Details

Shipboard Power Systems Design and Verification Fundamentals


Shipboard Power Systems Design and Verification Fundamentals


1. Aufl.

von: Mohammed M. Islam

96,99 €

Verlag: Standards Information Network
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 11.06.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119084143
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 352

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Beschreibungen

The only book that covers fundamental shipboard design and verification concepts from individual devices to the system level Shipboard electrical system design and development requirements are fundamentally different from utility-based power generation and distribution requirements. Electrical engineers who are engaged in shipbuilding must understand various design elements to build both safe and energy-efficient power distribution systems. This book covers all the relevant technologies and regulations for building shipboard power systems, which include commercial ships, naval ships, offshore floating platforms, and offshore support vessels. In recent years, offshore floating platforms have been frequently discussed in exploring deep-water resources such as oil, gas, and wind energy. This book presents step-by-step shipboard electrical system design and verification fundamentals and provides information on individual electrical devices and practical design examples, along with ample illustrations to back them. In addition, Shipboard Power Systems Design and Verification Fundamentals: Presents real-world examples and supporting drawings for shipboard electrical system design Includes comprehensive coverage of domestic and international rules and regulations (e.g. IEEE 45, IEEE 1580) Covers advanced devices such as VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) in detail This book is an important read for all electrical system engineers working for shipbuilders and shipbuilding subcontractors, as well as for power engineers in general.
Preface xix 1. Overview 1 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Shipboard Power System Design Fundamentals 3 1.2 Ship Design Requirements 3 1.3 ETO Certification: MEECE 4 1.4 Legacy System Design Development and Verification 4 1.5 Shipboard Electrical System Design Verification and Validation (V&V) 5 1.5.1 Verification and Validation (V&V) Overview 5 1.5.2 Verification 5 1.5.2a Acceptance of Verification 8 1.5.3 Validation 8 1.5.4 Differences between Verification and Validation: Shipboard Electrical System Design and Development Process 8 1.6 IEEE 45 DOT Standards: Recommended Practice for Shipboard Electrical Installation 10 1.7 Other Rules and Regulations, and Standards in Support of IEEE 45 DOT Standards 11 1.8 Shipboard Ungrounded Power System 11 1.9 Shipboard Electrical Design Basics 12 1.10 Electrical Design Plan Submittal Requirements 14 1.11 ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels 15 1.12 Shipboard Electrical Safety Considerations 17 1.13 High-Resistance Grounding Requirements for Shipboard Ungrounded Systems (See Chapter 9 for Details) 18 1.14 Shipboard Electrical Safety Considerations 19 1.14.1 Arc Flash Basics (See Section 12 for Details) 19 1.14.2 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Procedures 20 1.14.3 Warning Label Placement 21 1.15 Propulsion Power Requirements (IEEE Std 45-2002, Clause 7.4.2) 21 1.16 IMO-Solas Electric Propulsion Power Redundancy Requirements 22 1.17 Regulatory Requirements for Emergency Generator 23 1.18 USCG Dynamic Positioning (DP) Guidelines 24 1.19 IEC/ISO/IEEE 80005-1-2012: Utility Connections in Port—High Voltage Shore Connection (HVSC) Systems—General Requirements 28 1.20 Mil Standard 1399 Medium Voltage Power System Characteristics 28 1.21 Shipboard Power Quality and Harmonics (See Chapter 7 for Detail Requirements) 29 1.21.1 IEEE Std 45-2002, Clause 4.6, Power Quality and Harmonics 29 1.21.2 Power Conversion Equipment-Related Power Quality 30 1.21.2a IEEE Std 45-2002, Clause 31.8, Propulsion Power Conversion Equipment (Power Quality) 30 1.22 USCG Plan Submittal Requirements 31 1.23 ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels (Partial Listing) 32 1.24 Design Verification and Validation 33 1.24.1 Design Verification Test Procedure (DVTP) 33 1.24.2 Qualitative Failure Analysis (QFA) 36 1.24.3 IEEE 519 Harmonic Standard 36 1.25 Remarks for VFD Applications Onboard Ship 36 2. Electrical System Design Fundamentals and Verifications 37 2.0 Introduction 37 2.1 Design Basics 39 2.2 Marine Environmental Condition Requirements for the Shipboard Electrical System Design 40 2.3 Power System Characteristics: MIL-STD-1399 Power Requirements 41 2.4 ABS Type Approval Procedure (Taken From ABS Directives) 42 2.4.1 List of Recognized Laboratories 45 2.4.2 Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program 45 2.4.3 Procedure for Becoming Type Approved 47 2.5 Shipboard Electrical Power System Design Basics 48 2.5.1 Table 2.4: Explanation for Note 1 of Figure 2.1 (Use of Multiple Options, Step Down Transformer, MG Set,PCU) 49 2.5.2 Table 2.5: Explanation for Note 2 of Figure 2.1 (Use of Power Conversion Unit to Supply Power from MV SWBD to the Ship Service SWBD) 50 2.5.3 Table 2.6: Explanation for Note 3 of Figure 2.1 (Use of Motor Generator with MV Input to AC Motor and Driving AC Generator) 51 2.5.4 Table 2.7: Explanation for Note 4 of Figure 2.1 (High-PowerBattery Supplying Power to the 480 V Ship Service Switchboard) 51 2.5.5 Table 2.8: Explanation for Note 5 of Figure 2.1 (Use of Step Down Service Transformer to Supply Power from MV SWBD to the Ship Service SWBD) 52 2.5.6 Table 2.9: Explanation for Note 6 of Figure 2.1 (Variable Frequency of Adjustable Drive for Electrical Propulsion Application) 53 2.6 Shipboard Electrical Standard Voltages 53 2.6.1 NORSOK Standard 6.1 System Voltage and Frequency 54 2.7 Voltage and Frequency Range (MIL-STD-1399) 55 2.8 Ungrounded System Concept (ANSI and IEC) 55 2.9 Concept Design 56 2.9.1 Power Generation 56 2.9.2 Power Distribution 56 2.10 Design Features Outlined in 56 2.11 Protective Device–Circuit Breaker Characteristics 57 2.12 Fault Current Calculation and Analysis Requirement 57 2.12.1 Fault Current Calculation Fundamentals 59 2.13 Adjustable Drive Fundamentals 59 2.13.1 Advantages of ASD for Shipboard Application 59 2.13.2 Disadvantages of VFD/ASD for Shipboard Application 61 2.14 Fundamentals of ASD Noise Management 61 2.15 Electrical Noise Management (See Chapter 7 for Additional Details) 62 2.16 Motor Protection Solutions: DV/DT Motor Protection Output Filter 64 3. Power System Design, Development, and Verification 67 3.0 Introduction: Design, Development, and Verification Process 67 3.1 Typical Design and Development of Power Generation and Distribution (See Figure 3.1) 67 3.2 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA): Design Fundamentals 68 3.2.1 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) 68 3.3 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Electric Propulsion System Diesel Generator: Design Fundamentals 70 3.3.1 Diesel Engine Operational Mode Selection 70 3.3.2 Diesel Generator Safety System Functions 71 3.3.3 Power Management Overview Mimic (Central Control Station and Switchboard) 72 3.3.4 Power Distribution Mimic Page 73 3.4 Design Verification: General 73 3.4.1 Qualitative Failure Analysis (QFA) 73 3.4.2 Qualitative Failure Analysis (QFA) Basics 74 3.4.3 Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA): General 74 3.4.4 Qualitative Failure Analysis (QFA)-1 75 3.4.5 Explanation of the Detail Design Using QFA 75 3.4.6 Design Verification Test Procedure (DVTP): General 75 3.4.7 Example-1: Propulsion Plant (DVTP) Design Verification Test Procedure 77 3.5 Ship Service Power System Design: System-Level Fundamentals (Figure 3.2) 78 3.6 Single Shaft Electric Propulsion (Figure 3.3) 79 3.7 Electrical Generation and Distribution with Detail Design Information (Figure 3.4) 81 3.8 Electric Propulsion and Power Conversion Unit for Ship Service Distribution (Figure 3.5) 83 3.9 6600V and 690V Adjustable Speed Application with High-Resistance Grounding-1 (Figure 3.6) 85 3.10 MV and 690V Adjustable Speed Application with High-Resistance Grounding (Figure 3.7) 87 3.11 Fully Integrated Power System Design with Adjustable Speed Drive (Figure 3.8) 89 3.12 Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Voltage Ratings and System Protection 91 3.13 Example 460V, Three-Phase, Full Wave Bridge Circuit Feeding Into a Capacitive Filter to Create a 650 VDC Power Supply 91 3.14 Special Cable and Cable Termination Requirements for Variable Frequency Drive Application 91 3.15 Harmonic Management Requirements for Variable Frequency Drive Application 91 3.16 Switchgear Bus Bar Ampacity, Dimension, and Space Requirements 93 3.16.1 Bus Bar Rating for English Dimensions (Inches) 93 3.16.2 Bus Bar Rating for Metric Dimensions (Millimeter:MM) 94 3.16.3 Nominal Working Space Requirements 95 3.17 MEECE (Management of Electrical and Electronics Control Equipment) Course Outline Requirements: USCG 96 4. Power Generation and Distribution 99 4.0 Introduction 99 4.1 Generation System Requirements 101 4.2 IEEE Std 45-2002, ABS-2002 and IEC for Generator Size and Rating Selection 104 4.3 ABS-2002 Section 4-8-2-3.1.3 Generator Engine Starting from Dead Ship Condition (Extract) 106 4.4 Additional Details of Sizing Ship Service Generators 109 4.4.1 Engine Governor Characteristics 110 4.4.2 Generator Voltage Regulator Characteristics 110 4.4.3 How AVR works: 111 4.4.4 Droop Characteristics: Generator Set 111 4.5 Typical Generator Prime Mover 112 4.6 Generator: Typical Purchase Specification (Typical Electrical Propulsion System) 113 5. Emergency Power System Design and Development 115 5.0 Introduction 115 5.1 USCG 46 CFR Requirements: 112.05 (Extract Only) 116 5.2 IEEE STD 45-2002, Clause 6.1, General (Extract) 117 5.3 Emergency Source of Electrical Power: ABS 2010, 5.1.1 Requirement 118 5.4 ABS Emergency Generator Starting Requirement (ABS Rule for Passenger Vessels) 118 5.5 Typical Emergency Generation and Distribution System 119 5.6 Emergency Generator and Emergency Transformer Rating: Load Analysis (Sample Calculation) 120 5.7 Emergency Power Generation and Distribution with Ship Service Power and Distribution System 120 5.8 Emergency Transformer 450 V/120V (Per ABS) 120 5.9 Emergency Generator Starting Block Diagram 120 5.10 Emergency Generation and Distribution Design Verification 122 5.11 No-Break Emergency Power Distribution 123 6. Protection and Verification 124 6.0 Introduction: Protection System Fundamentals 124 6.1 Protective Device: Glossary 126 6.2 Power System Protections 128 6.3 Power System: Procedure for Protective Device Coordination 131 6.4 Fault Current Calculation Guidelines (Per USCG Requirements) 132 6.5 Overall Protection Synopsis 132 6.6 ANSI Electrical Device Numbering (for Device Number Details Refer to ANSI C.37.2) 135 6.7 Fault Current Calculations (Per USCG Requirements CFR 111-52-3(B) & (C)) 136 6.7.1 Maximum Asymmetrical Fault Current 137 6.7.2 Average Asymmetrical Fault Current 137 6.7.3 450 V Switchboard Rating 138 6.7.4 450 V Switchboard Circuit Breaker Rating 138 6.7.5 Fault Current Calculation for the 120 Voltage System is as follows 138 6.7.6 RMS Symmetric Current 138 6.7.7 Fault Current Calculation Summary 138 6.8 Details for Figure 6.3 Typical EOL for MV Generator Protection System: Split Bus with Two Bustie Breakers 141 6.9 Details for Figure 6-4: Typical EOL for MV Generator Protection System: Split Bus with Two Bustie Breakers 143 6.10 Details for Figure 6.5 Typical for Transformer Protection Schematic 144 6.11 Details for Figure 6.10: Typical EOL for MV VFD Transformer Protection Schematic 145 6.11.1 Low Overcurrent Setting: (I>) 149 6.11.2 High Overcurrent Setting: (I>>) 150 6.11.3 Conclusion of Calculation 150 6.12 Power System Dynamic Calculations 155 6.13 Protective Relay Coordination and Discrimination Study 155 7. Power Quality: Harmonics 158 7.0 Introduction 158 7.1 Solid-State Devices Carrier Frequency 160 7.2 MIL-STD-1399 Requirements 162 7.3 IEEE STD 519 Requirements (1992 and 2014 Versions) 162 7.3.1 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 164 7.3.2 Total Demand Distortion (TDD): Current Harmonics 165 7.4 Calculate the RMS Harmonic Voltage Due to the Respective Harmonic Current 165 7.5 Current Harmonic Matters 167 7.6 Harmonic Numbering 167 7.7 DNV Regulation: Harmonic Distortion 168 7.8 Examples of Typical Shipboard Power System Harmonic Current Calculations 169 7.9 Choice of 18-Pulse Drive versus 6-Pulse Drive with Active Harmonic Filter 171 7.10 Typical Software to Calculate Total Harmonic Distortion and Filter Applications 172 7.11 Harmonic Recommendations (IEEE 45.1 Partial Extract) 175 7.12 Harmonic Silencing and ARC Prevention (Curtsey of Applied Energy) 180 7.13 Applicable Power Quality Standards Include 184 8. Shipboard Cable Application and Verification 185 8.0 Introduction: Shipboard Cable Application 185 8.1 Cable Size Calculation Fundamentals 185 8.2 Shipboard Cable for ASD and VFD Applications 186 8.3 Cable Requirements Per IEEE Std 45 186 8.4 Cable Shielding Guide Per IEEE Std 1143 187 8.5 Cable: Physical Characteristics 192 8.6 Cable Insulation: Typical 197 8.7 Cable Ampacity 199 8.8 Commercial Shipboard Cable Circuit Designation 203 8.9 Example 1: Low-Voltage 600 V/1000V IEC Cable Details 205 8.10 Example 2: MV Voltage 8 KV/10 KV 206 8.11 Example 3: VFD Cable LV (600 V/100) and MV VOLTAGE (8 KV/10 KV) 208 8.12 Ground Conductor Size 208 8.13 Develop Math to Calculate the Ground Conductor for Parallel Run 209 8.14 Cable Designation Type (Typical Ship Service Cable Symbol or Designation) 209 8.15 Cable Color Code: Shipboard Commercial Cable 210 8.16 ASD (VFD) Cable Issues for Shipboard Application 211 8.17 ABS Steel Vessel Rule: Part 4, Chapter 8, Section 4: Shipboard Cable Application 212 8.18 Grounding Conductor Size: for Cable Rated 2 KV or Less for Single Run 214 9. Grounding, Insulation Monitoring Design, and Verification 216 9.0 Introduction 216 9.1 System Grounding Per IEEE 45 217 9.1.1 Shipboard LV Power System Grounding IEEE 45 Recommendations (See Figures 9.1 and 9.2) 217 9.2 Selection of High-Resistance Grounding (HRG) System 219 9.3 IEEE 142 Ground Detection Requirements 220 9.4 IEC Requirements: Insulation Monitoring System 221 9.4.1 Insulation Monitoring 224 9.4.2 Insulation Monitoring System for Grounded AC Systems with VFD System 224 9.5 System Capacitance to Ground Charging Current Calculation (Taken From IEEE 142 Figs. 1.6 and 1.9) 225 9.6 Total System Capacitance Calculation 225 9.7 Calculate Capacitive Charging Current: (for a Typical Installation) 226 9.8 Capacitive Charging Current Calculation: Sample Calculation 227 9.8.1 Iccc Calculation for Generators 12,000 kVA, 6600V, 3-Phase, 3-Wire—Total 4 227 9.8.2 Iccc Calculation for Transformers 227 9.8.3 Cables 8 kV—(4/0 AWG) (T-212) Cable Three Core 228 9.8.4 Total Capacitive Charging Current 228 9.8.5 Grounding Transformer Size Calculation 229 9.8.6 Grounding Resistor Size Calculation 229 9.9 Grounding Resistor Selection Guideline Per IEEE STD 32-1972 230 9.10 Grounding Resistor Duty Rating 231 9.11 Zigzag Grounding Transformers: IEEE STD 142 Section 1.5.2 232 9.12 Rating and Testing Neutral Grounding Resistors: IEEE STD 32-1972 233 9.13 Voltage Stabilizing Ground Reference (VSGR) Phaseback for Ground Detection (Curtsey of Applied Energy) 234 9.13.1 Typical HRG Elementary Diagrams are Very Close to the Voltage Stabilizing Ground Reference (VSGR) Phaseback Unit, Looking Alike Phaseback’s Function is Exactly Opposite to the HRG 238 9.13.2 Phaseback Voltage Stabilizing Ground Reference Addresses and Solves the Following Issues 239 9.14 HRG Versus VSGR 240 9.15 Shipboard Ground Detection System Recommendations 240 10. Shore Power LV and MV Systems 242 10.0 Introduction 242 10.1 LV Shore Power System 242 10.2 MV (HV) Shore Power System 243 10.3 Low-Voltage Shore Power System 250 10.4 Four-Wire Grounded System LV Shore Power Connections 253 10.5 Medium-Voltage Shore Power System (MV) 253 10.6 Extract from IEC/ISO/IEEE 80005-1 Part 1: High-Voltage Shore nConnection (HVSC) Systems HV Shore Power Requirements (Shore to Ship Power Quality and Protection Requirements) 256 11. Smart Ship System Design (S3D) and Verification 260 11.0 Introduction 260 11.1 Virtual Prototyping for Electrical System Design 261 11.2 Electrical Power System Smart Ship System Design FailureMode and Effect Analysis 264 11.3 Marine Technology Society (MTS) Guidelines for DP Vessel Design Philosophy: Guidelines for Modu DP System and Commercial Ships 266 11.4 Additional Marine Technology Society (MTS) Requirements Applicable for Ship Design: (USCG Recognized MTS Requirements) 266 11.5 Condition-based Maintenance 272 11.6 FMEA Objectives: S3D Concept 272 11.7 Additional S3D Process Safety Features 272 12. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Analysis 274 12.0 Introduction 274 12.1 Injuries Result from Electrical-Current Shorts 274 12.2 General Safety Tips for Working with or Near Electricity 275 12.3 Arc Flash Basics 276 12.4 Fundamentals of Electrical Arc and Arc Flash 277 12.5 Definitions Related to Arc Flash (Derived from NFPA 70E NEC, NFPA 70E, and IEEE STD 1580 for Shipboard Electrical Installations) 278 12.6 Causes of Electric Arc 279 12.7 Incident Energy 279 12.8 Incident Energy at Arc Flash Protection Boundary 280 12.9 The Flash Protection Boundary 280 12.10 Electrical Hazards: Arc Flash with Associated Blast andShock 280 12.11 Shock Hazard 281 12.12 Hazard/Risk Categories (Derived from NFPE-70E) 282 12.12.1 Hazard/Risk Category: Description (HRC-0) 282 12.12.2 Hazard/Risk Category: Description (HRC-1) 282 12.12.3 Hazard/Risk Category: Description (HRC-2) 285 12.12.4 Hazard/Risk Category: Description (HRC-3) 285 12.12.5 Hazard/Risk Category: Description (HRC-4) 285 12.13 Shipboard Electrical Safety Compliance Chart per NFPA 70E 2012 Table 130.7.C.9 285 12.14 Arc Flash: OSHA Requirements (29 CFR 1910.333) 286 12.15 Arc Flash: National Electrical Code (NEC) Requirements 286 12.16 Arc Flash: NFPA 70E 2012 Requirements 287 12.17 Arc Flash Boundary: NFPA 70E 289 12.18 Low-Voltage (50 V–1000 V) Protection (NFPA 70E 130.3 (A1)) 290 12.19 Medium-Voltage (1000V and Above) (NFPA 70E 130.3 (A2)) 290 12.20 Arc Flash: IEEE 1584 Requirements and Guidelines 291 12.21 Arc Flash: Circuit Breaker Time Currect Coordination—Overview 292 12.22 Arc Flash Calculation Analysis and Spreadsheet Deliverables 296 12.22.1 For Shipboard Arc Flash Analysis the Following Should be Included 296 12.23 Methods of Developing Analysis 296 12.23.1 Coordination Study 296 12.24 Fault Current Analysis to Ensure Power System Component Protection Characteristics 296 12.25 Fault Current Calculation: Approximation for Arc Flash Analysis 297 12.26 Shipboard Fault Current Calculation Guidelines (per USCG Requirements) 298 12.27 Example Shipboard Fault Current Calculations (per USCG Requirements CFR 111-52-3(B) & (C)) 298 12.28 Shipboard Power System Short-Circuit Current Calculation (Refer to US Navy Design Data Sheet 300-2 for Details) 299 12.29 Fault Current and Arc Flash Analysis as Required by NFPA 70E 300 12.30 Fault Current and Arc Flash Analysis Guide by IEEE 1584 301 12.31 Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Labeling (NFPA 70E) 302 12.32 Arc Flash Protection-Boundary 303 12.33 Sample Arc Flash Calculations: Spreadsheet—Excel Type 304 12.33.1 NFPA 70E 2009 Equation D.5.2 (A) for Arc Flash Calculation 304 12.34 Low-Voltage (50 V–1000 V) Protection (NFPA 70E 130.3 (A1)) 304 12.35 Medium Voltage (1000V and Above) (NFPA 70E 130.3 (A2)) 304 12.36 IEEE 1584-Based Arc Flash Calculations 305 12.36.1 IEEE 1584: Incident Energy Exposure 305 12.36.2 IEEE 1584: Arcing Current Calculation: Up to 1000V Systems 305 12.36.3 IEEE 1584: Arcing Current Calculation for 1 kV to 15 kV 306 12.36.4 IEEE 1584: Flash Protection Boundary Calculation (DB) 306 12.36.5 IEEE 1584: Flash Protection Boundary 306 12.36.6 IEEE 1584: Level of PPE 306 12.36.7 IEEE-1584: Equipment Class 307 12.36.8 IEEE 1584: Distance Exponent 307 12.36.9 IEEE 1584: Arc Duration/Total Arc Clearing Time 308 12.36.10 IEEE 1584: Available Three-Phase Bolted Fault Current 308 12.36.11 IEEE 1584: Predicted Three-Phase Arcing Current 308 12.37 Sample Shipboard Arc Flash Calculation Project 310 12.37.1 General 310 12.37.2 Short-Circuit Study 310 12.37.3 Protective Device Coordination Study 310 12.37.4 Arc Flash Hazard Study 310 12.37.5 Analysis 310 12.37.6 Report 311 12.38 Fast-Acting Arc Management System: Arc Flash Mitigating Hardware Driven Time 311 12.39 Guidelines for Shipboard Personnel 312 Glossary 315 Index 325
Mohammed M. Islam (Moni) was R&D Supervisor of Applied Science at Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, served as the IEEE-45 central committee Chair, and was a member of the IEEE 1580 working group. He has forty-three years of diversified shipboard electrical engineering experience and has played significant roles in every part of new shipbuilding and ship modernization engineering. He provides electrical engineering subject matter expert services, specializing in interpretation of rules and regulations.
The only book that covers fundamental shipboard design and verification concepts from individual devices to the system level Shipboard electrical system design and development requirements are fundamentally different from utility-based power generation and distribution requirements. Electrical engineers who are engaged in shipbuilding must understand various design elements to build both safe and energy-efficient power distribution systems. This book covers all the relevant technologies and regulations for building shipboard power systems, which include commercial ships, naval ships, offshore floating platforms, and offshore support vessels. In recent years, offshore floating platforms have been frequently discussed in exploring deep-water resources such as oil, gas, and wind energy. This book presents step-by-step shipboard electrical system design and verification fundamentals and provides information on individual electrical devices and practical design examples, along with ample illustrations to back them. In addition, Shipboard Power Systems Design and Verification Fundamentals: Presents real-world examples and supporting drawings for shipboard electrical system design Includes comprehensive coverage of domestic and international rules and regulations (e.g. IEEE 45, IEEE 1580) Covers advanced devices such as VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) in detail This book is an important read for all electrical system engineers working for shipbuilders and shipbuilding subcontractors, as well as for power engineers in general.

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