Details

Simulation and Wargaming


Simulation and Wargaming


1. Aufl.

von: Charles Turnitsa, Curtis Blais, Andreas Tolk

103,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 06.01.2022
ISBN/EAN: 9781119604808
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 464

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Beschreibungen

<p><b>Understanding the potential synergies between computer simulation and wargaming<br /></b><br />Based on the insights of experts in both domains, <i>Simulation and Wargaming</i> comprehensively explores the intersection between computer simulation and wargaming. This book shows how the practice of wargaming can be augmented and provide more detail-oriented insights using computer simulation, particularly as the complexity of military operations and the need for computational decision aids increases. </p> <p>The distinguished authors have hit upon two practical areas that have tremendous applications to share with one another but do not seem to be aware of that fact. The book includes insights into:</p> <ul> <li>The application of the data-driven speed inherent to computer simulation to wargames</li> <li>The application of the insight and analysis gained from wargames to computer simulation</li> <li>The areas of concern raised by the combination of these two disparate yet related fields</li> <li>New research and application opportunities emerging from the intersection</li> </ul> <p>Addressing professionals in the wargaming, modeling, and simulation industries, as well as decision makers and organizational leaders involved with wargaming and simulation, <i>Simulation and Wargaming</i> offers a multifaceted and insightful read and provides the foundation for future interdisciplinary progress in both domains.</p>
<p>Foreword xv</p> <p>Preface xxiii</p> <p>List of Contributors xxv</p> <p>Author Biography xxix</p> <p>Prologue xli</p> <p><b>Part I Introduction </b><b>1</b></p> <p><b>1 An Introduction to Wargaming and Modeling and Simulation </b><b><i>3</i></b></p> <p><i>Jeffrey Appleget</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>3</i></p> <p>Terminology <i>3</i></p> <p>An Abbreviated History of Wargames and Simulations <i>5</i></p> <p>Wargames and Computer-Based Combat Simulations: From the Cold War to Today <i>6</i></p> <p>Wargames Today <i>10</i></p> <p>Simulations Today <i>13</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>13</i></p> <p>Simulation Types <i>13</i></p> <p>Aggregate Simulations <i>13</i></p> <p>Entity Simulations <i>14</i></p> <p>Simulations and Prediction <i>14</i></p> <p>Standard Assumptions <i>14</i></p> <p>Data <i>15</i></p> <p>Simulating the Reality of Combat <i>16</i></p> <p>The Capability and Capacity of Modern Computing to Represent Combat <i>16</i></p> <p>Finite Size <i>17</i></p> <p>Number of Pieces/Entities <i>17</i></p> <p>Terrain <i>18</i></p> <p>Rules <i>18</i></p> <p>Movement <i>18</i></p> <p>Attack <i>19</i></p> <p>Adjudication <i>19</i></p> <p>Victory Conditions <i>19</i></p> <p>Summary <i>20</i></p> <p>Campaign</p> <p>Analysis <i>20</i></p> <p>Conclusion <i>21</i></p> <p><b>Part II Historical Context </b><b><i>23</i></b></p> <p><b>2 A School for War – A Brief History of the Prussian <i>Kriegsspiel 25</i></b></p> <p><i>Jorit Wintjes</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>25</i></p> <p><i>Kriegsspiel </i>Prehistory <i>29</i></p> <p>A School for War – the Prussian <i>Kriegsspiel 36</i></p> <p>The Prussian <i>Kriegsspiel </i>1824/28 – 1862 <i>42</i></p> <p>The Golden Age – 1862 to c. 1875 <i>46</i></p> <p>The Changing <i>Kriegsspiel </i>– c. 1875 to 1914 <i>50</i></p> <p><i>Kriegsspiel </i>Beyond Borders – 1871 to 1914 <i>54</i></p> <p>Conclusion <i>59</i></p> <p><b>3 Using Combat Models for Wargaming </b><b><i>65</i></b></p> <p><i>Joseph M. Saur</i></p> <p>The Nature of Combat Models <i>67</i></p> <p>Europe’s Plan to Simulate the Entire Planet <i>77</i></p> <p>China Exclusive: China’s “Magic Cube” Computer Unlocks the Future <i>77</i></p> <p>A Model to Predict War <i>78</i></p> <p>Afghanistan Stability/COIN Dynamics – Security <i>79</i></p> <p>The Nature of Wargames <i>81</i></p> <p>The Players – Who Might Be Involved? <i>85</i></p> <p>The CRT – How Do We Adjudicate Political, Economic, Information and Other Non-Kinetic Actions? How DO WE ADJUDICATE KINETIC INTERACTIONS (Which, in This Case, We Hope Do Not Occur!)? <i>86</i></p> <p>Organizational Behaviors <i>88</i></p> <p>Issue in Wargames (and Combat Models) <i>89</i></p> <p>Yyyyn <i>90</i></p> <p><b>Part III Wargaming and Operations Research </b><b><i>91</i></b></p> <p><b>4 An Analysis-Centric View of Wargaming, Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis </b><b><i>93</i></b></p> <p><i>Paul K. Davis</i></p> <p>Background and Structure <i>93</i></p> <p>Relationships, Definitions, and Distinctions <i>94</i></p> <p>Different Purposes for Wargaming <i>94</i></p> <p>Backdrop <i>94</i></p> <p>A Common Critique of M&S <i>94</i></p> <p>Humans and M&S <i>98</i></p> <p>Distinctions <i>98</i></p> <p>A Model-Game-Model Paradigm <i>100</i></p> <p>The Core Idea <i>100</i></p> <p>Can Human Gaming Truly Serve as “Testing”? <i>101</i></p> <p>Case Study: Deterrence and Stability on the Korean Peninsula <i>103</i></p> <p>Background <i>103</i></p> <p>Model Building <i>104</i></p> <p>Ideal Methods and Practical Expedients <i>104</i></p> <p>Modernizing the Escalation Ladder <i>106</i></p> <p>Cognitive Decision Models <i>108</i></p> <p>Top-Level Structure <i>109</i></p> <p>Lower Level Structure <i>109</i></p> <p>Designing and Executing a Human Game <i>111</i></p> <p>Reflections and Conclusions <i>114</i></p> <p>Implications for Simulation <i>117</i></p> <p><b>5 Wargaming, Automation, and Military Experimentation to Quantitatively and</b></p> <p><b>Qualitatively Inform Decision-Making </b><b><i>123</i></b></p> <p><i>Jan Hodicky and Alejandro Hernandez</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>123</i></p> <p>Military Methods to Knowledge Discovery <i>124</i></p> <p>Technology: Knowledge Enablers <i>126</i></p> <p>Wargaming Automation Challenges in M&S Perspective <i>128</i></p> <p>Wargaming Relation to M&S <i>128</i></p> <p>Wargaming Elements <i>129</i></p> <p>Constructive Simulation Building Blocks <i>131</i></p> <p>Wargaming Elements Not Supported by Constructive Simulation <i>131</i></p> <p>Challenges to Combined Methodologies for Knowledge Discovery <i>132</i></p> <p>Constructive Simulation Constrains in the Context of Automation and Wargaming <i>133</i></p> <p>Stage- Wise Experimentation in CAW <i>139</i></p> <p>A Progression of Mixed Methods to Grand Innovation <i>139</i></p> <p>A Complete Application of ACAW and SWE for Future Capability</p> <p>Insights <i>144</i></p> <p>Computer- Assisted Wargaming Classification <i>148</i></p> <p>Conclusion <i>151</i></p> <p><b>6 Simulation and Artificial Intelligence Methods for Wargames: Case Study – “European Thread” </b><b><i>157</i></b></p> <p><i>Andrzej Najgebauer, Sławomir Wojciechowski, Ryszard Antkiewicz, and Dariusz Pierzchała</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>157</i></p> <p>Assumptions and Research Tools <i>159</i></p> <p>Modeling of Complex Activities <i>161</i></p> <p>Network Model of Complex Activities <i>161</i></p> <p>The MCA Software Package for Wargaming <i>166</i></p> <p>Wargame – Course of Action Evaluation <i>169</i></p> <p>Assumptions <i>169</i></p> <p>Situation <i>170</i></p> <p>Model of Operation <i>173</i></p> <p>A Collection of Values of the Function <i>h(g) 173</i></p> <p>Deterrence Phase <i>175</i></p> <p>Parameters Value – Deterrence Phase <i>175</i></p> <p>COA Evaluation <i>179</i></p> <p>Summary <i>180</i></p> <p><b>7 Combining Wargaming and Simulation Analysis </b><b><i>183</i></b></p> <p><i>Mark Sisson</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>183</i></p> <p>Current Efforts Underway <i>184</i></p> <p>Methodology <i>185</i></p> <p>Frameworks or Schemas to Support Portfolios <i>186</i></p> <p>Comparability <i>188</i></p> <p>Emergence <i>190</i></p> <p>Triangulation <i>190</i></p> <p>Exercises <i>191</i></p> <p>Artificial Intelligence <i>192</i></p> <p>Wargames <i>193</i></p> <p>Computer Simulation Models <i>194</i></p> <p>Mathematical Models <i>195</i></p> <p>Experimentation <i>196</i></p> <p>Building Portfolios <i>196</i></p> <p>Conclusion <i>199</i></p> <p><b>8 The Use of M&S and Wargaming to Address Wicked Problems </b><b><i>203</i></b></p> <p><i>Phillip Pournelle</i></p> <p>Why Are We Doing This? <i>205</i></p> <p>Framing the Problem <i>207</i></p> <p>M&S Support to Wargames <i>212</i></p> <p>Pathologies and How to Avoid Them <i>213</i></p> <p>Combining Wargaming and M&S <i>219</i></p> <p><b>Part IV Wargaming and Concept Developing and Testing </b><b><i>223</i></b></p> <p><b>9 Simulation Support to Wargaming for Tactical Operations Planning </b><b><i>225</i></b></p> <p><i>Karsten Brathen, Rikke Amilde Seehuus, and Ole Martin Mevassvik</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>225</i></p> <p>Operational Planning and Wargaming <i>226</i></p> <p>What are the Benefits of Simulation Support to COA Wargaming? <i>231</i></p> <p>Principles of Technology Support to Wargaming for Operations Planning <i>232</i></p> <p>Enabling Technologies <i>234</i></p> <p>Models <i>235</i></p> <p>System Implementation <i>237</i></p> <p>SWAP <i>238</i></p> <p>SWAP Experiment <i>241</i></p> <p>Conclusion and Way Forward <i>243</i></p> <p><b>10 Simulation-Based Cyber Wargaming </b><b><i>249</i></b></p> <p><i>Ambrose Kam</i></p> <p>Motivation and Overview <i>249</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>250</i></p> <p>Cyber Simulation <i>253</i></p> <p>Mission Analysis Tool <i>258</i></p> <p>Wargames <i>261</i></p> <p>Commercial Wargames <i>265</i></p> <p>Future Work <i>267</i></p> <p>Summary <i>269</i></p> <p><b>11 Using Computer-Generated Virtual Realities, Operations Research, and Board Games for Conflict Simulations </b><b><i>273</i></b></p> <p><i>Armin Fügenschuh, Sönke Marahrens, Leonie Marguerite Johannsmann, Sandra Matuszewski, Daniel Müllenstedt, and Johannes Schmidt</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>273</i></p> <p>Public Software (C:MA/NO) <i>275</i></p> <p>User- Tailored Software (VBS3) <i>277</i></p> <p>Artificial Intelligence for Solving Tactical Planning Problems <i>278</i></p> <p>Wargaming Support <i>282</i></p> <p>Conclusion <i>285</i></p> <p><b>Part V Emerging Technologies </b><b><i>289</i></b></p> <p><b>12 Virtual Worlds and the Cycle of Research: Enhancing Information Flow Between Simulationists and Wargamers </b><b><i>291</i></b></p> <p><i>Paul Vebber and Steven Aguiar</i></p> <p>The Cycle of Research as a Communications Framework <i>293</i></p> <p>Bridging the Wargaming – Simulation Gap <i>297</i></p> <p>Virtual World Beginnings <i>299</i></p> <p>Elgin Marbles – An Analytic Game <i>301</i></p> <p>Analytical vs. Narrative Games <i>303</i></p> <p>Virtual Worlds as a Virtual Reality <i>307</i></p> <p>Operational Wargames <i>308</i></p> <p>Distributed LVC Wargames <i>312</i></p> <p>The Future <i>315</i></p> <p><b>13 Visualization Support to Strategic Decision-Making </b><b><i>317</i></b></p> <p><i>Richard J. Haberlin and Ernest H. Page</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>317</i></p> <p>Impact/Capabilities <i>318</i></p> <p>Strategic Planning <i>318</i></p> <p>Acquisitions <i>318</i></p> <p>Spectrum of Visualizations <i>319</i></p> <p>Interactive Visualizations <i>320</i></p> <p>Commercial Interactive Data Visualization <i>320</i></p> <p>Custom Data and Analytics Visualization <i>320</i></p> <p>Methodology <i>322</i></p> <p>Model Elicitation <i>322</i></p> <p>Framework <i>323</i></p> <p>Considerations <i>323</i></p> <p>Data <i>324</i></p> <p>Analytic Tools <i>324</i></p> <p>Colors of Money <i>324</i></p> <p>Courses of Action <i>325</i></p> <p>Model Construction <i>325</i></p> <p>Strategic <i>326</i></p> <p>Budget <i>327</i></p> <p>Risk Identification and Mitigation <i>328</i></p> <p>Example: The MITRE Simulation, Experimentation and Analytics Lab (SEAL) <i>329</i></p> <p>Audio Visual Support <i>329</i></p> <p>Multi-Level Security <i>331</i></p> <p>Enterprise Integration <i>331</i></p> <p>Community of Practice <i>332</i></p> <p>Summary <i>333</i></p> <p><b>14 Using an Ontology to Design a Wargame/Simulation System </b><b><i>335</i></b></p> <p><i>Dean S. Hartley, III</i></p> <p>Motivation and Overview <i>335</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>336</i></p> <p>A Modern Conflict Ontology <i>337</i></p> <p>An Introduction to the MCO <i>337</i></p> <p>Actors <i>338</i></p> <p>Objects <i>339</i></p> <p>Actions <i>340</i></p> <p>Metrics or State Variables <i>342</i></p> <p>MCO Examples <i>343</i></p> <p>Provenance of the MCO <i>346</i></p> <p>Knowledge of Warfare <i>346</i></p> <p>Knowledge of OOTWs <i>346</i></p> <p>Modeling Issues <i>347</i></p> <p>Precursor Ontologies <i>348</i></p> <p>Early Versions of the MCO <i>349</i></p> <p>Creating a Simulation/Wargame from the Ontology <i>349</i></p> <p>Model Building Steps <i>350</i></p> <p>Moving from the Ontology to the Conceptual Model <i>352</i></p> <p>Building Block Concept <i>354</i></p> <p>Agendas and Implicit Metric Models <i>356</i></p> <p>Theoretical Metric Models <i>357</i></p> <p>VV&A <i>358</i></p> <p>Constructing the Scenario <i>361</i></p> <p>Model Infrastructure <i>361</i></p> <p>Conclusion <i>362</i></p> <p><b>15 Agent-Driven End Game Analysis for Air Defense </b><b><i>367</i></b></p> <p><i>M. Fatih Hocaogl</i>̆ <i>u</i></p> <p>Motivation and Overview <i>367</i></p> <p>Introduction <i>367</i></p> <p>Related Studies <i>369</i></p> <p>Agent- Directed Simulation and AdSiF <i>371</i></p> <p>AdSiF: Agent Driven Simulation Framework <i>373</i></p> <p>End Game Agent <i>374</i></p> <p>Command and Control Agent <i>374</i></p> <p>C2 Architecture and Information Sharing <i>379</i></p> <p>Target Evaluation <i>379</i></p> <p>Fire Decision <i>380</i></p> <p>Fire Doctrine <i>381</i></p> <p>Decision-Level</p> <p>Data Fusion <i>382</i></p> <p>Aims and Performance Measurement <i>384</i></p> <p>Types of End Game Analysis <i>388</i></p> <p>Footprint Analysis <i>390</i></p> <p>Operating Area <i>394</i></p> <p>Defended Area Analysis <i>395</i></p> <p>Scenario View <i>397</i></p> <p>Online Analysis and Scenario Replication Design <i>397</i></p> <p>An Air Defense Scenario: Scenario View <i>398</i></p> <p>Discussions <i>402</i></p> <p>Epilogue <i>407</i></p> <p>Index <i>411</i></p>
<p><b>Charles Turnitsa, PhD,</b> is the head of the Computer Engineering program for Regent University. He has been a wargamer for over 40 years, and continues to do professional research in areas such as wargaming, data interoperability, and modeling and simulation.</p> <p><b>Curtis Blais, PhD,</b> is a member of the research faculty in the Naval Postgraduate School’s Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation (MOVES) Institute. He has over 47 years of experience in modeling and simulation development, application, and education, and actively contributes to development of international standards in modeling and simulation. <p><b>Andreas Tolk, PhD, </b>is Chief Scientist for Complex Systems Modeling at the MITRE Corporation, His contributions have been recognized by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) as well as the Society for Modeling and Simulation (SCS) with distinguished contribution awards. He is a senior member of IEEE and ACM and a Fellow of SCS.
<p><b>Understanding the potential synergies between computer simulation and wargaming</b></p> <p>Based on the insights of experts in both domains, <i>Simulation and Wargaming</i> comprehensively explores the intersection between computer ­simulation and wargaming. This book shows how the practice of wargaming can be augmented and provide more detail-oriented insights using computer simulation, particularly as the complexity of military ­operations and the need for ­computational decision aids increase. <p>The distinguished authors have hit upon two practical areas that have ­tremendous applications to share with one another but do not seem to be aware of that fact. The book includes insights into: <ul><li>The application of the data-driven speed inherent to computer simulation to wargames</li> <li>The application of the insight and analysis gained from wargames to computer simulation</li> <li>The areas of concern raised by the combination of these two disparate yet related fields</li> <li>New research and application opportunities emerging from the intersection</li></ul> <p>Addressing professionals in the wargaming, modeling, and simulation industries, as well as decision makers and organizational leaders involved with wargaming and simulation, <i>Simulation and Wargaming</i> offers a ­multifaceted and insightful read and provides the foundation for future interdisciplinary progress in both domains.

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