Details

The Skull of Quadruped and Bipedal Vertebrates


The Skull of Quadruped and Bipedal Vertebrates

Variations, Abnormalities and Joint Pathologies
1. Aufl.

von: Djillali Hadjouis

126,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 02.06.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119832539
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 256

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

<p>This book forms part of the set, <i>Comparative Anatomy and Posture of Animal and Human</i>, and focuses on the skulls of Quaternary mammals and of Man since the acquisition of upright posture. Although the vast majority of the quadruped fossil species have a balanced postural adaptation, with no asymmetries or maxillo-mandibular dysmorphoses, the Hominine species that has acquired this readjustment of the body as well as a bipedal adaptation to the ground, will experience a series of postural imbalances starting with malocclusion in the genus Homo.</p> <p>In order to arrive at this conclusion, the cranio-facial architectural biodynamics of several species of fossil and current mammals have been analyzed over three decades. In addition, hundreds of skulls of anatomically modern Hominids have been examined, highlighting their occlusal offsets, variations, anomalies and pathologies.</p>
<p>Introduction xi</p> <p><b>Part 1. The Skull of Fossil and Present-day Quadruped Vertebrates: Craniofacial Structure and Postural Balance </b><b>1</b></p> <p><b>Chapter 1. Proboscideans: The Mammoth (<i>Mammuthus primigenius</i>)</b> <b>3</b></p> <p>1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 3</p> <p>1.2. Mammoth discoveries in Île-de-France 5</p> <p>1.3. A young mammoth in Maisons-Alfort 5</p> <p>1.4. A woolly mammoth skull in the reserves 6</p> <p>1.5. A mammoth skull with removed tusks 7</p> <p>1.6. A particular tooth eruption 8</p> <p><b>Chapter 2. Equidae </b><b>11</b></p> <p>2.1. The horse (<i>Equus caballus</i>) 11</p> <p>2.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 11</p> <p>2.1.2. A fossil horse in Africa: paleogeographic and biostratigraphic distributions 15</p> <p>2.1.3. The postural balance of <i>Equidae </i>17</p> <p>2.1.4. Joint pathologies in service horses 18</p> <p>2.1.5. Introduction to animal bone pathologies and zoonoses 20</p> <p>2.1.6. The horse’s status over the centuries 20</p> <p>2.2. The donkey (<i>Equus asinus</i>) 21</p> <p>2.2.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 22</p> <p>2.2.2. The status of the donkey over the centuries 23</p> <p><b>Chapter 3. Bovidae </b><b>25</b></p> <p>3.1. Aurochs (<i>Bos primigenius</i>) 25</p> <p>3.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 25</p> <p>3.1.2. Cattle (<i>Bos taurus</i>) 27</p> <p>3.1.3. The status of cattle over the centuries 28</p> <p>3.2. The bison (<i>Bison priscus</i>): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 28</p> <p>3.3. The buffalo (<i>Syncerus antiquus</i>) 29</p> <p>3.3.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the current <i>Syncerus </i>and <i>Bubalus </i>buffaloes 29</p> <p>3.3.2. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of fossil species 30</p> <p>3.3.3. <i>Bos/Syncerus </i>dental distinction criteria 35</p> <p>3.3.4. Postural balance and paleoecology of <i>Bovidae </i>38</p> <p>3.3.5. Polymorphism and dimorphism in <i>Bovidae </i>39</p> <p>3.3.6. Osteoarticular abnormalities and bone pathologies in <i>Bovidae </i>41</p> <p>3.4. The common eland (<i>Taurotragus oryx</i>) 43</p> <p>3.4.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 43</p> <p>3.4.2. Posture and locomotor adaptation 46</p> <p>3.5. The hartebeest (<i>Alcelaphus buselaphus</i>) 48</p> <p>3.5.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 48</p> <p>3.5.2. Postural balance 49</p> <p>3.6. Gazelles (<i>Gazella</i>) 50</p> <p>3.6.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 50</p> <p>3.6.2. Postural balance 51</p> <p><b>Chapter 4. Cervidae </b><b>53</b></p> <p>4.1. The red deer (<i>Cervus elaphus</i>) 53</p> <p>4.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 53</p> <p>4.1.2. The status of deer developing over the centuries 58</p> <p>4.2. The Algerian thick-cheeked deer (<i>Megaceroides algericus</i>) 59</p> <p>4.2.1. Several species from Europe, the Mediterranean islands and one species from the Maghreb 60</p> <p>4.2.2. Size of <i>Megaceroides algericus </i>63</p> <p><b>Chapter 5. Suidae </b><b>65</b></p> <p>5.1. The wild boar (<i>Sus scrofa</i>) 65</p> <p>5.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 65</p> <p>5.1.2. The status of the boar over the centuries 67</p> <p>5.1.3. Postural balance of the boar 67</p> <p>5.2. The warthog (<i>Phacochoerus aethiopicus </i>or <i>africanus</i>) 70</p> <p>5.2.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 71</p> <p>5.2.2. A particular tooth eruption 74</p> <p>5.2.3. Postural balance of the warthog 76</p> <p>5.2.4. Pathologies in warthogs 77</p> <p>5.2.5. A catastrophic mortality curve 78</p> <p><b>Chapter 6. Carnivores </b><b>81</b></p> <p>6.1. The lion (<i>Panthera leo</i>) 81</p> <p>6.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 81</p> <p>6.1.2. Occlusal posture and the lion’s balance on the ground 83</p> <p>6.2. The panther or leopard (<i>Panthera pardus</i>) 84</p> <p>6.2.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 85</p> <p>6.2.2. Occlusal posture and postural balance of the panther on the ground 85</p> <p>6.3. The spotted hyena (<i>Crocuta crocuta</i>): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 87</p> <p>6.4. The striped hyena (<i>Hyaena hyaena</i>) 89</p> <p>6.4.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 89</p> <p>6.4.2. Occlusal posture and postural balance of hyenas on the ground 90</p> <p>6.5. The cave bear (<i>Ursus spelaeus</i>) and the brown bear (<i>Ursus arctos</i>): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 93</p> <p>6.6. The wolf (<i>Canis lupus</i>): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 95</p> <p><b>Chapter 7. Lagomorphs: The Hare (<i>Lepus capensis</i>) </b><b>99</b></p> <p>7.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 99</p> <p>7.2. The status of the hare over the centuries 101</p> <p><b>Part 2. The Skull of Fossil Bipedal Vertebrates: Craniofacial Structure and Postural Balance </b><b>103</b></p> <p><b>Chapter 8. Primates </b><b>105</b></p> <p>8.1. Occlusal posture, quadrupedic and verticalization of the Hominoid body 106</p> <p>8.2. Work in dentofacial orthopedics and embryogenesis 108</p> <p><b>Chapter 9. Hominoids </b><b>111</b></p> <p>9.1. <i>Kenyapithecus </i>112</p> <p>9.2. <i>Nacholapithecus </i>113</p> <p>9.3. <i>Otavipithecus namibiensis </i>113</p> <p><b>Chapter 10. From Hominoids to Hominids </b><b>115</b></p> <p>10.1. <i>Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba </i>115</p> <p>10.2. <i>Praeanthropus tugenensis </i>(<i>= Orrorin tugenensis</i>) 116</p> <p>10.3. <i>Sahelanthropus tchadensis </i>116</p> <p>10.4. <i>Ardipithecus ramidus </i>117</p> <p>10.5. <i>Praeanthropus africanus </i>(<i>= Australopithecus anamensis</i>) 118</p> <p><b>Chapter 11. Australopithecus </b><b>119</b></p> <p>11.1. <i>Australopithecus afarensis </i>120</p> <p>11.2. <i>Australopithecus africanus </i>120</p> <p>11.3. <i>Australopithecus bahrelghazali </i>120</p> <p>11.4. <i>Australopithecus garhi </i>121</p> <p>11.5. <i>Paranthropus robustus </i>121</p> <p>11.6. <i>Australopithecus aethiopicus </i>121</p> <p>11.7. <i>Australopithecus boisei </i>122</p> <p><b>Chapter 12. The Genus <i>Homo </i></b><b>123</b></p> <p>12.1. <i>Homo habilis </i>126</p> <p>12.2. <i>Homo rudolfensis </i>126</p> <p>12.3. <i>Homo ergaster </i>and <i>Homo erectus </i>127</p> <p>12.4. <i>Homo georgicus </i>128</p> <p>12.5. <i>Homo neanderthalensis </i>129</p> <p>12.5.1. Plesiomorphic and autapomorphic morphological features 129</p> <p>12.5.2. Non-<i>Sapiens </i>craniofacial dynamics and posture 130</p> <p>12.5.3. A permanent labidodental joint 130</p> <p>12.5.4. The asymmetry of fossil pieces 133</p> <p>12.6. <i>Homo sapiens </i>135</p> <p><b>Chapter 13. Migration and Paleogeographic Distribution of the <i>Homininae </i></b><b>137</b></p> <p>13.1. <i>Australopithecus </i>and <i>Homo habilis</i>: regional African migrations 137</p> <p>13.2. <i>Homo ergaster </i>and <i>Homo erectus</i>: the first great African-Eurasian journey 139</p> <p>13.3. <i>Homo neanderthalensis</i>: a Eurasian traveler 141</p> <p>13.4. <i>Homo sapiens</i>: the second great conquest voyage on all continents 141</p> <p><b>Part 3. The Skull of <i>Homo sapiens </i>in All its Diversity </b><b>145</b></p> <p><b>Chapter 14. The Craniofacial Puzzle in Motion </b><b>147</b></p> <p>14.1. Normality and its boundaries with the abnormal and the pathological 147</p> <p>14.2. The importance of interpreting or reinterpreting (Le Double 1903, 1906) 148</p> <p>14.3. Craniofacial structural mechanics and dynamics 149</p> <p>14.3.1. Biodynamics of vault bones 150</p> <p>14.3.2. Biodynamics of the temporal bone 151</p> <p>14.3.3. Biodynamics of the occipital bone 151</p> <p>14.3.4. Biodynamics of the sphenoidal bone 152</p> <p>14.3.5. Biodynamics of the maxillary bone 152</p> <p>14.3.6. Biodynamics of the mandibular bone 154</p> <p><b>Chapter 15. The Basics of Structural Analysis </b><b>157</b></p> <p>15.1. Analysis tools using imaging 157</p> <p>15.2. Maxillo-mandibular dysmorphoses 159</p> <p>x The Skull of Quadruped and Bipedal Vertebrates</p> <p>15.2.1. Angle’s classification 160</p> <p>15.3. History of structural mechanics: from geometry to imagery 161</p> <p>15.3.1. The initiators 161</p> <p>15.3.2. FDO orthopedists and orthodontists 163</p> <p>15.3.3. Osteopaths 165</p> <p>15.3.4. Recent work in human paleontology and paleoanthropology 166</p> <p><b>Chapter 16. Identification of Malformation </b><b>169</b></p> <p>16.1. Craniostenosis, a history of sutures 169</p> <p>16.2. Craniofacial asymmetries 172</p> <p>16.2.1. Examples of craniofacial asymmetries 174</p> <p>16.2.2. The importance of the spine and its effects in basic cranial equilibrium or disequilibrium 180</p> <p>16.3. Psalidodontia or labidodontia? 181</p> <p>16.3.1. The behavior of the dental articulation of juvenile Pleistocene and Holocene populations in the Maghreb and the Sahara 184</p> <p>16.3.2. Dental articulation and extraction of the incisors 187</p> <p>16.4. Para-masticatory functions of <i>Homo sapiens </i>in Algeria 190</p> <p>16.5. Occlusal equilibrium and adaptation of regional morphotypes 193</p> <p>16.5.1. In the Paris Basin 193</p> <p>16.5.2. In the Maghreb countries 198</p> <p>16.5.3. Occlusal balance and the regional morphotype in the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa 199</p> <p><b>Chapter 17. Ignored Pathologies </b><b>205</b></p> <p>17.1. Extremely rare craniofacial pathologies 205</p> <p>17.1.1. Crouzon syndrome 205</p> <p>17.1.2. Marfan syndrome 205</p> <p>17.1.3. Cranial thickening and Albers-Schönberg’s disease 206</p> <p>17.1.4. Torticollis 206</p> <p>17.1.5. Parietal thinning 207</p> <p>17.1.6. Scurvy 208</p> <p>17.2. The oldest therapeutic practice: trepanning 209</p> <p>Conclusion 211</p> <p>References 213</p> <p>Index 235</p>
<p><b>Djillali Hadjouis</b> is a specialist in human and animal anatomy of populations of the past. He has been, in turn, associate professor at universities, research director, departmental archaeologist and lecturer, training dozens of students from Europe, Africa and Asia.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Verpacktes Leben - Verpackte Technik
Verpacktes Leben - Verpackte Technik
von: Udo Küppers, Helmut Tributsch
PDF ebook
97,99 €
Neuroendocrinology
Neuroendocrinology
von: David A. Lovejoy
PDF ebook
68,99 €
Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics
von: Frédéric Dardel, François Képès
PDF ebook
62,99 €