Details

Understanding Electric Power Systems


Understanding Electric Power Systems

An Overview of the Technology, the Marketplace, and Government Regulations
IEEE Press Understanding Science & Technology Series, Band 23 2. Aufl.

von: Frank Delea, Jack Casazza

81,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 17.06.2010
ISBN/EAN: 9780470588468
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 352

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Beschreibungen

<p><b>A COMPREHENSIVE LOOK IN LAYMAN'S TERMS AT THE MANY ASPECTS OF THE PROVISION OF ELECTRIC POWER, BY TWO VETERAN EXECUTIVES AND RESPECTED EXPERTS</b> <p>Technological advances and changes in government policy and regulation have altered the electric power industry in recent years and will continue to impact it for quite some time. Fully updated with the latest changes to regulation, structure, and technology, this new edition of <i>Understanding Electric Power Systems</i> offers a real-world view of the industry, explaining how it operates, how it is structured, and how electricity is regulated and priced. It includes extensive references for the reader and will be especially useful to lawyers, government officials, regulators, engineers, and students, as well as the general public. <p>The book explains the physical functioning of electric power systems, the electric power business in today's environment, and the related institutions, including recent changes in the roles of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the North American Reliability Company. Significant changes that are affecting the industry are covered in this new edition, including: <ul> <li>The expanded role of the federal government in the planning and operation of the nation's electric utilities</li> <li>New energy laws and a large number of FERC regulations implementing these laws</li> <li>Concerns over global warming and potential impacts on the electric industry</li> <li>Pressures for expansion of the electric grid and the implementation of "smart-grid" technologies</li> <li>The growing importance of various energy-storage technologies and renewable energy sources</li> <li>New nuclear generation technologies</li> <li>The 2009 economic stimulus package</li> </ul>
<p>Preface to the Second Edition xv</p> <p>Acknowledgments xix</p> <p><b>Chapter 1 Benefits of Electric Power and a History of the Electric Power Industry 1</b></p> <p>1.1 Societal Benefits of Electricity 1</p> <p>1.2 Origin of the Industry 2</p> <p>1.3 The Development of the National Electric Power Grid 5</p> <p>1.4 “The Golden Age” 8</p> <p>Blackouts and the Reliability Crisis 9</p> <p>The Environmental Crises—The Shift to Low-Sulfur Oil 10</p> <p>The Fuel Crisis—The Shift from Oil 10</p> <p>The Financial Crisis 11</p> <p>The Legislative and Regulatory Crisis 12</p> <p>1.5 Global Warming Crisis and Concerns about Carbon Emissions 13</p> <p>1.6 Restructuring, Competition, and the Industry 13</p> <p>Ownership Structure</p> <p><b>Chapter 2 The Electric Power System </b><b>15</b></p> <p>2.1 The Customers 16</p> <p>2.2 Sources of the Electric Energy—Generation 17</p> <p>2.3 The Delivery System 20</p> <p>Interconnections 24</p> <p>The Grid 24</p> <p><b>Chapter 3 Basic Electric Power Concepts 27</b></p> <p>3.1 Electric Energy 28</p> <p>3.2 Concepts Relating to the Flow of Electricity 30</p> <p>Direct Current (DC) 31</p> <p>Alternating Current (AC) 31</p> <p>Three Phases 33</p> <p>Synchronism 34</p> <p>3.3 Characteristics of AC Systems 34</p> <p>Resistance 34</p> <p>Induction and Inductive Reactance 35</p> <p>Capacitance and Capacitive Reactance 36</p> <p>Impedance 38</p> <p>3.4 Ohm’s Law for Alternating Current 38</p> <p>3.5 Power in Alternating Current Circuits 39</p> <p>Real Power 40</p> <p>Reactive Power 40</p> <p>Transformers 42</p> <p>3.6 Power Flow 43</p> <p>Division of Power Flow 43</p> <p>Voltage Drop and Reactive Power Flow 44</p> <p>3.7 Stability 44</p> <p>Automatic Generation Controls (AGC) 46</p> <p>Results of Instability 47</p> <p><b>Chapter 4 Electric Energy Consumption 49</b></p> <p>4.1 End Uses for Electricity 49</p> <p>4.2 Customer Classes 50</p> <p>4.3 Rate Classes 51</p> <p>4.4 Demand and Energy 51</p> <p>Energy 52</p> <p>Effects of Load Diversity 53</p> <p>4.5 System Load 55</p> <p>Load Management 57</p> <p>4.6 Reactive Load 59</p> <p>4.7 Losses and Unaccounted-For Energy in the Delivery System 59</p> <p>4.8 Forecasts 61</p> <p><b>Chapter 5 Electric Power Generation and Concerns About Greenhouse Gases 65</b></p> <p>5.1 Generation’s Role 65</p> <p>5.2 Types of Generation 66</p> <p>5.3 Thermal Conversion: Using Fuel as the Energy Resource 69</p> <p>Steam Cycle—Steam Turbines 69</p> <p>Combustion (Gas) Turbines 70</p> <p>Combined Cycle 71</p> <p>Nuclear 72</p> <p>Reciprocating Engines 73</p> <p>Microturbines 74</p> <p>Combined Heat and Power (CHP) or Cogeneration 74</p> <p>5.4 Thermal Conversion: Nonfuel Heat Sources 74</p> <p>Geothermal 74</p> <p>Solar Thermal Generation 75</p> <p>5.5 Mechanical Energy Conversion 75</p> <p>Hydroturbines and Hydropumped Storage 75</p> <p>Wind Turbines 77</p> <p>Distributed Generation and Other Sources 78</p> <p>5.6 Renewable Technologies and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 79</p> <p>Supply-Side Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 79</p> <p>Financial Options to Reduce Carbon Emissions 83</p> <p>5.7 Characteristics of Generating Plants 84</p> <p>Size 85</p> <p>Efficiency 87</p> <p>Availability 88</p> <p>Schedulable and Unschedulable Units 90</p> <p>5.8 Capital Cost of Generation 90</p> <p>5.9 Generator Life Extension 91</p> <p>5.10 The Technology of Generation 91</p> <p>Synchronous Generators 91</p> <p>Variable Frequency and Direct Current Generation 92</p> <p>5.11 System Needs and Evaluation of Intermittent Resources 93</p> <p><b>Chapter 6 The Technology of the Electric Transmission System 97</b></p> <p>6.1 Components 97</p> <p>6.2 HVAC 98</p> <p>Overhead Lines 98</p> <p>Overhead Line Capability—Ratings 99</p> <p>Transmission Cable 101</p> <p>Cable Capacity 101</p> <p>Submarine Cables 102</p> <p>Superconducting Cables 102</p> <p>6.3 Substations 102</p> <p>Substation Equipment 103</p> <p>Substation Circuit Breaker Arrangements 108</p> <p>Transmission System Aging 108</p> <p>6.4 HVDC 108</p> <p>6.5 Advantages of AC over DC Operation 110</p> <p>Advantages of HVDC 111</p> <p>Disadvantages of HVDC 112</p> <p>6.5 Knowledge Required of Transmission Systems 113</p> <p><b>Chapter 7 Distribution 115</b></p> <p>7.1 Function of Distribution 115</p> <p>7.2 Primary Distribution Feeders 116</p> <p>Radial Systems 116</p> <p>Loop Systems 117</p> <p>Primary Network Systems 117</p> <p>Secondary Systems 117</p> <p>7.3 Distribution Capacity 118</p> <p>7.4 Losses 119</p> <p>7.5 Distribution Facility Ratings 119</p> <p>7.6 Metering 120</p> <p>7.7 Control of Distribution Voltages 120</p> <p>Distribution Transformers 121</p> <p>Voltage Regulators 122</p> <p>Capacitors 123</p> <p>7.8 Distribution System Reliability 123</p> <p>7.10 Quality of Service 124</p> <p>7.11 Design of Distribution Systems 125</p> <p>7.12 Distributed Generation 125</p> <p>7.13 Operation of Distribution Systems 126</p> <p>7.14 Smart Grids and Microgrids 127</p> <p><b>Chapter 8 Energy Storage and Other New Technologies 129</b></p> <p>8.1 Energy Storage 131</p> <p>Benefits of Energy Storage to Generation 131</p> <p>Benefits of Energy Storage to Transmission and Distribution 132</p> <p>8.2 Energy Storage Concepts and Technologies 133</p> <p>Mechanical Systems 133</p> <p>Thermal Energy Storage 136</p> <p>Chemical Energy Storage 138</p> <p>Batteries 138</p> <p>Hydrogen Energy Storage Systems 139</p> <p>Electrical Storage 140</p> <p>Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 141</p> <p>Power Conversion Equipment 141</p> <p>The Future for Energy Storage 142</p> <p>8.3 Smart Grid 142</p> <p>Microgrids 146</p> <p>8.4 New Nuclear Plant Designs 146</p> <p>8.5 Carbon Sequestration and Clean Coal Technologies 150</p> <p>8.6 Superconductors 153</p> <p><b>Chapter 9 Reliability 155</b></p> <p>9.1 Causes of Outages 155</p> <p>9.2 Costs of Power Outages 157</p> <p>9.3 Ways to Measure Reliability 158</p> <p>9.4 Planning and Operating a Reliable and Adequate 159</p> <p>Power System</p> <p>Generation 164</p> <p>Transmission 165</p> <p>Distribution 166</p> <p>9.5 Summary 166</p> <p><b>Chapter 10 The Physical Network: The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and Its Standards 167</b></p> <p>10.1 NERC as Electric Reliability Organization 169</p> <p>10.2 NERC Standards 171</p> <p>Functional Model 171</p> <p>10.3 Development of Standards 176</p> <p>Reliability Principles 177</p> <p>Market Interface Principles 177</p> <p>Compliance with NERC Standards 179</p> <p>Other NERC Responsibilities 179</p> <p>The Future 180</p> <p><b>Chapter 11 The Physical Network: Operation of the Electric Bulk Power 181</b></p> <p>11.1 Balancing Authorities 181</p> <p>Area Control 182</p> <p>Operating Reserves 184</p> <p>11.2 Reliability Coordinators 184</p> <p>11.3 Transmission Operators 186</p> <p>Power Transfer Limits 186</p> <p>Determination of Total Transfer Capability 187</p> <p>Parallel Path Flow and Loop Flow 188</p> <p>Reduction of Power Transfers—Congestion Management 189</p> <p>Ancillary Services 189</p> <p>11.4 Voltage and Reactive Control 191</p> <p>11.5 Emergencies 192</p> <p>Operating Emergencies 193</p> <p>11.6 Information Exchange 194</p> <p><b>Chapter 12 The Physical Network: Planning of the Electric Bulk Power System 197</b></p> <p>12.1 Planning Standards 198</p> <p>12.2 Generation Planning 198</p> <p>12.3 Transmission Planning 200</p> <p>Transmission System Planning Studies 203</p> <p>12.4 Least Cost Planning 205</p> <p>12.5 The New Planning Environment 205</p> <p>Recent Transmission Projects 211</p> <p><b>Chapter 13 The Regulatory Network: Legislation 213</b></p> <p>13.1 Pricing and Regulation 213</p> <p>13.2 Federal Legislation 214</p> <p>13.3 Federal Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) 214</p> <p>13.4 Federal Power Act 216</p> <p>13.5 Other 1930 Federal Laws 219</p> <p>13.6 Department of Energy Organization Act 219</p> <p>13.7 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) 220</p> <p>13.8 Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct02) 222</p> <p>13.9 The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05) 224</p> <p>13.10 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 227</p> <p>13.11 Environmental Laws 227</p> <p>13.12 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 230</p> <p><b>Chapter 14 The Regulatory Network: The Regulators 231</b></p> <p>14.1 The Regulators 231</p> <p>Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 231</p> <p>Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 233</p> <p>Department of Energy (DOE) 234</p> <p>Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 236</p> <p>Recent Federal Regulations 237</p> <p>FERC Actions after EPAct92 237</p> <p>FERC Actions Implementing EPAct05 242</p> <p>Market Manipulation 242</p> <p>Electricity Reliability and Infrastructure 242</p> <p>Expansion and Modernization of the Nation’s Electricity Grid 245</p> <p>Siting Major New Transmission Facilities 245</p> <p>PURPA Reforms 246</p> <p>Repeal of PUHCA—Mergers and Acquisitions 246</p> <p>Market-Based Rates 247</p> <p>Recent EPA Actions 248</p> <p>State Regulatory Authority 249</p> <p>State Utility Restructuring 250</p> <p>Overall Regulatory Problems 251</p> <p><b>Chapter 15 The Information, Communication, and Control Network and Security 253</b></p> <p>15.1 Smart Grid 253</p> <p>15.2 Financial and Business Operations 254</p> <p>15.3 System Operations 255</p> <p>15.4 Distribution Operations 255</p> <p>15.5 Cyber Security 256</p> <p>15.6 Nuclear Plant Security 259</p> <p><b>Chapter 16 The Fuel and Energy Network 261</b></p> <p>16.1 Resource Procurement 264</p> <p>Fuel Measurements 265</p> <p>16.2 Fuel Transportation 265</p> <p>16.3 Fuel Diversity 266</p> <p>16.4 Fossil Fuels Used 267</p> <p>16.5 Renewable Energy 269</p> <p>16.6 Fuel Purchasing 271</p> <p>16.7 Emission Rights 271</p> <p><b>Chapter 17 The Business Network: Market Participants 273</b></p> <p>17.1 Investment and Cost Recovery 273</p> <p>17.2 The Changing Industry Structure 274</p> <p>Functional Unbundling 274</p> <p>Additional Utility Responses 275</p> <p>ISO/RTO Formation 275</p> <p>Holding Company Formation 275</p> <p>Power Plant Divestitures 277</p> <p>17.3 New Structures 279</p> <p>Power Producers 279</p> <p>Independent Transmission Companies and Operators 279</p> <p>Impact of Restructuring on the Transmission System 280</p> <p>Distributors 280</p> <p>Power Marketers 281</p> <p>17.4 New Corporate Ownership 281</p> <p>Utility Mergers and Acquisitions 282</p> <p>Acquisitions by Foreign Companies 282</p> <p>Financial Institutions 283</p> <p><b>Chapter 18 The Money Network: Wholesale Markets 285</b></p> <p>18.1 The Energy Markets 286</p> <p>Standard Market Design (SMD) 288</p> <p>Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) 289</p> <p>18.2 Transmission 291</p> <p>Transmission Rights 291</p> <p>Physical Transmission Rights (PTRs) 292</p> <p>Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) 293</p> <p>Wheeling and Customer Choice 294</p> <p>Contracts and Agreements 294</p> <p>Average System versus Incremental Costs 295</p> <p>18.3 Customer Late Issues 294</p> <p>Construction Work in Progress (CWIP) 295</p> <p>Setting of Rates 296</p> <p>Rate Freezes 296</p> <p>Allocation of Costs and Economic Benefits 296</p> <p>Average Costs versus Incremental Costs 297</p> <p>18.4 Market versus Operational Control 298</p> <p>18.5 Market Power Issues 298</p> <p>Price Caps 299</p> <p>18.6 The Future 299</p> <p><b>Chapter 19 The Professional and Industry Organizations 301</b></p> <p>19.1 The Professional Organizations 301</p> <p>The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 301</p> <p>The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 303</p> <p>American Society of Mechanical Engineers 304</p> <p>(ASME) and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) CIGRE 304</p> <p>19.2 Industry Associations 304</p> <p>NEMA 304</p> <p>The Association of Edison Illuminating 305</p> <p>Companies (AEIC)</p> <p>The American Public Power Association (APPA) 305</p> <p>The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) 306</p> <p>The Electricity Consumer Resource Council (ELCON) 306</p> <p>The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) 307</p> <p>Electric Power Supply Association (EPSA) 307</p> <p>The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 308</p> <p>19.3 Public Interest Groups 308</p> <p>The National Association of Regulatory Utility 308</p> <p>Commissioners (NARUC)</p> <p>Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) 308</p> <p>Public Citizen 309</p> <p>Public Interest Law Project 309</p> <p>19.4 Research Organizations 309</p> <p>The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 310</p> <p>Other Research 310</p> <p>The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI) 311</p> <p>The Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) 311</p> <p>Index 313</p>
<p><b>JACK CASAZZA</b> is an electrical engineer with wide experience in the electric power profession as an executive, researcher, economist, and consultant. He has served as vice president in a major utility responsible for elec- tric and gas planning and research, as a member of the Board of Directors of the Georgia System Operating Co., and as chairman of the U.S. Technical Committee of CIGRE. Casazza is the author of six books on electric power policy and technology and founded the American Education Institute. An IEEE Life Fellow, he received the Halperin Award for his contributions to the development of the national transmission system. <p><b>FRANK DELEA</b> is retired from Consolidated Edison Company, where he had a wide range of assignments giving him insight into planning, operational, financial, organizational, and legal issues. He was the company's chief electric planning engineer, its chief forecast engineer, its first project manager for rate cases, and a corporate planning director. He is an IEEE Senior Member. Since his retirement, Delea has conducted many short courses in technical, business, and regulatory issues relating to electric power systems for non-engineers.
<p><b>A COMPREHENSIVE LOOK IN LAYMAN'S TERMS AT THE MANY ASPECTS OF THE PROVISION OF ELECTRIC POWER, BY TWO VETERAN EXECUTIVES AND RESPECTED EXPERTS</b> <p>Technological advances and changes in government policy and regulation have altered the electric power industry in recent years and will continue to impact it for quite some time. Fully updated with the latest changes to regulation, structure, and technology, this new edition of <i>Understanding Electric Power Systems</i> offers a real-world view of the industry, explaining how it operates, how it is structured, and how electricity is regulated and priced. It includes extensive references for the reader and will be especially useful to lawyers, government officials, regulators, engineers, and students, as well as the general public. <p>The book explains the physical functioning of electric power systems, the electric power business in today's environment, and the related institutions, including recent changes in the roles of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the North American Reliability Company. Significant changes that are affecting the industry are covered in this new edition, including: <ul> <li>The expanded role of the federal government in the planning and operation of the nation's electric utilities</li> <li>New energy laws and a large number of FERC regulations implementing these laws</li> <li>Concerns over global warming and potential impacts on the electric industry</li> <li>Pressures for expansion of the electric grid and the implementation of "smart-grid" technologies</li> <li>The growing importance of various energy-storage technologies and renewable energy sources</li> <li>New nuclear generation technologies</li> <li>The 2009 economic stimulus package</li> </ul>

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