Details

Soils of the Past


Soils of the Past

An Introduction to Paleopedology
3. Aufl.

von: Gregory J. Retallack

71,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 23.07.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119530459
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 552

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Beschreibungen

A student-friendly textbook that describes ancient soils, how they may be identified, and their use in paleoenvironmental reconstruction Ancient soils contain vital mineralogical, geochemical, textural, and paleontological information about the continental environments in which they formed. Advances in isotope geochemistry and sequence-stratigraphic models allow evermore detailed reconstructions of environmental change from paleosols, and new insights into such diverse topics as atmospheric chemistry, global change, paleoecology, geobiology and mass extinction. This book educates readers about the field of paleopedology and how it remains a key area of investigation for geologists and environmental scientists seeking to learn about, and reconstruct, the condition and evolution of paleoenvironments.  Presented in three sections—Soils and Palesols; Factors in Soil Formation; and Fossil Record of Soils—Soils of the Past: An Introduction to Paleopedology describes the main types of ancient soil, procedures for identifying and studying them, their classification and, most significantly, a wide array of examples of how paleosols have been used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The book is an excellent reflection of the current state of knowledge and can be widely adopted over many disciplines. All chapters have been revised and updated to reflect advances in soil science in the last two decades New tables display a wealth of new data added since the 2nd edition published in 2001 New figures have been added and line art has been redrawn to improve clarity and promote understanding References have been updated throughout Soils of the Past, 3rd Edition is written for advanced undergraduates studying paleopedology as part of a degree in geology, environmental science, or physical geography, and for interested professional earth scientists.
Preface to the third edition vii Preface to the second edition ix Preface to the first edition xi Acknowledgements xiii Part I: Soils and paleosols 1 Paleopedology 3 2 Soils on and under the landscape 9 Soils and paleosols on the landscape 10 Quaternary paleosols 12 Paleosols at major unconformities 13 Paleosols in sedimentary and volcanic sequences 14 3 Features of fossil soils 17 Root traces 17 Soil horizons 24 Soil structure 31 4 Soil-forming processes 49 Indicators of physical weathering 49 Indicators of chemical weathering 54 Indicators of biological weathering 65 Common soil-forming processes 74 5 Soil classification 81 FAO world map 82 US soil taxonomy 83 A word of caution 96 6 Mapping and naming paleosols 97 Paleoenvironmental studies 98 Stratigraphic studies 103 Deeply weathered rocks 106 7 Alteration of paleosols after burial 109 Burial decomposition of organic matter 111 Burial gleization of organic matter 112 Burial reddening of iron oxides and hydroxides 113 Cementation of primary porosity 114 Compaction by overburden 116 Illitization of smectite 119 Zeolitization and celadonitization of volcanic rocks 121 Coalification of peat 122 Kerogen maturation and cracking 123 Neomorphism of carbonate 123 Metamorphism 124 Common patterns of alteration 125 Part II: Factors in soil formation 8 Models of soil formation 129 9 Climate 133 Classification of climate 134 Indicators of precipitation 137 Indications of temperature 145 Indicators of seasonality 152 Indicators of greenhouse atmospheres 156 10 Organisms 161 Traces of organisms 162 Traces of ecosystems 185 Fossil preservation in paleosols 194 11 Topographic relief as a factor 201 Indicators of past geomorphic setting 201 Indicators of past water table 207 Interpreting paleocatenae 210 12 Parent material as a factor 215 General properties of parent materials 217 Some common parent materials 221 A base line for soil formation 225 13 Time as a factor 231 Indicators of paleosol development 234 Accumulation of paleosol sequences 246 Part III: Fossil record of soils 14 A long-term natural experiment in pedogenesis 259 15 Soils of other worlds 263 Soils of the Moon 264 Soils of Venus 269 Soils of Mars 272 Meteorites 278 Relevance to early Earth 283 16 Earth’s earliest landscapes 287 Oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere 292 Differentiation of continental crust 303 Precambrian scenery 306 17 Early life on land 311 Did life originate in soil? 313 Evidence for early life in paleosols 324 Mother earth or heart of darkness? 334 18 Large plants and animals on land 337 Evidence of multicellular organisms in paleosols 340 How did multicellular land organisms arise? 349 19 Afforestation of the land 359 Early forest soils 361 A diversifying landscape 367 A finer web of life on land 373 The shape of evolution 384 20 Grasses in dry continental interiors 387 Early grassland soils 392 Evolutionary processes 401 How did grasslands arise? 404 21 Human impact on landscapes 409 Human origins 414 Early human ecology 418 A tamed landscape 422 Soil worship 428 Glossary 431 References 453 Index 519
GREGORY J. RETALLACK, PHD, is a Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Oregon, USA.
A student-friendly textbook that describes ancient soils, how they may be identified, and their use in paleoenvironmental reconstruction Ancient soils contain vital mineralogical, geochemical, textural, and paleontological information about the continental environments in which they formed. Advances in isotope geochemistry and sequence-stratigraphic models allow evermore detailed reconstructions of environmental change from paleosols, and new insights into such diverse topics as atmospheric chemistry, global change, paleoecology, geobiology and mass extinction. This book educates readers about the field of paleopedology and how it remains a key area of investigation for geologists and environmental scientists seeking to learn about, and reconstruct, the condition and evolution of paleoenvironments. Presented in three sections—Soils and Paleosols; Factors in Soil Formation; and Fossil Record of Soils—Soils of the Past: An Introduction to Paleopedology describes the main types of ancient soil, procedures for identifying and studying them, their classification and, most significantly, a wide array of examples of how paleosols have been used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The book is an excellent reflection of the current state of knowledge and can be widely adopted over many disciplines. All chapters have been revised and updated to reflect advances in soil science in the last two decades New tables display a wealth of new data added since the 2nd edition published in 2001 New figures have been added and line art has been redrawn to improve clarity and promote understanding References have been updated throughout Soils of the Past, 3rd Edition is written for advanced undergraduates studying paleopedology as part of a degree in geology, environmental science, or physical geography, and for interested professional earth scientists.

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