Static Electricity

Static Electricity

Understanding, Controlling, Applying
1. Aufl.

von: Günter Lüttgens, Sylvia Lüttgens, Wolfgang Schubert

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 30.08.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9783527803347
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 312

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Written by world-renowned experts on the topic with many years of research and consultancy experience, this invaluable book provides the practitioners' perspective, outlining the dangers and benefits of static electricity in industry.<br> The first chapter reviews the fundamentals of understanding fires and explosions in general and electricity-induced ignition in particular, while the following chapter is dedicated to the origins of static electricity in industrial settings, such as in flowing gases and the transport of disperse systems. The major part of the text deals with measuring static electricity, elimination of unwanted charges and hazard prevention under different conditions. It concludes with an overview of practical applications in chemical and mechanical engineering. Throughout the book, real-life case studies illustrate the fundamental aspects so as to further an understanding of how to control and apply static electricity and thus reduce material damages as well as increase occupational safety.<br> Plus additional movie sequences on the dedicated website showing static electricity in action.
<p>About the Authors xiii<br /><br />Opening Remark xv<br /><br />Preliminary Remark xvii<br /><br />Preface xix<br /><br />1 Basics of Fire and Explosion: Risk Assessment 1<br /><br />1.1 Basic Considerations on Fire and Explosion (T1) 1<br /><br />1.2 Explosive Atmosphere 3<br /><br />1.3 Hybrid Mixtures ( P7) 6<br /><br />1.4 Allocation of Explosion-Endangered Areas and Permissible Equipment ( P6) 7<br /><br />1.5 Permissible Equipment (Equipment Protection Level) 7<br /><br />1.6 Ignition Sources 9<br /><br />1.7 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) 11<br /><br />1.8 Imaginary Experiment to Assess the Hazardous Potential of Flammable Liquids 15<br /><br />PowerPoint Presentations 18<br /><br />References 18<br /><br />2 Principles of Static Electricity 19<br /><br />2.1 Basics 19<br /><br />2.2 Electrostatic Charging of Solids ( T2) 21<br /><br />2.3 Triboelectric Series 24<br /><br />2.4 Surface Resistivity 24<br /><br />2.5 Electrostatic Charging of Liquids ( T2, T8) 28<br /><br />2.6 Charging by Gases 31<br /><br />2.7 Electric Field 33<br /><br />2.8 Electric Induction ( T3) 36<br /><br />2.9 Capacitance and Capacitor 38<br /><br />PowerPoint Presentations 38<br /><br />References 39<br /><br />3 Metrology 41<br /><br />3.1 Basics ( T7) 41<br /><br />3.2 Appropriate Metrology for Electrostatic Safety Measures 44<br /><br />3.3 Comparison: Electrostatics/Electrical Engineering 44<br /><br />3.4 Selecting the Suitable Measurement Methods 45<br /><br />3.5 Assignment and Summary 49<br /><br />3.6 Conductivity of Liquids 51<br /><br />3.7 Bulk Materials 52<br /><br />3.8 Concerning the Use of Insulating Material in Endangered Areas 52<br /><br />3.9 Measurement of Electrostatic Charges 52<br /><br />3.10 Other Measurement Applications 68<br /><br />3.11 Capacitance 77<br /><br />3.12 Themes around Air Humidity 81<br /><br />PowerPoint Presentations 87<br /><br />Picture Credits 87<br /><br />References 88<br /><br />4 Gas Discharges 89<br /><br />4.1 Mechanisms of Gas Discharges ( T5) 89<br /><br />4.2 Electrostatic Gas Discharges 90<br /><br />4.3 Types of Gas Discharges 94<br /><br />4.4 Consequences of Gas Discharges 102<br /><br />4.5 Listing of Traces Caused by Gas Discharges (  P11; T8) 102<br /><br />4.6 How Can Dangerous Gas Discharges Be Avoided? 103<br /><br />PowerPoint Presentations 111<br /><br />Picture Credits 111<br /><br />Video Credits 111<br /><br />References 111<br /><br />5 Preventing Electrostatic Disturbances 113<br /><br />5.1 Electrostatics:When Sparks Fly 113<br /><br />5.2 Dielectric Strength 117<br /><br />5.3 Discharging Charged Surfaces 118<br /><br />5.4 Potential Hazards Posed by Discharge Electrodes 134 <br /><br />Picture Credits 136<br /><br />Video Credits 137<br /><br />References 137<br /><br />Further Reading 137<br /><br />6 Description of Demonstration Experiments 139<br /><br />6.1 Preliminary Remarks 140<br /><br />6.2 Static Voltmeter 141<br /><br />6.3 Field Meter 142<br /><br />6.4 Van de Graaff Generator 142<br /><br />6.5 Explosion Tube 142<br /><br />6.6 Electrostatic Force Effects 144<br /><br />6.7 Charges Caused by Separating Process 149<br /><br />6.8 Charging of Particles 150<br /><br />6.9 Electric Induction 153<br /><br />6.10 Dissipating Properties 157<br /><br />6.11 Experiments with the Explosion Tube 158<br /><br />6.12 Gas Discharges 160<br /><br />6.13 Fire and Explosion Dangers 168<br /><br />Reference 175<br /><br />7 Case Studies 177<br /><br />7.1 Strategy of Investigation 177<br /><br />7.2 Ignitions Due to Brush Discharges 180<br /><br />7.3 Case Studies Related to Propagating Brush Discharges 192<br /><br />7.4 Case Histories Related to Spark Discharges 204<br /><br />7.5 Ignition Caused by Cone Discharges 212<br /><br />7.6 Doubts with Electrostatic Ignitions 213<br /><br />7.7 Act with Relevant Experience 219<br /><br />PowerPoint Presentations 220<br /><br />Video 221<br /><br />References 221<br /><br />8 Targeted Use of Charges 223<br /><br />8.1 Applications 223<br /><br />8.2 Examples of the Creative Implementation of Applications 226<br /><br />8.3 Summary 251<br /><br />Picture Credits 251<br /><br />Video Credits 252<br /><br />References 252<br /><br />M Mathematics Toolbox 253<br /><br />M1 Energy W of a Capacitance 255<br /><br />M1.1 Minimum Ignition Energy WMIE 255<br /><br />M1.2 Power P 255<br /><br />M1.3 Electrical Efficiency η 256<br /><br />M2 Field E; Field Strength E⃗ 256<br /><br />M2.1 Homogeneous Field between Plane Plates 256<br /><br />M2.2 Field of Point Charge 256<br /><br />M2.3 Permittivity ε 257<br /><br />M2.4 Field of Rod (Wire) Charge 257<br /><br />M3 Flux Density D (Earlier: Dielectric Displacement) ⃗ 257<br /><br />M4 Frequency f 258<br /><br />M4.1 Wavelength λ 258<br /><br />M4.2 Circular Frequency ω 258<br /><br />M5 Inductance L 258<br /><br />M5.1 Inductance Ls of an Air Coil 259<br /><br />M6 Capacitance C 259<br /><br />M6.1 Rod (Wire) across a Conductive Area 259<br /><br />M6.2 Coaxial Cable/Cylinder Capacitance 260<br /><br />M6.3 Conductive Sphere in Space 260<br /><br />M6.4 Sphere Across a Conductive Area 260<br /><br />M6.5 Shunt of Single Capacitors 261<br /><br />M6.6 Plate Capacitor 261<br /><br />M6.7 Series of Single Capacitors 261<br /><br />M7 Force F, F⃗ 262<br /><br />M7.1 Force between 2 Point Charges (Coulomb’s law) 262<br /><br />M8 Charge Q 263<br /><br />M8.1 Moved Charge Qm 263<br /><br />M8.2 Charge of Electron Beam Qe 263<br /><br />M8.3 Surface Charge Density σ 263<br /><br />M8.4 Mass Charge Density Q 264<br /><br />M8.5 Volume Charge Density ρ 264<br /><br />M9 Potential φ 264<br /><br />M10 Voltage U 265<br /><br />M11 Resistance R (Universal) 267<br /><br />Annex 275<br /><br />1 Videos for download from <a href=""></a> 275<br /><br />2 PowerPoint Presentations 275<br /><br />2.1 Theory of Electrostatics (Visualized by Experiments) 275<br /><br />2.2 Practical Examples with “Freddy” (Electrostatic Hazards in Plant areas) 276<br /><br />Index 277</p>
Gunter Luttgens was born in Berlin, 1933, and holds a master's degree in electrical engineering. Since graduation he mainly worked in the chemical industry in the field of electrostatics. He was primarily responsible for laboratory research, as well as plant safety, in the area of fire and explosion prevention. In 1998 he was nominated by IEC as an expert for electrostatic test methods. Since more than twenty five years he carried out lectures on static electrification and safety measures together with his wife Sylvia. He published several articles and specialist books. In 2013 he received the International Fellow Award by the European Working Party (EFCE) as a researcher and teacher in the field of "Static Electricity in Industry".<br> <br> Sylvia Luttgens was born in Geroda, 1946, was graduated a teacher and tried to direct the interest of her students to Music and English. Then she learned about static electrification and that it could be the cause for many a fire or an explosion. So she has been working together with her husband Gunter, carrying out experimental lectures (up to 2015) in seminars about electrostatics, giving practical proof of the theory. Besides she is publishing articles and writing specialist books on this topic.<br> Together with Gunter she compiled the first encyclopaedia on static electricity fifteen years ago and the third edition was published in 2013.<br> <br> Wolfgang Schubert was born in 1952. He studied print technology in Leipzig and is a trained printer. He became self-employed in 1997 having previously worked in various managerial roles in the print industry and in sales and marketing for manufacturers of roll fed and sheet fed printing presses. Since then he has also been working in the specialised field of electrostatics, in sales and marketing and also in further education. He has co-authored the specialist publication Static Electricity.<br> In May 2016 he was publicly appointed and inaugurated by the Leipzig Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) as an expert in the fields of printing processes, printing presses, printability, runnability, and packaging printing. He also works as an expert in the field of electrostatics.<br>
This is the first book in the field of mouse genetics describing comprehensive and standardized methods for the characterization of laboratory mice. It provides a brief introduction to the mouse as a model for diseases and functional analysis of genes and proteins. Throughout, it is focused on the characterization of mouse models using the latest phenotyping methods, with the different areas presented in a clearly structured and easily accessible manner.

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