Details

Two-dimensional X-ray Diffraction


Two-dimensional X-ray Diffraction


2. Aufl.

von: Bob B. He

151,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 18.05.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119356066
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 496

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

An indispensable resource for researchers and students in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this updated and expanded edition of the definitive text in the field provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals of that analytical method, as well as state-of-the art experimental methods and applications. Geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis, and combinatorial screening are all covered in detail. Numerous experimental examples in materials research, manufacture, and pharmaceuticals are provided throughout. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction is the ideal, non-destructive analytical method for examining samples of all kinds including metals, polymers, ceramics, semiconductors, thin films, coatings, paints, biomaterials, composites, and more. Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, Second Edition is an up-to-date resource for understanding how the latest 2D detectors are integrated into diffractometers, how to get the best data using the 2D detector for diffraction, and how to interpret this data. All those desirous of setting up a 2D diffraction in their own laboratories will find the author’s coverage of the physical principles, projection geometry, and mathematical derivations extremely helpful. Features new contents in all chapters with most figures in full color to reveal more details in illustrations and diffraction patterns Covers the recent advances in detector technology and 2D data collection strategies that have led to dramatic increases in the use of two-dimensional detectors for x-ray diffraction Provides in-depth coverage of new innovations in x-ray sources, optics, system configurations, applications and data evaluation algorithms Contains new methods and experimental examples in stress, texture, crystal size, crystal orientation and thin film analysis  Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, Second Edition is an important working resource for industrial and academic researchers and developers in materials science, chemistry, physics, pharmaceuticals, and all those who use x-ray diffraction as a characterization method. Users of all levels, instrument technicians and X-ray laboratory managers, as well as instrument developers, will want to have it on hand.
Preface xiii 1. Introduction 1 1.1 X-Ray Technology, a Brief History, 1 1.2 Geometry of Crystals, 2 1.3 Principles of X-Ray Diffraction, 11 1.4 Reciprocal Space and Diffraction, 13 1.5 Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, 19 References, 26 2. Geometry and Fundamentals 29 2.1 Introduction, 29 2.2 Diffraction Space and Laboratory Coordinates, 31 2.3 Detector Space and Detector Geometry, 35 2.4 Sample Space and Goniometer Geometry, 46 2.5 Transformation from Diffraction Space to Sample Space, 50 2.6 Reciprocal Space, 52 2.7 Summary, 53 References, 55 3. X-Ray Source and Optics 57 3.2 X-Ray Optics, 63 References, 85 4. X-Ray Detectors 87 4.1 History of X-Ray Detection Technology, 87 4.2 Point Detectors in Conventional Diffractometers, 89 4.3 Characteristics of Point Detectors, 92 4.4 Line Detectors, 100 4.5 Characteristics of Area Detectors, 107 4.6 Types of Area Detectors, 119 References, 137 5. Goniometer and Sample Stages 141 5.1 Goniometer and Sample Position, 141 5.2 Goniometer Accuracy, 145 5.3 Sample Alignment and Visualization Systems, 149 5.4 Environment Stages, 151 References, 155 6. Data Treatment 157 6.1 Introduction, 157 6.2 Non-Uniform Response Correction, 157 6.3 Spatial Correction, 161 6.4 Detector Position Accuracy and Calibration, 166 6.5 Frame Integration, 177 6.6 Multiple Frame Merge, 186 6.7 Scanning 2D Pattern, 194 6.8 Lorentz, Polarization, and Absorption Corrections, 197 References, 208 7. Phase Identification 211 7.1 Introduction, 211 7.2 Relative Intensity, 212 7.3 Geometry and Resolution, 216 7.4 Sampling Statistics, 221 7.5 Preferred Orientation Effect, 227 References, 233 8. Texture Analysis 235 8.1 Introduction, 235 8.2 Pole Density and Pole-Figure, 236 8.3 Fundamental Equations, 238 8.4 Data Collection Strategy, 242 8.5 Texture Data Process, 251 8.6 Orientation Distribution Function, 256 8.7 Fiber Texture, 261 8.8 Polymer Texture, 264 8.9 Other Advantages of XRD2 for Texture, 268 References, 269 9. Stress Measurement 271 9.1 Introduction, 271 9.2 Principle of X-ray Stress Analysis, 280 9.3 Theory of Stress Analysis with XRD2, 292 9.4 Process of Stress Measurement with XRD2, 307 9.5 Experimental Examples, 325 A9.1 Calculate Principal Stresses, 349 A9.2 Calculate the direction cosines for principal stresses (Eigenvectors), 350 References, 353 10. Small Angle X-ray Scattering 357 10.1 Introduction, 357 10.2 2D SAXS Systems, 361 10.3 Applications Examples, 367 10.4 Some Innovations in 2D SAXS, 370 References, 374 11. Combinatorial Screening 379 11.1 Introduction, 379 11.2 XRD2 Systems for High Throughput Screening, 380 11.3 Combined Screening with XRD2 and Raman, 390 Reference, 393 12. Miscellaneous Applications 395 12.1 Percent Crystallinity, 395 12.2 Crystal Size, 402 12.3 Retained Austenite, 412 12.4 Crystal Orientation, 414 12.5 Thin Film Analysis, 418 Reference, 429 13. Innovation and Future Development 433 13.1 Introduction, 433 13.2 Scanning Line Detector for XRD2, 434 13.3 Three-Dimensional Detector, 438 13.4 Pixel Direct Diffraction Analysis, 441 13.5 High Resolution Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffractometer, 444 References, 451 Appendix A. Values of Commonly Used Parameters 453 Appendix B. Symbols 459 Index 465
Bob B. He, PhD, is Director of Innovation and Business Development XRD2 at Bruker AXS-an industry leader in X-ray diffraction instrumentation and solutions (formally Siemens AXS). Dr. He holds 17 U.S. patents and two R&D 100 awards in XRD instrumentation. In recognition of his contribution to the XRD community, he has been recently awarded ICDD Fellow. He earned his doctorate in materials science from Virginia Tech.
An indispensable resource for researchers and students in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this updated and expanded edition of the definitive text in the field provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals of that analytical method, as well as state-of-the art experimental methods and applications. Geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis, and combinatorial screening are all covered in detail. Numerous experimental examples in materials research, manufacture, and pharmaceuticals are provided throughout. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction is the ideal, non-destructive analytical method for examining samples of all kinds including metals, polymers, ceramics, semiconductors, thin films, coatings, paints, biomaterials, composites, and more. Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, Second Edition is an up-to-date resource for understanding how the latest 2D detectors are integrated into diffractometers, how to get the best data using the 2D detector for diffraction, and how to interpret this data. All those desirous of setting up a 2D diffraction in their own laboratories will find the author’s coverage of the physical principles, projection geometry, and mathematical derivations extremely helpful.  Features new contents in all chapters with most figures in full color to reveal more details in illustrations and diffraction patterns Covers the recent advances in detector technology and 2D data collection strategies that have led to dramatic increases in the use of two-dimensional detectors for x-ray diffraction Provides in-depth coverage of new innovations in x-ray sources, optics, system configurations, applications and data evaluation algorithms Contains new methods and experimental examples in stress, texture, crystal size, crystal orientation and thin film analysis  Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, Second Edition is an important working resource for industrial and academic researchers and developers in materials science, chemistry, physics, pharmaceuticals, and all those who use x-ray diffraction as a characterization method. Users of all levels, instrument technicians and X-ray laboratory managers, as well as instrument developers, will want to have it on hand.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Biodsulfurization in Petroleum Refining
Biodsulfurization in Petroleum Refining
von: Nour Shafik El-Gendy, Hussein Mohamed Nabil Nassar
PDF ebook
254,99 €