Details

The Practice of Silviculture


The Practice of Silviculture

Applied Forest Ecology
10. Aufl.

von: Mark S. Ashton, Matthew J. Kelty

96,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 03.01.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119271307
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 776

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Beschreibungen

The most up-to-date, comprehensive resource on silviculture that covers the range of topics and issues facing today’s foresters and resource professionals  The tenth edition of the classic work, The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, includes the most current information and the results of research on the many issues that are relevant to forests and forestry. The text covers such timely topics as biofuels and intensive timber production, ecosystem and landscape scale management of public lands, ecosystem services, surface drinking water supplies, urban and community greenspace, forest carbon, fire and climate, and much more.  In recent years, silvicultural systems have become more sophisticated and complex in application, particularly with a focus on multi-aged silviculture. There have been paradigm shifts toward managing for more complex structures and age-classes for integrated and complementary values including wildlife, water and open space recreation. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition covers a wide range of topics and challenges relevant to the forester or resource professional today. This full-color text offers the most expansive book on silviculture and:  Includes a revised and expanded text with clear language and explanations Covers the many cutting-edge resource issues that are relevant to forests and forestry Contains boxes within each chapter to provide greater detail on particular silvicultural treatments and examples of their use Features a completely updated bibliography plus new photographs, tables and figures The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, Tenth Edition is an invaluable resource for students and professionals in forestry and natural resource management.
Preface xvi Acknowledgements xvii Part 1 Introduction to Silviculture 1 1 The History and Philosophy of Silviculture 3 Introduction 3 Silviculture, its Origin and Development as an Applied Ecology 3 The Philosophies of Silviculture as a Practice 12 Silviculture as a Body of Knowledge 17 References 19 2 Silviculture and its Place in Managing Current Forests and Woodlands 22 Introduction 22 The Purpose of Silviculture Today 22 Definition of Silviculture 22 Scope and Terminology of Silvicultural Practice 25 The Silviculture Framework for Managing a Forest 29 References 31 Part 2 Ecological Foundations of Silviculture 33 3 Ecological Site Classification, Stands as Management Units, and Landscape?Scale Planning 35 Introduction 35 Ecological Methods of Identifying and Classifying Sites 36 Stands as Management Units 48 New Developments in Landscape?Level Ecological Planning 56 References 59 4 Stand Dynamics: The Ecology of Forest Succession 63 Introduction 63 Initiating Disturbances and Sources of Regeneration 63 Stages of Stand Development 63 Defining Cohorts and Age Classes 68 Defining Canopy Stratification by Age Class 68 Relationship of Stand Dynamics to Other Interpretations of Vegetational Development 75 Choice of Developmental Patterns 77 References 78 5 Ecology of Regeneration 80 Introduction 80 Ecological Role of Natural Disturbance 80 The Regeneration Process 92 Disturbance, Climate, and Regional Patterns in Floristics of Forest Regeneration 104 Regeneration Methods as Analogs to Natural Disturbance 111 References 112 Part 3 Methods of Regeneration 117 6 Development of Silvicultural Systems and Methods of Regeneration 119 Introduction 119 Conceptual Formation of Silvicultural Systems: The Science of Place 119 Classification of Natural Regeneration Methods 124 Classification of Plantations and Artificial Seeding 129 Naming Silvicultural Systems: The Taxonomy 131 Summary Remarks 135 References 136 7 Site Treatments 137 Introduction 137 Disposal of Logging Slash 137 Treatment of the Forest Floor and Competing Vegetation 145 References 162 Part 3A Natural Regeneration Methods 169 8 Natural Regeneration: The Clearcutting Method 171 Introduction 171 The Protocol 171 Regeneration of Pure Stands from Natural Seeding 173 Applications of True Clearcutting: Case Studies from North America 177 References 183 9 Natural Regeneration: The Seed?Tree Method 185 Introduction 185 The Protocol 187 Variations in Spatial Patterns of Stand Structure 192 Application of Seed?Tree Methods 193 References 201 10 Natural Regeneration: The Shelterwood Method 204 Introduction 204 The Protocol for the Uniform Shelterwood 206 Protocols for Alternative Arrangements 212 Application of Shelterwood Methods 215 References 224 11 Natural Regeneration: Irregular Seed-Tree and Shelterwood Methods (Multi-Aged Systems) 228 Introduction 228 Development of Two? or Three?Aged Stands 229 Regeneration Methods Including Reserve Trees within Irregular Seed?Tree and Shelterwood Systems 229 Application of Two? or Three?Aged Systems 233 References 248 12 Natural Regeneration: The Coppice Method 251 Introduction 251 Vegetative Regeneration and the Nature of Disturbance 251 The Physiology and Morphology of Sprouting 252 Types of Vegetative Regeneration 252 Simple Coppice Systems 257 Coppice Systems with Irregular Structures and Age Classes 265 The Role of Coppice Stands in the Past, Present, and Future 267 Conversion of Coppice Stands to High Forests 269 References 269 13 Natural Regeneration: Selection Methods 272 Introduction 272 The Protocol 273 The Selection Regeneration Method and its Variations 273 Managing for Balanced All?Aged Stands 277 Managing for Unbalanced All?Aged Stands 286 Application of the Selection Method of Regeneration 288 References 300 Part 3B Methods Based on Artificial Regeneration 303 14 Species Selection and Genetic Improvement 305 Introduction 305 Selection of Species and Provenances 306 Adaptation to Site 306 Genetic Improvement 312 References 320 15 Nursery, Planting, and Seeding Techniques 322 Introduction 322 Propagation 322 Planting and Seeding 337 References 348 16 The Arrangement, Composition, and Methods of Planting 350 Introduction 350 The Role of Planting 350 Density of Plantings 351 Spatial Arrangement of Plantings 352 High Forest Plantations 353 Low Forest Plantations 371 Protection of New Plantations 373 References 375 Part 4 Post?Establishment (Intermediate) Treatments 379 17 Tree and Stand Growth 381 Introduction 381 Growth within Individual Trees 381 Stand Scale Patterns of Production 390 The Effect of Thinning on Stand Production 395 The Effect of Thinning on the Economic Yield of Stands 397 References 401 18 Post?Establishment Tools in Silviculture 403 Introduction 403 Cutting and Girdling 403 Use of Herbicides 404 Methods of Applying Herbicides 410 Use of Insecticides 412 Prescribed Burning 413 Use of Fertilizer 419 Irrigation 420 References 420 19 Pruning Methods and Applications 424 Introduction 424 The Ecology of Natural Pruning Processes 424 Pruning Trees to Improve Timber Quality in Forests 428 Techniques of Pruning Open Grown Trees Within Urban Environments 434 Training and Pruning Fruit and Shade Trees in Orchards and Agroforestry Systems 438 References 441 20 Release Operations in Seedling and Sapling Stands 443 Introduction 443 Competing Vegetation 443 Concept of Free?To?Grow 444 Early Use of Release Treatments 444 Vegetation Control Methods 445 Timing and Extent of Release Treatments 451 Ecological Impact of Release Treatments on Plant Communities 453 Liberation Treatments 455 Release Treatments that Control Invasives 457 References 458 21 Methods of Thinning 461 Introduction 461 The Different Approaches to Thinning 461 Low Thinning 462 Crown Thinning 468 Dominant Thinning 473 Free?Form Thinning 477 Variable?Density Thinning 477 Geometric Thinning 478 Application of Thinnings 481 References 483 22 Quantitative Thinning: Theory and Application 486 Introduction 486 Conceptual and Experimental Proof for Thinning 486 Thinning and its Objectives 486 Quantitative Thinning Guidelines 496Density, Stocking, and Relative Density 496 References 504 Part 5 Silvicultural Considerations for Managing All Forests 507 23 Conservation Management Practices 509 Introduction 509 Management Practices 509 References 531 Contents xiii 24 Silviculture for Wildlife Habitat 534 Introduction 534 Habitat Elements Within Stands 535 Landscape Elements Across Stands 551 Examples of Application 555 Control of Wildlife Damage to Trees 560 References 561 25 Silvicultural Applications to Forest Restoration: Rehabilitation and Reclamation 565 Introduction 565 Degradation and Restoration Processes of Forests 565 Categories of Forest Degradation and their Restoration Treatments 567 Summary 593 References 594 26 Approaches to and Treatments for Maintaining Healthy Forest Ecosystems 597 Introduction 597 The Growing Threat of Non?Native Invasive Insects and Disease 597 The Concept of Forest Ecosystem Health within Stand Dynamics 600 Protection Against Biotic Agencies: Insects and Disease 601 Protection Against Abiotic Agencies 606 Using Silviculture to Control Damage 611 References 615 27 Managing Forest Carbon in Changing Climates 618 Introduction 618 The Ecology of Forest Carbon 618 Avoiding Deforestation and Increasing Reforestation 620 Carbon Management in Existing Forests 622 The Use of Wood as Biomass Energyor in Wood Products for Carbon Storage 624 References 625 Part 6 Silvicultural Applications for Different Land Uses 629 28 Ecosystem Management: Managing Public Natural Forests for Multiple Values 631 Introduction 631 Regional and Global Differences in Public Land Ownership 631 Managing Complex Large?Scale Forests 633 The Ecosystem?Management Paradigm 633 Regional Examples of Ecosystem Management 636 References 642 29 Application of Silviculture to Watershed Management 645 Introduction 645 Baseline Watershed Conditions 646 Paired Watershed Studies: Impacts of Land Clearance and Forest Disturbance 649 Managing Forests for Water Quality: Examples from the United States 654 Managing Forests for Water Yield: Examples from the United States 660 Summary 663 References 663 30 Industrial Timber Management 665 Introduction 665 Principles of Regulating Timber Harvests 665 Considerations for Timber Production in Forests 666 Global and National Trends in Industrial Plantation Forestry 669 References 676 31 Application of Silviculture to Agroforestry 677 Introduction 677 Stages of Stand Development and Agroforestry 678 Successional Agri?silvicultural Practices 679 Permanent Agri?silvicultural Practices 683 Selection of Tree Species for Agroforestry 689 References 689 32 Application of Silviculture to Urban Ecosystems and the Urban–Rural Interface 694 Introduction 694 Aesthetics and Landscape Design of Urban Forests 694 Mitigating Urban Meso? and Micro?Environments 701 The Application of Silviculture to Urban Watersheds 704 References 708 Common and Scientific Names of Trees and Shrubs Mentioned in the Text 711 Glossary of Terms 716 Index 731
Mark S. Ashton, Morris K. Jesup Professor of Silviculture and Forest Ecology and Director of School Forests, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT, USA. Matthew J. Kelty, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.
The most up-to-date, comprehensive resource on silviculture that covers the range of topics and issues facing today's foresters and resource professionals The tenth edition of the classic work, The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, includes the most current information and the results of research on the many issues that are relevant to forests and forestry. The text covers such timely topics as biofuels and intensive timber production, ecosystem and landscape scale management of public lands, ecosystem services, surface drinking water supplies, urban and community greenspace, forest carbon, fire and climate, and much more. In recent years, silvicultural systems have become more sophisticated and complex in application, particularly with a focus on multi-aged silviculture. There have been paradigm shifts toward managing for more complex structures and age-classes for integrated and complementary values including wildlife, water and open space recreation. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition covers a wide range of topics and challenges relevant to the forester or resource professional today. This full-color text offers the most expansive book on silviculture and: Includes a revised and expanded text with clear language and explanations Covers the many cutting-edge resource issues that are relevant to forests and forestry Contains boxes within each chapter to provide greater detail on particular silvicultural treatments and examples of their use Features a completely updated bibliography plus new photographs, tables and figures The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, Tenth Edition is an invaluable resource for students and professionals in forestry and natural resource management.

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