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Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment


Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment


2. Aufl.

von: Ronald L. Droste, Ronald L. Gehr

134,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 31.07.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119312383
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 992

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Provides an excellent balance between theory and applications in the ever-evolving field of water and wastewater treatment Completely updated and expanded, this is the most current and comprehensive textbook available for the areas of water and wastewater treatment, covering the broad spectrum of technologies used in practice today—ranging from commonly used standards to the latest state of the art innovations. The book begins with the fundamentals—applied water chemistry and applied microbiology—and then goes on to cover physical, chemical, and biological unit processes. Both theory and design concepts are developed systematically, combined in a unified way, and are fully supported by comprehensive, illustrative examples. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 2nd Edition: Addresses physical/chemical treatment, as well as biological treatment, of water and wastewater Includes a discussion of new technologies, such as membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment, fixed-film biotreatment, and advanced oxidation Provides detailed coverage of the fundamentals: basic applied water chemistry and applied microbiology Fully updates chapters on analysis and constituents in water; microbiology; and disinfection Develops theory and design concepts methodically and combines them in a cohesive manner Includes a new chapter on life cycle analysis (LCA) Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 2nd Edition is an important text for undergraduate and graduate level courses in water and/or wastewater treatment in Civil, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering.
Acknowledgments XXI Preface XXIII Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in the Text XXV About the Companion Website XXXIII Section I: Chemistry 1 1 Basic Chemistry 3 1.1 Definitions 3 1.2 The Expression of Concentration 4 1.3 Ions and Molecules in Water 5 1.3.1 Oxidation Number 5 1.4 Balancing Reactions 9 1.5 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 10 1.6 Equilibrium 12 1.7 Conductivity and Ionic Strength 13 1.7.1 Conductance 14 1.7.2 Ionic Strength 14 1.8 Chemical Kinetics 15 1.8.1 Other Formulations 16 Consecutive or Series 16 Parallel 17 Retardant 17 Autocatalytic 17 Catalysis 18 1.8.2 The Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction 19 1.9 Gas Laws 19 1.10 Gas Solubility: Henry’s Law 20 1.11 Solubility Product 23 1.12 Complexes 25 1.13 Nuclear Chemistry 27 1.13.1 Radioactivity Units 27 Questions and Problems 30 References 33 2 The Thermodynamic Basis for Equilibrium 35 2.1 Thermodynamic Relations 35 2.1.1 Free Energy 35 Expression of Concentration in Equilibrium Expressions 39 2.1.2 Enthalpy and Temperature Effects on the Equilibrium Constant 42 2.2 Redox Potentials 43 2.2.1 Cell or Couple Potential 46 2.2.2 Oxidation–Reduction Potential and System Potential 48 2.3 Corrosion 49 2.3.1 Microbial Corrosion 51 2.3.2 Corrosion Prevention from External Environmental Factors 52 Galvanic Cathodic Protection 52 Electrolytic (or Impressed Current) Cathodic Protection 53 Questions and Problems 53 References 55 3 Acid–Base Chemistry 57 3.1 pH 57 3.2 Acids and Bases 58 3.2.1 Conjugate Acids and Bases 61 3.3 Equivalents and Normality 61 3.4 Solution of Multiequilibria Systems 62 3.5 Buffers 63 3.5.1 Dilution of a Buffered Solution 65 3.5.2 The Most Effective pH for a Buffer 65 3.6 Acid–Base Titrations 66 3.6.1 Titration of Strong Acids and Bases 66 3.6.2 Titration of Weak Acids and Bases 68 3.6.3 Indicating the Endpoint of an Acid–Base Titration 71 3.7 Natural Buffering of Waters from Carbon Dioxide and Related Compounds 73 3.7.1 Acidity and Alkalinity 74 Questions and Problems 76 References 78 4 Organic and Biochemistry 81 4.1 Carbon 81 4.2 Properties of Organic Compounds 81 4.3 Functional Groups 82 4.4 Types of Organic Compounds 83 4.4.1 Aliphatic Compounds 83 Aldehydes and Ketones 83 Alcohols, Esters, and Ethers 83 4.4.2 Nitrogen-containing Compounds 83 4.5 Aromatic Compounds 84 4.5.1 Compounds of Sulfur 85 4.6 Naturally Occurring Organic Compounds 85 4.6.1 Carbohydrates 85 4.6.2 Proteins 86 4.6.3 Fats and Oils 86 4.7 Biochemistry 86 4.8 Glycolysis 87 4.9 The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 88 4.10 Enzyme Kinetics 89 Questions and Problems 91 References 93 5 Analyses and Constituents in Water 95 5.1 Titration 95 5.1.1 Complex and Precipitate Formation Titrations 95 5.1.2 Redox Titrations and Potentiometric Analyses 96 5.1.3 Indicators for Potentiometric Analysis 98 5.2 Colorimetric Analyses 99 5.2.1 The Beer–Lambert Laws for Light Transmittance 99 5.3 Physical Analyses 99 5.3.1 Solids 99 5.3.2 Turbidity and Color 101 5.4 Determination of Organic Matter 102 5.4.1 Chemical Oxygen Demand 103 General Reaction for COD 104 Interferences with the COD Test 105 5.4.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 105 Effects of Temperature on BOD Exertion 108 Carbonaceous and Nitrogenous BOD 109 Laboratory Methods for Determining BOD 110 Limitations of the BOD Test for Biological Wastewater Treatment Process Design 110 Analysis of a BOD Progression 111 5.4.3 Total Organic Carbon 113 Questions and Problems 113 References 118 Section II: Microorganisms in Water and Water Quality 119 6 Microbiology 121 6.1 Groups of Microorganisms and the Phylogenetic Tree 121 6.2 Bacteria and Archaea 121 6.2.1 Classification of Bacteria 124 Taxonomy 124 Metabolic Requirements 125 Oxygen Requirements 125 Temperature 126 Salt and Sugar Concentrations 127 pH 127 6.3 Eukaryotes 127 6.3.1 Algae 128 6.3.2 Fungi 129 6.3.3 Protists 129 6.4 Other Microorganisms 130 6.4.1 Viruses and Phages 130 6.4.2 Rotifers 131 6.4.3 Worms 131 6.5 Determining the Growth of Microorganisms 132 6.5.1 Growth of Pure Cultures 132 6.5.2 Growth of Mixed Cultures 135 6.5.3 Viability and Mass in Growing Cultures 136 6.5.4 Enumeration of Microorganisms 136 Plate Counts 136 Practical Considerations in Determining Mean Values 140 6.5.5 Microbial Genomics and Molecular Microbiology Tools 141 Phylogenetic Microbial Community Composition Analysis 141 Functional Analysis 142 Questions and Problems 143 References 145 7 Water, Wastes, and Disease 147 7.1 Agents of Disease 147 7.1.1 Bacterial Pathogens 147 7.1.2 Viral Pathogens 149 7.1.3 Protozoan Pathogens 150 7.1.4 Helminths 150 7.1.5 Insect and Animal Vectors of Disease 153 7.2 Indicator, Test, and Model Microorganisms 153 7.3 Indicators of Fecal Contamination 155 7.4 Indicator Microorganisms 156 7.4.1 Coliforms: Total, Thermotolerant, and E. coli 156 7.4.2 Enterococci 157 7.5 Surrogates 157 7.6 Survival of Microorganisms in the Aquatic Environment 159 7.7 Minimum Infective Dose 162 Questions and Problems 163 References 164 8 Water Constituents and Quality Standards 167 8.1 Toxicity of Elements and Compounds 167 8.2 Contaminants in Water 170 8.2.1 Emerging Contaminants 171 8.2.2 Common Contaminants 173 Aluminum 173 Nitrate 173 Fluoride 173 Detergents 174 8.2.3 Carcinogens 174 8.2.4 Radioactive Constituents 175 8.3 Taste and Odor 176 8.4 Bases for Standards 178 8.4.1 Risk Assessment for Microbial Infection 179 8.4.2 Determination of Carcinogenicity 180 8.4.3 Toxicity Determination 182 8.4.4 Environmental Water Quality Standards 184 8.5 Standards for Drinking Water 184 8.5.1 International Drinking Water Standards 185 8.5.2 US Safe Drinking Water Act 185 8.5.3 Canadian Water Quality Guidelines 186 8.6 Comparison of Drinking Water Standards 187 8.6.1 Microbiological Parameters 187 WHO Guidelines for Microbiological Quality 187 United States Standards for Microbiological Quality 187 Canadian Guidelines for Microbiological Quality 188 8.6.2 Chemical and Physical Qualities 188 8.6.3 Aesthetic Quality 188 8.6.4 Radiological Constituents 188 8.6.5 Other Water Standards 192 8.7 Water Consumption 192 8.8 Canadian Federal Wastewater Quality Guidelines 195 8.9 Wastewater Characteristics 195 Greywater 196 8.10 Wastewater Production 197 Questions and Problems 198 References 200 Section III: Water and Wastewater Treatment 205 9 Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations 207 9.1 Water Treatment Operations 207 Microbial Contaminants 212 Reservoirs 213 9.1.1 Home Water Treatment Units 216 9.2 Wastewater Treatment Unit Operations 216 9.3 Hydraulic Design of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants 225 Flow in Pressurized Pipes 225 Flow in Open Channels 226 Other Losses 227 Questions and Problems 230 References 232 10 Mass Balances and Hydraulic Flow Regimes 235 10.1 Setup of Mass Balances 235 10.1.1 Mixing Characteristics of Basins 236 10.1.2 Mass Balances for PF Reactors 237 Method I 238 Method II 239 Method III 239 10.1.3 Mass Balances and Reaction for CM Basins 242 10.1.4 Batch Processes 244 10.2 Flow Analysis of CM and PF Reactors 245 10.2.1 Tracer Analysis of Complete Mixed Reactors 245 10.2.2 Tracer Analysis of Plug Flow 247 10.2.3 Complete Mixed Reactors in Series 247 10.2.4 Other Flow Irregularities: Dead Volume and Short-circuiting 248 10.2.5 Typical Flow Characteristics of Basins 249 10.2.6 Measurement of Dispersion 250 10.3 Detention Time in Vessels 250 10.3.1 Average Detention Time 251 10.3.2 The Effects of Flow Recycle on Detention Time 251 10.3.3 The Effects of Recycle on Mixing 253 10.4 Flow and Quality Equalization 253 10.5 System Material Balances 256 Questions and Problems 266 References 271 Section IV: Physical–Chemical Treatment Processes 273 11 Screening and Sedimentation 275 11.1 Screens and Bar Racks 275 11.1.1 Screens for Water Treatment Plants 276 11.1.2 Screens at Wastewater Treatment Plants 277 11.1.3 Microstrainers 277 11.2 Sedimentation 278 11.2.1 Particle Settling Velocity 279 11.3 Grit Chambers 281 11.3.1 Horizontal Flow Grit Chambers 282 Channel with Varying Cross Section 283 Design Notes for a Parabolic Grit Chamber 284 11.3.2 Aerated Grit Chambers 290 11.3.3 Square Tank Degritter 292 11.3.4 Vortex Grit Removal Devices 293 Grit Washing 294 11.4 Type I Sedimentation 294 11.4.1 Theory 294 11.5 Type II Sedimentation 297 11.5.1 Laboratory Determination of Settling Velocity Distribution 298 11.5.2 Type II Sedimentation Data Analysis 298 11.5.3 Alternative Method for Calculating Total Removal 302 11.5.4 Sizing the Basin 303 11.6 Tube and Lamella Clarifiers 303 11.7 Weir–Launder Design 309 11.8 Clarifier Design for Water and Primary Wastewater Treatment 313 11.8.1 Design Ranges for Typical Clarifiers for Water and Wastewater Treatment 313 11.8.2 Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment 315 11.8.3 Depth in Sedimentation Basins 318 11.9 Inlet Hydraulics for Sedimentation Basins 319 11.9.1 Flow Distributions 319 11.9.2 Inlet Baffling 322 Questions and Problems 323 References 328 12 Mass Transfer and Aeration 331 12.1 Fick’s Law 331 12.2 Gas Transfer 332 12.2.1 Calculating the Mass Transfer Coefficient 335 12.2.2 The Effects of pH on Mass Transfer 336 12.3 Aeration in Water and Wastewater Treatment 336 12.3.1 Hazards Associated with Oxygen, Carbon monoxide, and Hydrogen sulfide 338 12.4 Design of Aeration Systems 339 12.4.1 Gravity Aerators 339 12.4.2 Spray Aerators 341 12.4.3 Diffused Aerators 344 Questions and Problems 346 References 348 13 Coagulation and Flocculation 351 13.1 Coagulation 351 Recovery of Alum and Iron Coagulants 355 13.2 Mixing and Power Dissipation 356 13.3 Mixers 358 13.3.1 Mechanical Mixers 359 13.3.2 Pneumatic Mixers 362 13.3.3 Hydraulic Mixers 363 Venturi Sections and Hydraulic Jumps 363 13.4 Flocculators 368 13.4.1 Paddle Flocculators 369 13.4.2 Vertical-Shaft Turbine Flocculators 375 13.4.3 Pipes 376 13.4.4 Baffled Channels 376 13.4.5 Upflow Solids Contact Clarifier 377 13.4.6 Alabama Flocculator 377 13.4.7 Spiral Flow Tanks 378 13.4.8 Pebble Bed Flocculators 379 13.4.9 Ballasted Flocculation 380 Questions and Problems 382 References 384 14 Filtration 387 14.1 Slow Sand Filters and Rapid Filters 388 14.2 Filtering Materials 389 14.2.1 Grain Size and Distribution 389 14.3 Headloss in Filters 394 14.3.1 Grain Size Distribution and Headloss 397 14.4 Backwashing Filters 398 14.4.1 Total Head Requirements for Backwashing 400 Losses in the Expanded Media 400 14.4.2 Backwash Velocity 401 Method 1 401 Method 2 402 Headloss and Expansion in a Stratified Bed 405 14.5 Support Media and Underdrains in Rapid Filters 409 Other Design Features of Filters 411 Auxiliary Wash and Air Scour Systems 411 14.6 Filter Beds for Water and Wastewater Treatment 412 14.7 Air Binding of Filters 415 14.8 Rapid Filtration Alternatives 417 14.8.1 Single-medium and Multimedia Filters 417 14.8.2 Constant- and Declining-rate Filtration 417 14.8.3 Direct Filtration 418 14.9 Pressure Filters 419 14.10 Slow Sand Filters 419 14.10.1 Slow Sand Filters for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment 421 14.11 Biological Filtration for Water Treatment 421 Questions and Problems 424 References 427 15 Physical–Chemical Treatment for Dissolved Constituents 431 15.1 Water Softening 431 15.2 Lime–Soda Softening 433 15.2.1 Treatment Methods for Lime–Soda Hardness Removal 434 15.2.2 Bar Graphs 439 Lime Recovery and Sludge Reduction 441 15.3 Corrosion Prevention in Water Supply Systems 441 15.3.1 The Langelier Index Misconception 443 15.4 Iron and Manganese Removal 447 15.4.1 Greensand 448 15.4.2 Aeration 449 15.4.3 Sequestering Iron and Manganese 449 15.4.4 Biological Removal of Iron and Manganese 449 15.5 Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater by Chemical Precipitation 450 15.5.1 Removal of Phosphorus by Chemically Reactive Species 452 15.6 Removal of Arsenic and Metals 453 15.6.1 Metals Removal 453 15.6.2 Arsenic Removal 454 15.7 Advanced Oxidation Processes 455 15.8 Ion Exchange 456 15.8.1 Activated Alumina 457 15.8.2 Ammonia and Nitrate Removal by Ion Exchange 458 15.9 Fluoridation and Defluoridation 458 15.10 Membrane Processes 460 15.10.1 Assessment of Water Suitability for Membrane Treatment 466 15.10.2 Concentrate Disposal 468 15.10.3 Membranes for Water Treatment 468 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Systems 468 Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Treatment 469 Electrodialysis 472 15.11 Activated Carbon Adsorption 472 15.11.1 Activated Carbon – Preparation and Characteristics 473 15.11.2 Adsorption Isotherms 474 15.11.3 Granular Activated Carbon Adsorbers 477 15.12 Design of Fixed-bed Adsorbers 478 15.12.1 Rate Formulation for Adsorption 479 15.12.2 Theory of Fixed-bed Adsorber Systems 480 The Capacity Utilized in the Adsorption Zone 481 Competitive Adsorption 490 15.12.3 Bed-depth Service Time Method 490 15.12.4 Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests 494 15.12.5 Granular Activated Carbon Reactors in Series 498 15.12.6 Design of a Suspended Media PAC or GAC Continuous Flow Reactor 498 Questions and Problems 499 References 503 16 Disinfection 509 16.1 Kinetics of Disinfection 510 16.2 Chlorination 512 16.2.1 Chemistry of Chlorine 512 16.2.2 Measurement of Free and Residual Chlorine 516 16.2.3 Chlorine Decay 517 16.2.4 Drinking Water Disinfection by Chlorine 518 16.2.5 Wastewater Disinfection by Chlorine 519 16.2.6 Design of Contacting Systems for Chlorine 521 16.2.7 Disinfection as the Sole Treatment of Surface Water 521 16.2.8 Other Applications of Chlorine 522 16.2.9 Dechlorination 522 16.3 Chloramines 523 16.4 Chlorine Dioxide 524 16.4.1 Chlorine Dioxide Doses as a Primary Disinfectant 525 16.4.2 Chlorine Dioxide for Pre-disinfection or for Residual Disinfection 525 16.4.3 Generation of Chlorine Dioxide 526 16.5 Peracids: Peracetic Acid (PAA) and Performic Acid (PFA) 527 16.5.1 Peracetic Acid 527 Kinetics of Disinfection Using PAA 528 Measuring PAA Residuals 529 Applications for Wastewater Disinfection 530 Chemical Disinfection Process Control 530 16.5.2 Performic Acid 531 16.6 Ozone 531 16.6.1 Determining the Appropriate Ozone Dose 532 16.6.2 Ozone Generation 533 16.6.3 Ozone Dissolution Systems 534 16.6.4 Ozone Contactor Basins 535 16.6.5 Ozone Chemistry: Mass Transfer Coefficients and Radicals Production 536 16.6.6 Ozone for Wastewater Disinfection 537 16.6.7 Ozone for Destruction of Micropollutants 538 16.7 Ultraviolet Radiation 538 16.7.1 Mechanism of UV Disinfection 538 16.7.2 Repair of UV Damage 539 Photo Repair 539 Dark Repair 540 16.7.3 Interferences 540 16.7.4 Generation of Ultraviolet Light and Ultraviolet Reactors 541 16.7.5 Disinfection Kinetics 541 16.7.6 Disinfection Doses (or Fluences) 542 16.7.7 Determination of UV Fluence 542 16.7.8 Ultraviolet Reactors 545 16.8 Point-of-use Disinfectants: Solar Disinfection (SODIS), with or without Photoreactants such as TiO2 547 16.9 Disinfection Byproducts 548 16.9.1 Chlorine 549 16.9.2 Chloramines 549 16.9.3 Chlorine Dioxide 550 16.9.4 Peracids 550 16.9.5 Ozone 550 16.9.6 Ultraviolet 551 16.9.7 Comparative Risks 551 16.10 Disinfection to Combat Invasive Species 551 Questions and Problems 553 References 556 Section V: Biological Wastewater Treatment 565 17 Aerobic Biological Treatment: Biotreatment Processes 567 17.1 Microorganisms in Aerobic Biological Treatment 567 17.2 The Activated Sludge Process 568 17.3 Substrate Removal and Growth of Microorganisms 569 17.3.1 Substrate Removal 569 Temperature Dependence of Rate Coefficients 571 BOD, COD, and TOC Removal 571 17.3.2 Growth of Microorganisms and Biological Sludge Production 572 Sludge Composition and Nutrient Requirements 573 17.4 Activated Sludge Configurations 574 17.4.1 Definition of Symbols for the Activated Sludge Process Models 575 17.4.2 Reactor 577 17.4.3 System Effluent and Waste Sludge Line 577 17.4.4 Clarifier 577 17.5 Process Analysis 578 17.5.1 Physical Concentration of Solids in the Bioreactor 578 17.5.2 Solids Retention Time 580 17.5.3 Sludge Volume Index 580 17.5.4 CM Reactor Without Recycle 582 Substrate Balance 582 Biomass Balance 583 17.5.5 CM Reactor with Recycle 585 Biomass Balance 585 17.5.6 Application of the Basic Model in the Historical Context 586 Frailties of the Historical Models 590 17.5.7 Matrix Representation of the Basic (Soluble Substrate) Model 591 17.5.8 The Rate of Recycle 593 17.5.9 Food-to-Microorganism Ratio and SRT 594 17.6 Advanced Model for Carbon Removal 596 17.6.1 Total Effluent COD from the Process 599 17.6.2 Removal of Influent Particulate Organic Matter 599 17.6.3 Estimation of Parameters and Calibration of the Advanced Model 600 17.6.4 Calibration of Models to Existing Data 602 17.7 Sludge Production in Activated Sludge Systems 604 17.8 Plug Flow Activated Sludge Treatment 607 17.9 Variations of the Activated Sludge Process 609 17.9.1 Sequencing Batch Reactors 609 17.9.2 Extended Aeration 612 17.10 Other Activated Sludge Process Variations 613 17.10.1 Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge Process 615 17.10.2 Powdered Activated Carbon Activated Sludge Process 615 Design Parameters and Operating Conditions for Activated Sludge Processes 615 17.11 Design of Activated Sludge Processes for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal 616 17.11.1 Nitrogen Transformations 616 Nitrogen Removal–Denitrification 621 17.11.2 Advanced Denitrification Processes 626 SHARON Process 626 Anammox Process 627 Other Processes 628 17.11.3 Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake 628 Fermentation of Primary or Activated Sludge 630 Phostrip and Bardenpho Bio-P Processes 632 17.12 Operating Characteristics of Activated Sludge Processes 632 17.12.1 SRT and Characteristics of Waste Activated Sludge 632 17.13 Granular Activated Sludge and Membrane Processes 634 17.13.1 Granular Activated Sludge Processes 634 17.13.2 Membrane Activated Sludge Processes 635 Design of Submerged Membrane Reactors 637 17.14 Fixed-Film Activated Sludge Processes 639 17.14.1 Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge and Moving Bed Bioreactor Processes 639 Design of MBBRs 641 17.14.2 Biologically Activated Filters 645 Design of Biological Active Filters 647 17.14.3 Rotating Biological Contact Units 648 17.15 Fixed-Film Trickling Filter Processes 650 17.15.1 Trickling Filters 650 Sludge Production from Trickling Filters 656 Air Supply in Trickling Filters 656 Operation of Trickling Filters 660 17.15.2 Hydraulic Design of Distributors for Trickling Filters 660 17.16 Oxygen Uptake in Activated Sludge Processes 663 17.17 Metals Removal in Activated Sludge Processes 664 17.18 Aerobic Sludge Digestion 664 17.18.1 Model for Aerobic Sludge Digestion 665 Oxygen Uptake in Aerobic Digestion 668 Rate Constants and Sludge Degradability 668 17.18.2 Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion 669 Pre-treatment for Aerobic Sludge Digestion 672 17.18.3 Indicator Microorganism Reduction in Aerobic Digestion 672 Questions and Problems 673 References 680 18 Aerobic Biological Treatment: Other Process Operations 689 18.1 Aeration in Biological Wastewater Treatment 689 18.1.1 Aeration Devices in Wastewater Treatment 692 Diffused Aerators 692 Surface and Other Aerators 692 18.2 Post-aeration Systems for Wastewater Treatment 697 18.2.1 Diffused Aeration Systems 697 18.2.2 Cascades 699 18.2.3 Weirs 699 18.3 Type III Sedimentation: Zone Settling 700 18.3.1 Design of a Basin for Type III Sedimentation 703 Gravity Flux 703 Underflow Flux 704 18.3.2 Secondary Clarifier Design 708 18.3.3 Modeling for Secondary Clarifier and Operation 709 18.3.4 Membrane Separation of Solids 711 Lamella Clarifiers 712 18.4 Sludge Settling Problems and Foaming 712 18.4.1 Microorganisms 712 18.4.2 Selectors and Process Operating Conditions 713 Questions and Problems 715 References 718 19 Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 721 History 721 19.1 Anaerobic Metabolism 722 19.1.1 Hydrolysis 722 19.1.2 Acid Formation: Acidogenesis and Acetogenesis 723 19.1.3 Methanogenesis 724 19.1.4 Other Metabolic Pathways 725 19.1.5 Environmental Variables 725 Oxidation–Reduction Potential 725 Temperature 725 pH 725 Mixing 726 Ammonia and Sulfide Control 726 Nutrient Requirements 727 19.2 Process Fundamentals 727 19.2.1 Solids Yield and Retention Time 727 19.2.2 Biogas Potential 729 Biochemical Methane Potential and Anaerobic Toxicity Assay 729 Methane Production in Anaerobic Treatment 730 Dissolved Methane 731 Biogas Utilization 732 19.3 Process Analysis 732 19.3.1 Definition of Symbols for the Anaerobic Models 733 19.3.2 General Model for an Anaerobic Process 734 Anaerobic Reactor Receiving Only Particulate Substrate 734 Anaerobic Reactor Receiving Only Soluble Substrate 737 The Traditional Digester Sizing Equation for Anaerobic Sludge Digesters 737 19.3.3 Advanced Model for an Anaerobic Process 740 Substrate Removal and Biomass Accumulation 741 Temperature Effects on Rate Coefficients 747 19.4 Misconceptions and Barriers about Anaerobic Treatment 747 19.5 Anaerobic Treatment Processes 750 19.5.1 Conventional Anaerobic Treatment 750 19.5.2 Contact Process 753 19.5.3 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor 754 19.5.4 Fixed-Film Reactors 756 Upflow Fixed-Film Reactors 757 Downflow Fixed-Film Reactors 758 Fluidized Bed Reactors 759 19.5.5 Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion 759 19.5.6 Thermophilic Digestion 760 19.5.7 Membrane Anaerobic Treatment 760 19.5.8 Pre-treatment of Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion of Biosolids 760 19.6 Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Solid Waste 762 19.7 Process Stability and Monitoring 763 19.7.1 Chemical Precipitation Problems in Anaerobic Digesters 764 19.7.2 Recovery of Nutrients through Struvite Harvesting 764 19.7.3 Sludge Production 766 19.7.4 Anaerobic Treatment of Low-Strength Wastes 766 19.8 Comparison of Anaerobic and Aerobic Treatment Processes 767 19.8.1 Pollutant Removal Efficiency 768 19.8.2 Number and Size of Operations 768 19.8.3 Energy and Chemical Inputs 769 19.8.4 Heat Exchanger 770 19.9 Energy Assessment of Anaerobic and Aerobic Treatment 774 Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Treatment 776 Calculation of the Energy Potential of a Waste 777 19.10 Pathogen Reduction in Anaerobic Processes 777 Questions and Problems 778 References 781 20 Treatment in Ponds and Land Systems 789 20.1 Overview of Stabilization Ponds 789 20.1.1 Pond Operation 790 20.1.2 Pond Effluent Quality 791 20.2 Pond Types 792 20.3 Design of Pond Systems 795 20.3.1 Design of Ponds in the Far North 796 20.3.2 Models for Facultative Ponds 798 20.3.3 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal 798 20.3.4 Heat Balance for Ponds 799 20.4 Removal of Suspended Solids from Pond Effluents 800 20.5 Indicator Microorganism Die-off in Ponds 801 20.6 Aerated Lagoons 802 20.7 Treatment of Wastewater in Land Systems 804 20.7.1 Land Treatment of Wastewater 804 Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity 805 Wastewater Constituents Influencing Land Treatment 807 20.7.2 Slow Rate Land Application Systems 807 20.7.3 Soil Aquifer Treatment 814 20.7.4 Overland Flow Systems 815 Questions and Problems 817 References 819 Section VI: Final Disposal and Impact Analysis 823 21 Sludge Processing and Land Application 825 21.1 Sludge Characteristics and Conditioning 825 Sludge Density 825 Sludge Viscosity 827 21.2 Sludge Generation and Treatment Processes 828 21.3 Sludge Conditioning 833 21.4 Sludge Thickening 836 21.4.1 Gravity Thickening 836 21.4.2 Flotation Thickening 837 21.5 Mechanical Sludge Dewatering 839 21.5.1 Centrifugation 840 21.5.2 Vacuum Dewatering 843 21.5.3 Plate Pressure Filters 846 21.6 Land Application of Sludge 847 Questions and Problems 854 References 856 22 Effluent Disposal in Natural Waters 859 22.1 Pollutants in Natural Waters 859 22.1.1 Water Quality Indices 859 Fish Survival and Temperature 862 Nutrient Loadings to Lakes 864 22.2 Loading Equations for Streams 865 22.2.1 Pollutant Decay in Streams 865 22.2.2 Conservative Substance 866 Point Source 866 Distributed Source 866 22.2.3 Substances That Are Transformed by One Reaction 866 Point Source 866 Distributed Source 867 22.3 Dissolved Oxygen Variation in a Stream 870 22.3.1 Nitrification in Natural Waters 873 22.3.2 Factors Affecting the Dissolved Oxygen Sag Curve 874 22.3.3 The Reaeration Rate Coefficient 877 22.3.4 Reaeration at Dams 878 22.4 Combined Sewer Overflows Abatement 878 Questions and Problems 881 References 883 23 Life Cycle Analysis 887 23.1 Historical Development of LCA 888 23.2 Why Use LCA; What Are the Objectives; What Are Its Benefits and What Does It Not Do? 888 23.3 ISO Standards 14040 and 14044 889 23.4 Definitions of Terms in ISO 14040 and 14044 889 23.5 Principles Established by ISO 14040 890 23.6 Key Components of the ISO Standards 891 23.6.1 Goal and Scope 892 23.6.2 System Boundaries 892 Life Cycle Inventory Analysis 893 23.6.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment 894 Selection of Impact Categories, Category Indicators, and Characterization Models 894 Assignment of LCI Results to the Selected Impact Categories (Classification) 895 Calculation of Category Indicator Results (Characterization) 895 Characterization Factors, Midpoints and Endpoints 896 Optional Elements of the LCIA 897 23.6.4 Limitations of LCIA 898 23.6.5 Interpretation 898 23.7 Software and Databases 899 23.8 Examples of Case Studies of LCA in Water and Wastewater Treatment Projects 899 Questions and Problems 906 References 909 Appendix A 913 Author Index 927 Subject Index 937
RONALD DROSTE, PHD, is an Emeritus Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Ottawa, and a Fellow of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE). RONALD GEHR, PHD, is an Associate Professor (Post-retirement) in the Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics at McGill University and a Fellow of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE).
PROVIDES AN EXCELLENT BALANCE BETWEEN THEORY AND APPLICATIONS IN THE EVER-EVOLVING FIELD OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT Completely updated and expanded, this is the most current and comprehensive textbook available for the areas of water and wastewater treatment, covering the broad spectrum of technologies used in practice today—ranging from commonly used standards to the latest state of the art innovations. The book begins with the fundamentals—applied water chemistry and applied microbiology—and then goes on to cover physical, chemical, and biological unit processes. Both theory and design concepts are developed systematically, combined in a unified way, and are fully supported by comprehensive, illustrative examples. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Second Edition: Addresses physical/chemical treatment, as well as biological treatment, of water and wastewater Includes a discussion of new technologies, such as membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment, fixed-film biotreatment, and advanced oxidation Provides detailed coverage of the fundamentals: basic applied water chemistry and applied microbiology Fully updates chapters on analysis and constituents in water; microbiology; and disinfection Develops theory and design concepts methodically and combines them in a cohesive manner Includes a new chapter on life cycle analysis (LCA) Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Second Edition is an important text for undergraduate and graduate level courses in water and/or wastewater treatment in Civil, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering.

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