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Self-Healing Smart Materials


Self-Healing Smart Materials


1. Aufl.

von: Inamuddin, Mohd Imran Ahamed, Rajender Boddula, Tariq A. Altalhi

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 26.04.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119710233
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 560

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Beschreibungen

<p>This comprehensive book describes the design, synthesis, mechanisms, characterization, fundamental properties, functions and development of self-healing smart materials and their composites with their allied applications. It covers cementitious concrete composites, bleeding composites, elastomers, tires, membranes, and composites in energy storage, coatings, shape-memory, aerospace and robotic applications. The 21 chapters are written by researchers from a variety of disciplines and backgrounds.</p>
<p>Preface xv</p> <p><b>1 Self-Healing Polymer Coatings 1<br /></b><i>Facundo I. Altuna and Cristina E. Hoppe</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>1.2 Extrinsic Self-Healing Polymer Coatings 5</p> <p>1.3 Intrinsic Self-Healing Polymer Coatings 13</p> <p>1.4 Remote Activation of Self-Healing 21</p> <p>1.5 Perspectives and Challenges 26</p> <p>References 27</p> <p><b>2 Smart Phenolics for Self-Healing and Shape Memory Applications 39<br /></b><i>Baris Kiskan and Yusuf Yagci</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 40</p> <p>2.2 Self-Healable Polybenzoxazines 42</p> <p>2.3 Benzoxazine Resins for Shape Memory Applications 51</p> <p>2.4 Conclusion 57</p> <p>References 58</p> <p><b>3 Self-Healable Elastomers 65<br /></b><i>Mariajose Cova Sánchez, Daniela Belén García, Mariano Martin Escobar and Marcela Mansilla</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 65</p> <p>3.2 Self-Healing in Elastomers 67</p> <p>3.2.1 Self-Healing Mechanism 68</p> <p>3.2.1.1 Heat Stimulated Self-Healing 68</p> <p>3.2.1.2 Light Stimulated Self-Healing 68</p> <p>3.2.1.3 Mechanochemical Self-Healing 68</p> <p>3.2.1.4 Encapsulation 69</p> <p>3.2.2 Characterization of Healing Process 70</p> <p>3.3 Particular Cases in Different Elastomers 71</p> <p>3.3.1 Natural Rubber (NR) 71</p> <p>3.3.2 Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) 76</p> <p>3.3.3 Polybutadiene Rubber 79</p> <p>3.3.4 Bromobutyl Rubber 81</p> <p>3.3.5 Silicones 84</p> <p>3.3.6 Polyurethanes 89</p> <p>References 92</p> <p><b>4 Self-Healable Tires 99<br /></b><i>Norazlianie Sazali, Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed and Zul Adlan Mohd Hir</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 100</p> <p>4.2 Self-Healable Rubber 102</p> <p>4.3 Promising Strategy for Self-Healing Rubber-Based Material 103</p> <p>4.4 Conclusion 113</p> <p>References 113</p> <p><b>5 Self-Healing Bacterial Cementitious Composites 123<br /></b><i>R. Preetham, R. Hari Krishna, M.N. Chandraprabha and R. Sivaramakrishna</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 124</p> <p>5.2 Biomineralization for Self-Healing 130</p> <p>5.2.1 Bacteria as Self-Healing Agent 130</p> <p>5.2.2 Bacterial Metabolic Pathway in Self-Healing 131</p> <p>5.2.2.1 Urea Hydrolysis by Ureolytic Bacteria 132</p> <p>5.2.2.2 Hydrolysis of CO2 by Carbonic Anhydrase Producing Bacteria 133</p> <p>5.2.2.3 Hydrolysis of Organic Acids 134</p> <p>5.2.2.4 Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction 134</p> <p>5.2.2.5 Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction 135</p> <p>5.2.2.6 Ammonification 135</p> <p>5.3 Strategies to Enhance the Performance of Bacterial Self-Healing 139</p> <p>5.4 Evaluation of Factors Affecting Bacterial Self-Healing 141</p> <p>5.4.1 Nutrient Suitability for Optimal Bacterial Growth 142</p> <p>5.4.2 Viability and Activity of Encapsulated Spores 143</p> <p>5.4.3 Evaluation of Encapsulation Material 143</p> <p>5.4.4 Crack Healing Efficiency 144</p> <p>5.4.5 Effects of Capsule Material and Bacteria</p> <p>on Concrete Properties 146</p> <p>5.5 Conclusion, Future Prospective & Challenges 146</p> <p>References 147</p> <p><b>6 Self-Healable Solar Cells: Recent Insights and Challenges 153<br /></b><i>Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Sonia Bahrani, Seeram Ramakrishna, Chin Wei Lai and Wei-Hung Chiang</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 154</p> <p>6.2 Functional Mechanism of Protection Approaches 155</p> <p>6.2.1 Self-Healable Polymeric Structure 155</p> <p>6.2.2 Shape Memory Polymeric Structure 156</p> <p>6.2.3 Self-Cleanable Polymeric Platforms 157</p> <p>6.3 Advanced Self-Healable Polymeric Materials 159</p> <p>6.3.1 Self-Healable Polymers 159</p> <p>6.3.2 Self-Healable Hydrogels 165</p> <p>6.4 Shape Memory Materials 168</p> <p>6.5 Self-Healable Solar Cells 169</p> <p>6.6 Conclusions 175</p> <p>References 175</p> <p><b>7 Self-Healable Core–Shell Nanofibers 181<br /></b><i>Sonia Bahrani, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Chin Wei Lai and Wei-Hung Chiang</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 182</p> <p>7.2 Self-Healing Polymers in Fabrication of Core–Shell Nanofibers 183</p> <p>7.3 Strategies for Core–Shell Nanofibers Fabrication 184</p> <p>7.3.1 Capsule-Based Self-Healing 185</p> <p>7.3.2 Vascular-Based Self-Healing 187</p> <p>7.4 Methods of Fabrication of Self-Healing Core–Shell Nanofibers 188</p> <p>7.4.1 Co-Electrospinning 188</p> <p>7.4.2 Emulsion Electrospinning 190</p> <p>7.4.3 Solution‐Blown 194</p> <p>7.5 Self-Healing in Laminated Composite 194</p> <p>7.6 Beneficial Self-Repairing Systems on Basis of Core–Shell Nanofibers 196</p> <p>7.7 Conclusion 197</p> <p>References 197</p> <p><b>8 Intrinsic Self-Healing Materials 203<br /></b><i>Angelita Cristiane Saul and João Henrique Zimnoch dos Santos</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 203</p> <p>8.2 Inverse Reactions and Chain Recombination 205</p> <p>8.3 Reversible (Covalent) Bonds 205</p> <p>8.3.1 Cycloadditions 206</p> <p>8.3.2 Reversible Acylhydrazones 211</p> <p>8.3.3 Disulfides 216</p> <p>8.3.4 Alkoxyamines (Radicals) 218</p> <p>8.3.5 Transesterification 222</p> <p>8.4 Supramolecular Interactions 223</p> <p>8.4.1 Hydrogen Bonds 224</p> <p>8.4.2 π–π Interaction 225</p> <p>8.4.3 Ionomers (Ballistic Stimulus) 226</p> <p>8.4.4 Metallopolymers 227</p> <p>8.5 Conclusion 229</p> <p>References 229</p> <p><b>9 Self-Healable Catalysis 237<br /></b><i>Bilge Coşkuner Filiz</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 237</p> <p>9.2 Self-Healable Catalysis Applications 239</p> <p>9.2.1 Oxygen Evolution Catalysts 239</p> <p>9.2.2 Specific Catalysis Applications of Self-Healing Property 243</p> <p>9.3 Conclusion 244</p> <p>References 244</p> <p><b>10 Self-Healing Materials in Corrosion Protection 247<br /></b><i>Eiman Alibakhshi, Bahram Ramezanzadeh and Mohammad Mahdavian</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 248</p> <p>10.2 Self-Healing Definition 249</p> <p>10.3 Inhibition of the Corroded Regions Thanks to the Presence of Corrosion Inhibitive Pigments/Inhibitors 251</p> <p>10.4 The Imprisonment and Physical Release of the Inhibitor 256</p> <p>10.4.1 Ion-Exchange Based Materials 257</p> <p>10.4.2 Porous-Structure and Metal Oxide Materials 268</p> <p>10.4.3 Conductive Polymers 269</p> <p>10.4.4 Fibril Materials 270</p> <p>10.4.5 Lamellar-Structure Materials 271</p> <p>10.4.6 Other Containers 274</p> <p>10.5 Healing Using Polymerizable Agents 275</p> <p>10.6 Conclusion and Outlook 276</p> <p>References 278</p> <p><b>11 Self-Healable Conductive Materials 297<br /></b><i>M. Ramesh, L. Rajeshkumar, D. Balaji, V. Bhuvaneswari and S. Sivalingam</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 298</p> <p>11.2 Self-Healing Materials 298</p> <p>11.2.1 Elastomers 298</p> <p>11.2.2 Reversible Materials 303</p> <p>11.3 Self-Healing Conductive Materials 304</p> <p>11.3.1 Polymers 304</p> <p>11.3.2 Capsules 306</p> <p>11.3.3 Liquids 308</p> <p>11.3.4 Composites 309</p> <p>11.3.5 Coating 311</p> <p>11.4 Conclusion 313</p> <p>References 313</p> <p><b>12 Self-Healable Artificial Skin 321<br /></b><i>Younus Raza Beg, Gokul Ram Nishad and Priyanka Singh</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 321</p> <p>12.2 Preparation and Properties of Artificial Skin 322</p> <p>12.3 Applications of Electronic Skin 335</p> <p>12.4 Conclusion 341</p> <p>References 342</p> <p><b>13 Self-Healing Smart Composites 345<br /></b><i>Sithara Gopinath, Suresh Mathew and P. Radhakrishnan Nair</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 345</p> <p>13.2 Self-Healing Mechanisms and its Classifications 346</p> <p>13.2.1 Intrinsic Self-Repairing Materials 348</p> <p>13.2.2 Extrinsic Self-Repairing Materials 350</p> <p>13.3 Self-Healing of Thermoplastic Materials 352</p> <p>13.4 Self-Healing of Thermosetting Materials 354</p> <p>13.5 Conclusions and Future Study 355</p> <p>References 356</p> <p><b>14 Stimuli-Responsive Self-Healable Materials 361<br /></b><i>G. Jerald Maria Antony, S. Raja and S.T. Aruna</i></p> <p>14.1 Self-Healing Materials 362</p> <p>14.2 Synthesis of S-H Materials 364</p> <p>14.3 Types of S-H Materials 365</p> <p>14.4 Need for Stimuli-Responsive Shape Memory (S-RSM) Materials 367</p> <p>14.5 Stimuli-Responsive or Nonautonomous S-H Materials 368</p> <p>14.5.1 Light Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 369</p> <p>14.5.2 Thermal Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 370</p> <p>14.5.3 Chemical Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 371</p> <p>14.5.4 Electric/Magnetic Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 372</p> <p>14.5.5 Multi-Stimuli Responsive S-H Material 373</p> <p>14.6 Commercialization and Challenges 374</p> <p>14.7 Conclusions 375</p> <p>References 375</p> <p><b>15 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healable Materials 379<br /></b><i>M. Ramesh, L. Rajeshkumar and R. Saravanakumar</i></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 380</p> <p>15.2 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing Based on Gel 380</p> <p>15.3 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing Based on Crystals 386</p> <p>15.4 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing Based on Composites 389</p> <p>15.5 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing for Corrosion 394</p> <p>15.5.1 Capsule-Based Self-Healing Approaches for Corrosion Protection 394</p> <p>15.5.2 Fiber-Based Self-Healing Approaches for Corrosion Protection 398</p> <p>15.6 Conclusion 399</p> <p>References 400</p> <p><b>16 Self-Healing Materials in Robotics 405<br /></b><i>Sunny Kumar</i></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 405</p> <p>16.2 Chemistry of Self-Healing (S-H) Materials 406</p> <p>16.3 Working of Self-Healing (S-H) Material 407</p> <p>16.4 Application of Self-Healing Robots 407</p> <p>16.4.1 Self-Healing Electronics for Soft Robotics 407</p> <p>16.4.2 Self-Healing Electrostatic Actuators 408</p> <p>16.4.3 Self-Healing Skin for Robotics 408</p> <p>16.5 Approaches to Self-Healing 408</p> <p>16.6 Material Application and Damage Resilience Mechanism 410</p> <p>16.7 Conclusion 410</p> <p>References 412</p> <p><b>17 Self-Healing Materials in Aerospace Applications 415<br /></b><i>M. Harikrishna Kumar, C. Moganapriya, A. Moha Kumar, R. Rajasekar and V. K. Gobinath</i></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 415</p> <p>17.2 Classification of Self-Healing Materials 417</p> <p>17.2.1 Intrinsic Mechanism 417</p> <p>17.2.2 Extrinsic Mechanism 418</p> <p>17.2.2.1 Microencapsulation 418</p> <p>17.2.2.2 Microvascular Network 419</p> <p>17.3 Self-Healing Materials in Aerospace Applications 420</p> <p>17.3.1 Fiber Reinforced Polymers 421</p> <p>17.3.2 Modified Epoxy 425</p> <p>17.3.3 Ceramic Matrix Composites 428</p> <p>17.4 Conclusion 431</p> <p>References 432</p> <p><b>18 Bio-Inspired Self-Healable Materials 435<br /></b><i>Archita Sharma and Shailendra Kumar Arya</i></p> <p>18.1 Introduction 436</p> <p>18.1.1 Self-Healable Materials and Coatings 439</p> <p>18.1.1.1 The Process of Self-Healing Through the Exploitation of Micro-Capsule and Micro-Vascular Method 439</p> <p>18.1.1.2 Self-Healing Process Through Reversible Covalent Bond Formation 442</p> <p>18.1.1.3 Self-Healable Systems on the Basis of Supramolecular Self-Assembly 444</p> <p>18.1.2 Mechanism of Self-Healing Materials 445</p> <p>18.2 Repairing and Healing the Damage 448</p> <p>18.3 A Systematic Biomimetic Approach 448</p> <p>18.4 Self-Healable Materials: Case Studies 449</p> <p>18.4.1 Regrowth of Limbs 449</p> <p>18.4.2 The Mechanism of Bone Healing 451</p> <p>18.4.3 Cutaneous Wound Healing 452</p> <p>18.5 Applications of Bio-Inspired Self-Healable Materials—Examples 453</p> <p>18.5.1 Bio-Inspired Ionic Skin for Pressure Sensing 453</p> <p>18.5.2 Self-Healable Synthetic Vascular Materials Concerning Internal Damage 456</p> <p>18.5.3 Biobased Self-Healable Color Hydrogel 458</p> <p>18.5.4 Bio-Inspired Support for Repairing Damaged Articular Cartilage 461</p> <p>18.6 Conclusions and Outlook 464</p> <p>References 465</p> <p><b>19 Self-Healable Batteries 475<br /></b><i>Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Maryam Zarei, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Wei-Hung Chiang, Chin Wei Lai and Sonia Bahrani</i></p> <p>19.1 Introduction 476</p> <p>19.2 Development of Self-Healing Materials 478</p> <p>19.3 Self-Healing Batteries 481</p> <p>19.3.1 Self-Healable Electrodes 481</p> <p>19.3.2 Self-Healable Electrolytes 483</p> <p>19.4 Conclusions 487</p> <p>References 488</p> <p><b>20 Self-Healing in Bleeding Composites 495<br /></b><i>Lutfur Rahman, Ata Ullah, Muhammad Bilal Yazdani, Muhammad Irfan, Waheed S. Khan and Asma Rehman</i></p> <p>20.1 Introduction 496</p> <p>20.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Self-Healing Materials and Their Repairing Approaches 498</p> <p>20.3 Strategies of Self-Healing in Engineered Materials 499</p> <p>20.3.1 Materials With Bioinspired Self-Healing Mechanism 499</p> <p>20.3.2 Self-Healing in Composite Materials Based on Biomimetic Approaches 502</p> <p>20.3.3 Vascular Networks 502</p> <p>20.4 Healing Agents, Comparison With Biological Phenomenon and Bleeding Mechanism in Self-Healing Composite Materials 503</p> <p>20.4.1 Compartmentalization, Recovery After Yield and Reinforce Repair 506</p> <p>20.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Repairing Bleeding Composite Materials 507</p> <p>20.6 Conclusion 508</p> <p>References 508</p> <p><b>21 Self-Healing Polymers 511<br /></b><i>Muhammad Akram, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Mohd Imran Ahamed, Adrish Sohail, Iram Ghaffar, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Hina Anwar, Musa Abidemi Muhibi, Juliana Bunmi Adetunji, Umme Laila and Mathew Olaniyan</i></p> <p>21.1 Introduction 512</p> <p>21.2 General Overview on Self-Healing Materials 513</p> <p>21.3 Design of Self-Healing 515</p> <p>21.3.1 Modes of Action of Self-Healing 515</p> <p>21.3.2 Rearrangement of Surface Dynamics 516</p> <p>21.3.3 Bringing the Surfaces Together 516</p> <p>21.3.4 Wetness 516</p> <p>21.3.5 Diffusion 516</p> <p>21.4 Application of Self-Healing Materials 517</p> <p>21.4.1 Properties of Self-Healing 518</p> <p>21.4.2 Advancement in Self-Healing 518</p> <p>21.4.3 Classification of Self-Healing 519</p> <p>21.4.4 Healing Mechanism Types of Healing 519</p> <p>21.4.4.1 Crack Filling Healing Process 519</p> <p>21.4.4.2 Diffusion 521</p> <p>21.4.4.3 Bond Reformation 521</p> <p>21.4.4.4 Application 521</p> <p>21.5 Specific Examples of Self-Healing Polymer 522</p> <p>21.5.1 Intrinsic Self-Healing 522</p> <p>21.5.2 Extrinsic Self-Healing 522</p> <p>21.5.3 One Capsule System 522</p> <p>21.5.4 Self-Healing Based on Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization 522</p> <p>21.5.5 Solvent-Induced Self-Healing 523</p> <p>21.5.6 Dual-Capsule Systems 523</p> <p>21.5.6.1 Polydimethylsiloxane Condensation 524</p> <p>21.5.6.2 Platinum-Catalyzed Hydrosilylation 524</p> <p>21.5.6.3 Adaptive Resistant Effect 524</p> <p>21.6 Conclusion and Recommendations 525</p> <p>References 525</p> <p>Index 531</p>
<p><b>Inamuddin PhD</b> is an assistant professor at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and is also an assistant professor in the Department of Applied Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in multidisciplinary fields of analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy and environmental science. He has published about 150 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and edited 60 books with multiple well-known publishers.</p><p><b>Mohd Imran Ahamed PhD</b> is in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in SCI journals. His research focuses on ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment and analysis, actuators and electrospinning.</p><p><b>Rajender Boddula</b> PhD is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals, edited books with numerous publishers and has authored 20 book chapters.</p><p><b>Tariq Altalhi PhD</b> is Head of the Department of Chemistry and Vice Dean of Science College at Taif University, Saudi Arabia. He received his PhD from the University of Adelaide, Australia in 2014. His research interests include developing advanced chemistry-based solutions for solid and liquid municipal waste management, converting plastic bags to carbon nanotubes, and fly ash to efficient adsorbent material.</p>
<p><b>The book surveys the state-of-the-art in a very important cutting-edge field of self-healing smart or intelligent materials applied to various applications and industries.</b></p><p>The development of suitable materials with self-healing, electrical and ionic properties to overcome damage is very much the need of the hour. Self-healing smart materials (SHSMs) are one of the smart class of materials that can automatically restore some or all of a devices’ functions after suffering external mechanical damage or harsh environments. In particular, because of their wide-ranging practical applications, SHSMs have a significant impact on business as they can expand the service life of a device, extend the operational life, longevity, and reliability of the devices, while also reducing waste, thereby conserving resources. The advancement of wearable electronic devices which use self-activating and self-adjusting systems are promising for enhancing operational safety and lifespan. Moreover, the use of SHSMs in manufacturing devices is an excellent choice to re-establish electrical and mechanical properties in case of a mechanical failure. Hence, an understanding about “self-healable technology” and all its related concepts is very essential for modern industries and research communities since these SHSMs and their composites have a great impact on modern wearable applications.</p><p>This book describes the design, synthesis, mechanisms, characterization, fundamental properties, functions and development of SHSMs and their composites with their associated applications. It covers cementitious concrete composites, bleeding composites, elastomers, tires, membranes, and composites in energy storage, coatings, shape-memory, aerospace and robotic applications.</p><p><b>Audience</b></p><p>The target audience includes materials and polymer scientists, mechanical and electronics engineers, researchers, members of R&D in wearable electronics in both industry and academia.</p>

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