2.1. Chromatic assessment and identification of landscape units 136 7.2.2. Socioecological transects 136 7.2.3. Study area: Zat Valley (Atlas Mountains, Morocco) 138 7.3. Results and discussion 139 7.3.1. Chromatic assessment 139 7.4. Conclusions 142 7.5. Acknowledgments 143 7.6. References 143 Chapter 8. The Feeling of Archaeology and the Sense of History in the Mixteca Alta Geopark 147Francisco VALDEZ 8.1. Introduction 147 8.2. The park 149 8.3. The people 153 8.4. Archaeology: the marks of history 158 8.4.1. A communal feast 162 8.5. Conclusion 165 8.6. References 166 Chapter 9. One of the First Rock Art Sites Discovered and Now Protected in Morocco: the Case of Azrou Iklane (Assa Region, Morocco) 169Gwenola GRAFF, Maxence BAILLY, Abdelhadi EWAGUE and Martin LOYER 9.1. Introduction: presentation of the site and scientific interest 169 9.2. Contemporary situation of the site 171 9.3. History of searches on the site 172 9.4. Work of the French team and interest from local authorities 172 9.5. Rock art, a source of regional enhancement, and the dynamics of the integration of rock art into Moroccan heritage 174 9.6. The World Heritage nomination process for the Tighmert Oasis and its surroundings 176 9.7. Contribution of recent work to the preservation of remote and fragile archaeological sites 177 9.8. References 178 Part 3. Geotourism and Education 181 Chapter 10. Visualizing the Heritage of the Zat Valley Through a Virtual Museum 183Élisabeth HABERT and Ali AOUDA 10.1. Introduction 183 10.2. From GIS to the virtual museum 184 10.2.1. Constructing a coherent and readable approach to the territory 184 10.2.2. The virtual museum: a virtual reality or an imaginary space? 185 10.2.3. Which model for the Zat Valley? 186 10.3. The Virtual Museum of the Zat Valley: an innovation at the service of local heritage 187 10.3.1. A virtual museum: why? 187 10.3.2. The case of geoparks 188 10.3.3. A virtual museum: for whom? 189 10.4. The Zat Valley Geopark Project: a story of a territory through an application 190 10.4.1. Overview of available tools 191 10.4.2. Methodology and tools 192 10.5. Conclusion 195 10.6. References 196 Chapter 11. Web Communication of French Geoparks in Education: the Expression of Their Legitimacy 199Aurélie ZWANG 11.1. Introduction: the value of a study of communication in education in French geoparks 199 11.2. A semiological and content analysis of communication in terms of website education for four French geoparks 200 11.3. Legitimizing by making a site: the enunciation of the educational territory 203 11.4. Legitimizing by making sense: the statement of ESD in schools 207 11.5. Conclusion 210 11.6. References 211 11.7. Documents cited from the corpus 212 Chapter 12. The Architectural Mediation of Geoparks Museums in China: Between Tensions and Hybridization of Cultures 215Yi DU and Yves GIRAULT 12.1. Introduction 215 12.2. Architects’ perspectives on the integration of museums in the territory 217 12.2.1. Analysis of architectural mediation 218 12.3. Geopark museums in China 219 12.4. Presentation of the three geoparks selected 221 12.4.1. The Taishan UGG 222 12.4.2. The Fangshan UGG 227 12.4.3. The Dali Mt Cangshan UGG 231 12.5. Conclusion 235 12.6. References 235 List of Authors 237 Index 241
Yves Girault is Professor at the French National Museum of Natural History, and co-editor of the International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks. From 2015 to 2018, he led the European research program H2020 RISE on Geoparks. His most recent work is on the geopolitics of museums.
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