The newly updated fast-reference problem solver The Complete CPA Desk Reference—the convenient, comprehensive reference professionals have relied on for nearly fifteen years—is now updated in a new Fifth Edition to give today's busy executives and accountants the helpful information they need in a quick-reference format. Packed with practical techniques and rules of thumb for solving day-to-day accounting issues, the new edition helps you quickly pinpoint what to look for, what to watch out for, what to do, and how to do it. In an easy-to-use Q & A format, it covers such useful topics as IFRS standards, internal control over financial reporting financial measures, ratios, and procedures. Includes complete coverage of the Risk Assessment Auditing Standards and Standards of the PCAOB Incorporates Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) throughout the book Adds new chapters on professional ethics and quality controls for CPA firms Features a new section on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Packed with checklists, samples, and worked-out solutions to a variety of accounting problems, this reliable reference tool is a powerful companion for the complex, ever-changing world of accounting.
About the Authors xxi Acknowledgments xxiii Introduction xxv Part I Commonly Used Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Chapter 1 Financial Statement Reporting: The Income Statement 3 Income Statement Format 4 Comprehensive Income 4 Extraordinary Items 5 Nonrecurring Items 6 Discontinued Operations 6 Revenue Recognition 8 Other Revenue Considerations 18 Multiple Deliverables 18 Software Revenue Recognition 19 Research and Development Costs 20 Advertising Costs 23 Restructuring Charges 23 Other Expense Considerations 23 Earnings per Share 23 Chapter 2 Financial Statement Reporting: The Balance Sheet 33 Assets 33 Liabilities 57 Fair Value Measurements 71 Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities 73 Stockholders’ Equity 77 Chapter 3 Financial Statement Reporting: Statement of Cash Flows and Other Disclosures 91 Statement of Cash Flows 91 Interim Reporting 103 Personal Financial Statements 107 Incorporation of a Business 110 Partnerships 110 Chapter 4 Accounting and Disclosures 113 Hierarchy of GAAP 113 FASB Accounting Standards Codification 113 Accounting Changes 114 Prior-Period Adjustments 121 Disclosure of Accounting Policies 122 Development-Stage Companies 123 Troubled Debt Restructuring 124 Segmental Reporting 127 Imputing Interest on Notes 133 Accounting for Futures Contracts 135 Oil- and Gas-Producing Companies 138 Chapter 5 Key Financial Accounting Areas 139 Consolidations 139 Business Combinations 143 Investments in Securities 148 Leases 156 Pension Plans 170 Other Postretirement Benefits 183 Income Tax Accounting 184 Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions 189 U.S. GAAP versus IFRS 200 Part II Analyzing Financial Statements Chapter 6 Financial Statement Analysis 219 Introduction 219 Horizontal and Vertical Analysis 221 Balance Sheet Analysis 222 Income Statement Analysis 239 Bankruptcy Prediction 249 Liquidation Value 251 Part III Managerial Accounting Applications Chapter 7 Appraising Segmental Performance 255 The What and Why of Responsibility Accounting 255 Cost Center Performance and Standard Costs 258 Flexible Budgets and Performance Reports 276 Profit Centers and Segmented Reporting 278 Profit Variance Analysis 281 Single-Product Firms 282 Multiproduct Firms 282 Managerial Planning and Decision Making 287 How to Measure the Performance of Investment Centers 288 Investment Decisions under ROI and RI 292 More on Economic Value Added 293 Corporate Balanced Scorecard 295 How to Price Goods and Services Transferred 296 Alternative Transfer Pricing Schemes 297 Budgeting and Financial Planning 299 Chapter 8 Analysis of Projects, Proposals, and Special Situations 309 Cost–Volume–Profit and Breakeven Analysis 309 Short-Term, Nonroutine Decisions 320 Theory of Constraints 327 Life-Cycle Costs and Target Costing 327 Activity-Based Costing 331 Just-in-Time and Total Quality Management 334 Taguchi Method of Quality Control 338 Backflush Costing 339 Environmental Costs and Ecoefficiency 342 Time Value Fundamentals 346 Capital Budgeting 350 MACRS Rule 363 Chapter 9 Quantitative Applications and Modeling in Accounting 369 Statistical Analysis and Evaluation 369 Regression Analysis 374 Trend Analysis 378 Regression Statistics 380 Quantitative Methods for Accounting 386 Decision Making 387 Decision Making under Certainty 387 Decision Making under Uncertainty 388 Linear Programming and Shadow Prices 394 Goal Programming and Multiple Goals 398 Learning Curve 402 Inventory Planning and Control 404 Program Evaluation and Review Technique 411 Project Budgeting and Control Using Earned Value Analysis 416 Part IV Auditing, Compiling, and Reviewing Financial Statements Chapter 10 Auditing Procedures 425 Risk Assessment Procedures 425 The Entity and Its Environment 426 Internal Control 426 Substantive Procedures 442 Audit Reports 451 Chapter 11 Compilation, Review, and Other Reporting Services 463 Compilation of Financial Statements 463 Review of Financial Statements 470 Accountant’s Consideration of Obtaining an Updating Representation Letter from Management 480 Documentation in a Review Engagement 481 Restricting the Use of an Accountant’s Compilation or Review Report 485 Consideration of an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern 486 Subsequent Events 486 Subsequent Discovery of Facts Existing at the Date of the Report 487 Change in Engagement from Audit or Review to Compilation 487 Reporting on Prescribed Forms 488 Communication between Successor and Predecessor Accountants 490 Compilation of Specified Elements, Accounts, or Items of a Financial Statement 490 Compilation of Pro Forma Financial Information 494 Communicating to Management and Others in a Compilation or Review Engagement 498 Reports on Prospective Financial Statements 499 Attest Engagements 511 Examination of an Entity’s Internal Control over Financial Reporting That Is Integrated with an Audit of Its Financial Statements (SSAE 15) 518 Integration with the Financial Statement Audit 534 Reporting on Controls at a Service Organization 546 Compliance Attestation 555 Management’s Discussion and Analysis 557 Personal Financial Statements Included in Written Personal Financial Plans 557 Reporting on Comparative Statements 559 Special Reports 564 Chapter 12 Auditing Standards 573 SAS 1—Codification of Auditing Standards and Procedures 573 SAS 2—Reports on Audited Financial Statements 574 SAS 3—The Effects of EDP on the Auditor’s Study and Evaluation of Internal Control 575 SAS 4—Quality Control Considerations for a Firm of Independent Auditors 575 SAS 5—The Meaning of “Present Fairly in Conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” in the Independent Auditor’s Report 575 SAS 6—Related Party Transactions 575 SAS 7—Communication between Predecessor and Successor Auditor 575 SAS 8—Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements 575 SAS 9—The Effect of an Internal Audit Function on the Scope of the Independent Auditor’s Examination 575 SAS 10—Limited Review of Interim Financial Information 575 SAS 11—Using the Work of a Specialist 575 SAS 12—Inquiry of a Client’s Lawyer Concerning Litigation, Claims, and Assessments 576 SAS 13—Reports on a Limited Review of Interim Financial Information 578 SAS 14—Special Reports 578 SAS 15—Reports on Comparative Financial Statements 578 SAS 16—The Independent Auditor’s Responsibility for the Detection of Errors or Irregularities 578 SAS 17—Illegal Acts by Clients 578 SAS 18—Unaudited Replacement Cost Information 578 SAS 19—Client Representations 578 SAS 20—Required Communication of Material Weaknesses in Internal Accounting Control 579 SAS 21—Segment Information 579 SAS 22—Planning and Supervision 579 SAS 23—Analytical Review Procedures 579 SAS 24—Review of Interim Financial Information 579 SAS 25—The Relationship of Generally Accepted Auditing Standards to Quality Control Standards 579 SAS 26—Association with Financial Statements 580 SAS 27—Supplementary Information Required by the Financial Accounting Standards Board 580 SAS 28—Supplementary Information on the Effects of Changing Prices 580 SAS 29—Reporting on Information Accompanying the Basic Financial Statements in Auditor-Submitted Documents 580 SAS 30—Reporting on Internal Accounting Control 581 SAS 31—Evidential Matter 581 SAS 32—Adequacy of Disclosure in Financial Statements 581 SAS 33—Supplementary Oil and Gas Reserve Information 581 SAS 34—The Auditor’s Considerations When a Question Arises about an Entity’s Continued Existence 581 SAS 35—Special Reports: Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures to Specified Elements, Accounts, or Items of a Financial Statement 581 SAS 36—Review of Interim Financial Information 581 SAS 37—Filings under Federal Securities Statutes 582 SAS 38—Letters for Underwriters 582 SAS 39—Audit Sampling 582 SAS 40—Supplementary Mineral Reserve Information 583 SAS 41—Working Papers 583 SAS 42—Reporting on Condensed Financial Statements and Selected Financial Data 583 Condensed Financial Statements 583 Selected Financial Data 584 SAS 43—Omnibus Statement on Auditing Standards 585 SAS 44—Special-Purpose Reports on Internal Accounting Control at Service Organizations 585 SAS 45—Omnibus Statement on Auditing Standards—1983 585 Related Parties 585 SAS 46—Consideration of Omitted Procedures after the Report Date 586 SAS 47—Audit Risk and Materiality in Conducting an Audit 586 SAS 48—The Effects of Computer Processing on the Audit of Financial Statements 586 SAS 49—Letters for Underwriters 587 SAS 50—Reports on the Application of Accounting Principles 587 SAS 51—Reporting on Financial Statements Prepared for Use in Other Countries 589 SAS 52—Omnibus Statement on Auditing Standards—1987 590 SAS 53—The Auditor’s Responsibility to Detect and Report Errors and Irregularities 590 SAS 54—Illegal Acts by Clients 590 SAS 55—Consideration of Internal Control in a Financial Statement Audit 591 SAS 56—Analytical Procedures 591 SAS 57—Auditing Accounting Estimates 591 SAS 58—Reports on Audited Financial Statements 592 SAS 59—The Auditor’s Consideration of an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern 592 SAS 60—Communication of Internal Control Related Matters Noted in an Audit 594 SAS 61—Communication with Audit Committees 594 SAS 62—Special Reports 594 SAS 63—Compliance Auditing Applicable to Governmental Entities and Other Recipients of Governmental Financial Assistance 594 SAS 64—Omnibus Statement on Auditing Standards 594 SAS 65—The Auditor’s Consideration of the Internal Audit Function in an Audit of Financial Statements 594 SAS 66—Communication of Matters about Interim Financial Information Filed or to Be Filed with Specified Regulatory Agencies 595 SAS 67—The Confirmation Process 595 SAS 68—Compliance Auditing Applicable to Governmental Entities and Other Recipients of Governmental Financial Assistance 597 SAS 69—The Meaning of Present Fairly in Conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the Independent Auditor’s Report 597 SAS 70—Service Organizations 597 SAS 71—Interim Financial Information 598 SAS 72—Letters for Underwriters and Certain Other Requesting Parties 598 SAS 73—Using the Work of a Specialist 599 SAS 74—Compliance Auditing Considerations in Audits of Governmental Entities and Recipients of Governmental Financial Assistance 600 SAS 75—Engagements to Apply Agreed-Upon Procedures to Specified Elements, Accounts, or Items of a Financial Statement 600 SAS 76—Amendments to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 72, Letters for Underwriters and Certain Other Requesting Parties 600 SAS 77—Amendments to Statements on Auditing Standards No. 22, Planning and Supervision; No. 59, The Auditor’s Consideration of an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern; and No. 62, Special Reports 600 SAS 78—Consideration of Internal Control in a Financial Statement Audit: An Amendment to SAS 55 600 SAS 79—Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 58, Reports on Audited Financial Statements 600 SAS 80—Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 31, Evidential Matter 601 SAS 81—Auditing Investments 601 SAS 82—Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit 601 SAS 83—Establishing an Understanding with the Client 601 SAS 84—Communications between Predecessor and Successor Accountants 602 SAS 85—Management Representations 603 SAS 86—Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 72, Letters for Underwriters and Certain Other Requesting Parties 607 SAS 87—Restricting the Use of an Auditor’s Report 607 SAS 88—Service Organizations and Reporting on Consistency 608 SAS 89—Audit Adjustments 608 SAS 90—Audit Committee Communications 608 SAS 91—Federal GAAP Hierarchy 608 SAS 92—Auditing Derivative Instruments, Hedging Activities, and Investments in Securities 609 Existence or Occurrence 610 Completeness 610 Rights and Obligations 611 Valuation 611 Impairment Losses 612 SAS 93—Omnibus Statement on Auditing Standards—2000 614 SAS 94—The Effect of Information Technology on the Auditor’s Consideration of Internal Control in a Financial Statement Audit 614 SAS 95—Generally Accepted Auditing Standards 614 SAS 96—Audit Documentation 614 SAS 97—Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 50, Reports on the Application of Accounting Principles 614 SAS 98—Omnibus Statement on Auditing Standards—2002 614 SAS 99—Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit 615 SAS 100—Interim Financial Information 623 SAS 101—Auditing Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures 623 SAS 102—Defining Professional Requirements in Statements on Auditing Standards 625 SAS 103—Audit Documentation 625 SAS 104—Amendment to SAS 1, Codification of Auditing Standards and Procedures (“Due Professional Care in the Performance of Work”) 629 SAS 105—Amendment to SAS 95—Generally Accepted Auditing Standards 629 SAS 106—Audit Evidence 630 SAS 107—Audit Risk and Materiality in Conducting an Audit 632 SAS 108—Planning and Supervision 634 SAS 109—Understanding the Entity and Its Environment and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement 636 SAS 110—Performing Audit Procedures in Response to Assessed Risks and Evaluating the Audit Evidence Obtained 637 SAS 111—Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 39, Audit Sampling 640 SAS 112—Communication of Internal Control–Related Matters Identified in an Audit 641 SAS 113—Omnibus 2006 641 SAS 114—The Auditor’s Communication with Those Charged with Governance 641 SAS 115—Communicating Internal Control Related Matters Identified in an Audit 642 SAS 116—Interim Financial Information 647 SAS 117—Compliance Audits 648 SAS 118—Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements 648 SAS 119—Supplementary Information in Relation to the Financial Statements as a Whole 650 SAS 120—Required Supplementary Information 654 SAS 121—Revised Applicability of Statement on Auditing Standards No. 100, Interim Financial Information 655 AS 1—References in Auditor’s Reports to the Standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board 656 AS 2—An Audit of Internal Control over Financial Reporting Performed in Conjunction with an Audit of Financial Statements 656 AS 3—Audit Documentation 656 AS 4—Reporting on Whether a Previously Reported Material Weakness Continues to Exist 657 AS 5—An Audit of Internal Control over Financial Reporting That Is Integrated with an Audit of Financial Statements 662 Definitions 664 AS 6—Evaluating Consistency of Financial Statements 670 AS 7—Engagement Quality Review 671 AS 8—Audit Risk 672 AS 9—Audit Planning 673 AS 10—Supervision of the Audit Engagement 674 AS 11—Consideration of Materiality in Planning and Performing an Audit 675 AS 12—Identifying and Assessing Risks of Material Misstatements 677 AS 13—The Auditor’s Responses to the Risks of Material Misstatement 680 AS 14—Evaluating Audit Results 681 AS 15—Audit Evidence 682 Chapter 13 Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 685 Auditor Independence 685 Partner Rotation 686 Public Company Accounting Oversight Board 686 Part V Taxation Chapter 14 Tax Research 691 Sources of Tax Law 691 The Court System 692 Part VI Other Professional Standards Chapter 15 Consulting Services 697 Chapter 16 Quality Control 699 Chapter 17 Code of Professional Conduct 703 Rule 101—Independence 703 Rule 102—Integrity and Objectivity 705 Rule 201—General Standards 705 Rule 202—Compliance with Standards 705 Rule 203—Accounting Principles 706 Rule 301—Confidential Client Information 706 Rule 302—Contingent Fees 706 Rule 501—Acts Discreditable 707 Rule 502—Advertising and Other Forms of Solicitations 707 Rule 503—Commissions and Referral Fees 707 Rule 505—Form of Organization and Name 707 Index 709
Nick Dauber, MS, CPA, is the author of four books and has served as book reviewer for major book publishers and has had articles published in many professional accounting journals. He is Instructor of Auditing and Taxation at Queens College of the City University of New York and has been in professional practice for over twenty-five years. Jae K. Shim, PHD, CPA, a prolific accounting and finance expert, has over fifty college and professional books to his credit. He is Professor of Accounting and Finance at California State University, Long Beach, and is CEO of Delta Consulting Company, a financial consulting and training firm. Joel G. Siegel, PHD, CPA, is the author of over fifty books and has written hundreds of articles for accounting and financial journals. Siegel was a member of the audit staff of Coopers & Lybrand and has consulted many organizations, including IT&T, Citicorp, and Person-Wolinsky CPA Review. He is Professor of Accounting at Queens College of the City University of New York.
Q: What has over 700 pages and answers all of your accounting and finance questions? A: The Complete CPA Reference. The Complete CPA Reference is your one-stop reference and problem solver for today's busy CPA. Organized in a handy question-and-answer format, it will help you quickly pinpoint what to look for, what to watch out for, what to do, and how to do it. Arming you with practical techniques, analytical tools, and rules of thumb to analyze, evaluate, and solve everyday accounting issues, bestselling authors Nick Dauber, Jae Shim, and Joel Siegel guide you through the complex, ever-changing world of accounting. In this practical, comprehensive, and useful guide, you'll find financial measures, ratios, procedures, and techniques to help you sort through accounting-related problems as they come up. This helpful reference provides insight on: Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Financial accounting Financial statement analysis Financial planning Managerial accounting Quantitative analysis and modeling Risk assessment Auditing Taxation This valuable reference tool is fully loaded with illustrations, step-by-step instructions, real-world applications, tables, forms, checklists, questionnaires, practical tips, sample reports, and how-tos to help you ace any and all financial issues. Designed for daily use, The Complete CPA Reference is a powerful companion to combat your daily accounting challenges.
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