Details

Satellite Communications Systems


Satellite Communications Systems

Systems, Techniques and Technology
6. Aufl.

von: Gerard Maral, Michel Bousquet, Zhili Sun

81,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 15.01.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119382072
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 792

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

The revised and updated sixth edition of Satellite Communications Systems contains information on the most recent advances related to satellite communications systems, technologies, network architectures and new requirements of services and applications. The authors – noted experts on the topic – cover the state-of-the-art satellite communication systems and technologies and examine the relevant topics concerning communication and network technologies, concepts, techniques and algorithms. New to this edition is information on internetworking with the broadband satellite systems, more intensive coverage of Ka band technologies, GEO high throughput satellite (HTS), LEO constellations and the potential to support the current new broadband Internet services as well as future developments for global information infrastructure.   The authors offer details on digital communication systems and broadband networks in order to provide high-level researchers and professional engineers an authoritative reference. The companion website provides slides for instructors to teach and for students to learn. In addition, the book is designed in a user-friendly format. 
Acknowledgement xv Acronyms xvii Notations xxiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Birth of Satellite Communications 1 1.2 Development of Satellite Communications 1 1.3 Configuration of a Satellite Communications System 3 1.3.1 Communications links 5 1.3.2 The space segment 6 1.3.3 The ground segment 10 1.4 Types of Orbit 11 1.5 Radio Regulations 16 1.5.1 The ITU organisation 16 1.5.2 Space radiocommunications services 17 1.5.3 Frequency allocation 18 1.6 Technology Trends 21 1.7 Services 23 1.8 The Way Forward 25 References 27 2 Orbits and Related Issues 29 2.1 Keplerian Orbits 29 2.1.1 Kepler’s laws 29 2.1.2 Newton’s law 29 2.1.3 Relative movement of two point bodies 30 2.1.4 Orbital parameters 33 2.1.5 The earth’s orbit 38 2.1.6 Earth–satellite geometry 46 2.1.7 Eclipses of the sun 52 2.1.8 Sun–satellite conjunction 53 2.2 Useful Orbits for Satellite Communication 53 2.2.1 Elliptical orbits with non-zero inclination 54 2.2.2 Geosynchronous elliptic orbits with zero inclination 67 2.2.3 Geosynchronous circular orbits with non-zero inclination 68 2.2.4 Sun-synchronous circular orbits with zero inclination 70 2.2.5 Geostationary satellite orbits 70 2.3 Perturbations of Orbits 80 2.3.1 The nature of perturbations 81 2.3.2 The effect of perturbations; orbit perturbation 83 2.3.3 Perturbations of the orbit of geostationary satellites 85 2.3.4 Orbit corrections: station keeping of geostationary satellites 93 2.4 Conclusion 110 References 110 3 Baseband Digital Signals, Packet Networks, and Quality of Service (QOS) 113 3.1 Baseband Signals 114 3.1.1 Digital telephone signal 114 3.1.2 Sound signals 118 3.1.3 Television signals 118 3.1.4 Data and multimedia signals 122 3.2 Performance Objectives 123 3.2.1 Telephone 123 3.2.2 Sound 123 3.2.3 Television 123 3.2.4 Data 123 3.3 Availability Objectives 124 3.4 Delay 126 3.4.1 Delay in the terrestrial network 126 3.4.2 Propagation delay over satellite links 126 3.4.3 Baseband-signal processing time 127 3.4.4 Protocol-induced delay 127 3.5 IP Packet Transfer QOS and Network Performance 128 3.5.1 Definition of QoS in the ETSI and ITU-T standards 128 3.5.2 IP packet transfer performance parameters 129 3.5.3 IP service availability parameters 131 3.5.4 IP network QoS class 131 3.6 Conclusion 133 References 133 4 Digital Communications Techniques 135 4.1 Baseband Formatting 137 4.1.1 Encryption 137 4.1.2 Scrambling 138 4.2 Digital Modulation 138 4.2.1 Two-state modulation– BPSK and DE-BPSK 140 4.2.2 Four-state modulation – QPSK 141 4.2.3 Variants of QPSK 142 4.2.4 Higher-order PSK and APSK 145 4.2.5 Spectrum of unfiltered modulated carriers 146 4.2.6 Demodulation 146 4.2.7 Modulation spectral efficiency 152 4.3 Channel Coding 153 4.3.1 Block encoding and convolutional encoding 153 4.3.2 Channel decoding 154 4.3.3 Concatenated encoding 156 4.3.4 Interleaving 157 4.4 Channel Coding and the Power–Bandwidth Trade-Off 157 4.4.1 Coding with variable bandwidth 157 4.4.2 Coding with constant bandwidth 159 4.4.3 Conclusion 161 4.5 Coded Modulation 162 4.5.1 Trellis-coded modulation 163 4.5.2 Block-coded modulation 166 4.5.3 Decoding coded modulation 167 4.5.4 Multilevel trellis-coded modulation 167 4.5.5 TCM using a multidimensional signal set 168 4.5.6 Performance of coded modulations 168 4.6 End-To-End Error Control 169 4.7 Digital Video Broadcasting via Satellite (DVB-S) 170 4.7.1 Transmission system 171 4.7.2 Error performance requirements 174 4.8 Second Generation DVB-S (DVB-S2) 175 4.8.1 New technology in DVB-S2 175 4.8.2 Transmission system architecture 177 4.8.3 Error performance 177 4.8.4 FEC encoding 179 4.9 New Features of DVB-S2X 183 4.10 Conclusion 184 4.10.1 Digital transmission of telephony 184 4.10.2 Digital broadcasting of television 185 References 187 5 Uplink, Downlink, and Overall Link Performance; Intersatellite Links 189 5.1 Configuration of a Link 190 5.2 Antenna Parameters 190 5.2.1 Gain 190 5.2.2 Radiation pattern and angular beamwidth 192 5.2.3 Polarisation 194 5.3 Radiated Power 196 5.3.1 Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) 196 5.3.2 Power flux density 197 5.4 Received Signal Power 197 5.4.1 Power captured by the receiving antenna and free space loss 197 5.4.2 Additional losses 200 5.4.3 Conclusion 202 5.5 Noise Power Spectral Density at the Receiver Input 203 5.5.1 The origins of noise 203 5.5.2 Noise characterisation 203 5.5.3 Noise temperature of an antenna 206 5.5.4 System noise temperature 211 5.5.5 Conclusion 213 5.6 INDIVIDUAL LINK PERFORMANCE 213 5.6.1 Carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio at receiver input 213 5.6.2 Clear sky uplink performance 214 5.6.3 Clear sky downlink performance 216 5.7 Influence of the Atmosphere 219 5.7.1 Impairments caused by rain 220 5.7.2 Other impairments 234 5.7.3 Link impairments – relative importance 236 5.7.4 Link performance under rain conditions 236 5.7.5 Conclusion 237 5.8 Mitigation of Atmospheric Impairments 238 5.8.1 Depolarisation mitigation 238 5.8.2 Attenuation mitigation 238 5.8.3 Site diversity 238 5.8.4 Adaptivity 239 5.8.5 Cost-availability trade-off 240 5.9 Overall Link Performance with Transparent Satellite 241 5.9.1 Characteristics of the satellite channel 242 5.9.2 Expression for (C/N0) T 245 5.9.3 Overall link performance for a transparent satellite without interference or intermodulation 248 5.10 Overall Link Performance with Regenerative Satellite 252 5.10.1 Linear satellite channel without interference 253 5.10.2 Nonlinear satellite channel without interference 254 5.10.3 Nonlinear satellite channel with interference 255 5.11 Link Performance with Multibeam Antenna Coverage vs. Monobeam Coverage 257 5.11.1 Advantages of multibeam coverage 258 5.11.2 Disadvantages of multibeam coverage 263 5.11.3 Conclusion 265 5.12 Intersatellite Link Performance 265 5.12.1 Frequency bands 265 5.12.2 Radio-frequency links 265 5.12.3 Optical links 266 5.12.4 Conclusion 273 References 273 6 Multiple Access 275 6.1 Layered Data Transmission 275 6.2 Traffic Parameters 276 6.2.1 Traffic intensity 276 6.2.2 Call blocking probability 276 6.2.3 Burstiness 278 6.2.4 Call delay probability 278 6.3 TRAFFIC ROUTING 280 6.3.1 One carrier per station-to-station link 281 6.3.2 One carrier per transmitting station 281 6.3.3 Comparison 281 6.4 ACCESS TECHNIQUES 281 6.4.1 Access to a particular satellite channel (or transponder) 281 6.4.2 Multiple access to the satellite repeater 283 6.4.3 Performance evaluation – efficiency 284 6.5 FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA) 284 6.5.1 TDM/PSK/FDMA 284 6.5.2 SCPC/FDMA 284 6.5.3 Adjacent channel interference 285 6.5.4 Intermodulation 286 6.5.5 FDMA efficiency 289 6.5.6 Conclusion 289 6.6 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA) 290 6.6.1 Burst generation 291 6.6.2 Frame structure 294 6.6.3 Burst reception 294 6.6.4 Synchronisation 296 6.6.5 TDMA efficiency 300 6.6.6 Conclusion 302 6.7 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA) 303 6.7.1 Direct sequence (DS-CDMA) 303 6.7.2 Frequency hopping CDMA (FH-CDMA) 307 6.7.3 Code generation 308 6.7.4 Synchronisation 309 6.7.5 CDMA efficiency 311 6.7.6 Conclusion 313 6.8 FIXED AND ON-DEMAND ASSIGNMENT 314 6.8.1 The principle 314 6.8.2 Comparison between fixed and on-demand assignment 315 6.8.3 Centralised or distributed management of on-demand assignment 315 6.8.4 Conclusion 316 6.9 RANDOM ACCESS 317 6.9.1 Asynchronous protocols 317 6.9.2 Protocols with synchronisation 321 6.9.3 Protocols with assignment on demand 321 6.10 CONCLUSION 322 References 323 7 Satellite Networks 325 7.1 Network Reference Models and Protocols 325 7.1.1 Layering principle 325 7.1.2 Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model 326 7.1.3 IP reference model 327 7.2 Reference Architecture for Satellite Networks 329 7.3 Basic Characteristics of Satellite Networks 330 7.3.1 Satellite network topology 330 7.3.2 Types of link 332 7.3.3 Connectivity 333 7.4 Satellite On-Board Connectivity 334 7.4.1 On-board connectivity with transponder hopping 335 7.4.2 On-board connectivity with transparent processing 336 7.4.3 On-board connectivity with regenerative processing 342 7.4.4 On-board connectivity with beam scanning (BFN – beam-forming network) 346 7.5 Connectivity Through Intersatellite Links (ISLs) 347 7.5.1 Links between geostationary and low earth orbit satellites (GEO–LEO) 347 7.5.2 Links between geostationary satellites (GEO–GEO) 348 7.5.3 Links between low earth orbit satellites (LEO–LEO) 353 7.5.4 Conclusion 353 7.6 Satellite Broadcast Networks 353 7.6.1 Single uplink (one programme) per satellite channel 354 7.6.2 Several programmes per satellite channel 354 7.6.3 Single uplink with time division multiplexing (TDM) of programmes 355 7.6.4 Multiple uplinks with time division multiplexing (TDM) of programmes on downlink 355 7.7 Broadband Satellite Networks 356 7.7.1 Overview of DVB-RCS/RCS2 and DVB-S/S2/S2X networks 357 7.7.2 Protocol stack architecture for broadband satellite networks 359 7.7.3 Physical layer and MAC layer 360 7.7.4 Satellite MAC layer 367 7.7.5 Satellite Link Control layer 373 7.7.6 Quality of service 376 7.7.7 Network layer 379 7.7.8 Regenerative satellite mesh network architecture 382 7.8 Transmission Control Protocol 387 7.8.1 TCP segment header format 388 7.8.2 Connection setup and data transmission 389 7.8.3 Congestion control and flow control 389 7.8.4 Impact of satellite channel characteristics on TCP 390 7.8.5 TCP performance enhancement (PEP) protocols 392 7.9 IPV6 OVER SATELLITE NETWORKS 393 7.9.1 IPv6 basics 394 7.9.2 IPv6 transitions 395 7.9.3 IPv6 tunnelling through satellite networks 395 7.9.4 6to4 translation via satellite networks 396 7.10 CONCLUSION 396 References 397 8 Earth Stations 401 8.1 Station Organisation 401 8.2 Radio-Frequency Characteristics 402 8.2.1 Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) 402 8.2.2 Figure of merit of the station 404 8.2.3 Standards defined by international organisations and satellite operators 405 8.3 The Antenna Subsystem 415 8.3.1 Radiation characteristics (main lobe) 415 8.3.2 Side-lobe radiation 419 8.3.3 Antenna noise temperature 420 8.3.4 Types of antenna 425 8.3.5 Pointing angles of an earth station antenna 429 8.3.6 Mountings to permit antenna pointing 432 8.3.7 Tracking 439 8.4 The Radio-Frequency Subsystem 450 8.4.1 Receiving equipment 450 8.4.2 Transmission equipment 452 8.4.3 Redundancy 459 8.5 Communication Subsystems 459 8.5.1 Frequency translation 460 8.5.2 Amplification, filtering, and equalisation 462 8.5.3 Modems 464 8.6 The Network Interface Subsystem 466 8.6.1 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 468 8.6.2 Digital speech interpolation (DSI) 468 8.6.3 Digital circuit multiplication equipment (DCME) 469 8.6.4 Equipment specific to SCPC transmission 472 8.6.5 Ethernet port for IP network connections 472 8.7 Monitoring and Control; Auxiliary Equipment 474 8.7.1 Monitoring, alarms, and control (MAC) equipment 475 8.7.2 Electrical power 475 8.8 Conclusion 476 References 476 9 The Communication Payload 479 9.1 Mission and Characteristics of the Payload 479 9.1.1 Functions of the payload 479 9.1.2 Characterisation of the payload 480 9.1.3 The relationship between the radio-frequency characteristics 481 9.2 Transparent Repeater 482 9.2.1 Characterisation of nonlinearities 482 9.2.2 Repeater organisation 491 9.2.3 Equipment characteristics 497 9.3 Regenerative Repeater 509 9.3.1 Coherent demodulation 510 9.3.2 Differential demodulation 510 9.3.3 Multicarrier demodulation 511 9.4 Multibeam Antenna Payload 511 9.4.1 Fixed interconnection 512 9.4.2 Reconfigurable (semi-fixed) interconnection 512 9.4.3 Transparent on-board time domain switching 513 9.4.4 On-board frequency domain transparent switching 515 9.4.5 Baseband regenerative switching 516 9.4.6 Optical switching 518 9.5 Introduction to Flexible Payloads 520 9.6 Solid State Equipment Technology 522 9.6.1 The environment 522 9.6.2 Analogue microwave component technology 522 9.6.3 Digital component technology 523 9.7 Antenna Coverage 523 9.7.1 Service zone contour 524 9.7.2 Geometrical contour 527 9.7.3 Global coverage 527 9.7.4 Reduced or spot coverage 529 9.7.5 Evaluation of antenna pointing error 531 9.7.6 Conclusion 542 9.8 Antenna Characteristics 543 9.8.1 Antenna functions 543 9.8.2 The RF coverage 544 9.8.3 Circular beams 545 9.8.4 Elliptical beams 548 9.8.5 The influence of depointing 549 9.8.6 Shaped beams 552 9.8.7 Multiple beams 553 9.8.8 Types of antenna 556 9.8.9 Antenna technologies 559 9.9 Conclusion 569 References 569 10 The Platform 573 10.1 Subsystems 575 10.2 Attitude Control 576 10.2.1 Attitude control functions 576 10.2.2 Attitude sensors 577 10.2.3 Attitude determination 579 10.2.4 Actuators 582 10.2.5 The principle of gyroscopic stabilisation 584 10.2.6 Spin stabilisation 586 10.2.7 Three-axis stabilisation 588 10.3 The Propulsion Subsystem 595 10.3.1 Characteristics of thrusters 595 10.3.2 Chemical propulsion 597 10.3.3 Electric propulsion 601 10.3.4 Organisation of the propulsion subsystem 606 10.3.5 Electric propulsion for station-keeping and orbit transfer 609 10.4 The Electric Power Supply 610 10.4.1 Primary energy sources 611 10.4.2 Secondary energy sources 617 10.4.3 Conditioning and protection circuits 623 10.4.4 Example calculations 628 10.5 Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TTC) and On-Board Data Handling (OBDH) 629 10.5.1 Frequencies used 630 10.5.2 The telecommand links 631 10.5.3 Telemetry links 632 10.5.4 Telecommand (TC) and telemetry (TM) message format standards 633 10.5.5 On-board data handling (OBDH) 639 10.5.6 Tracking 644 10.6 Thermal Control and Structure 648 10.6.1 Thermal control specifications 648 10.6.2 Passive control 650 10.6.3 Active control 653 10.6.4 Structure 654 10.6.5 Conclusion 655 10.7 Developments and Trends 655 References 658 11 Satellite Installation and Launch Vehicles 659 11.1 Installation in Orbit 659 11.1.1 Basic principles 659 11.1.2 Calculation of the required velocity increments 661 11.1.3 Inclination correction and circularisation 662 11.1.4 The apogee (or perigee) motor 671 11.1.5 Injection into orbit with a conventional launcher 677 11.1.6 Injection into orbit from a quasi-circular low altitude orbit 679 11.1.7 Operations during installation (station acquisition) 681 11.1.8 Injection into orbits other than geostationary (non-GEO orbits) 683 11.1.9 The launch window 685 11.2 Launch Vehicles 685 11.2.1 Brazil 686 11.2.2 China 686 11.2.3 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 690 11.2.4 Europe 696 11.2.5 India 704 11.2.6 Israel 705 11.2.7 Japan 705 11.2.8 South Korea 708 11.2.9 United States of America 708 11.2.10 Reusable launch vehicles 718 11.2.11 Cost of installation in orbit 719 References 719 12 The Space Environment 721 12.1 Vacuum 721 12.1.1 Characterisation 721 12.1.2 Effects 722 12.2 The Mechanical Environment 722 12.2.1 The gravitational field 722 12.2.2 The earth’s magnetic field 724 12.2.3 Solar radiation pressure 725 12.2.4 Meteorites and material particles 725 12.2.5 Torques of internal origin 726 12.2.6 The effect of communication transmissions 726 12.2.7 Conclusions 726 12.3 Radiation 726 12.3.1 Solar radiation 727 12.3.2 Earth radiation 728 12.3.3 Thermal effects 728 12.3.4 Effects on materials 730 12.4 Flux of High-Energy Particles 730 12.4.1 Cosmic particles 730 12.4.2 Effects on materials 731 12.5 The Environment During Installation 734 12.5.1 The environment during launching 734 12.5.2 Environment in the transfer orbit 734 References 735 13 Reliability and Availability of Satellite Communications Systems 737 13.1 Introduction to Reliability 737 13.1.1 Failure rate 737 13.1.2 The probability of survival, or reliability 738 13.1.3 Failure probability or unreliability 739 13.1.4 Mean time to failure (MTTF) 739 13.1.5 Mean satellite lifetime 740 13.1.6 Reliability during the wear-out period 741 13.2 Satellite System Availability 741 13.2.1 No backup satellite in orbit 742 13.2.2 Backup satellite in orbit 742 13.2.3 Conclusion 742 13.3 Subsystem Reliability 743 13.3.1 Elements in series 743 13.3.2 Elements in parallel (static redundancy) 744 13.3.3 Dynamic redundancy (with switching) 745 13.3.4 Equipment having several failure modes 749 13.4 Component Reliability 749 13.4.1 Component reliability 749 13.4.2 Component selection 751 13.4.3 Manufacture 752 13.4.4 Quality assurance 752 References 754 Index 755
GÉRARD MARAL, PhD developed the Telecom-Paris Site of Toulouse and its Satellite Communications Systems Educational and Research Programme. MICHEL BOUSQUET, ISAE-SUPAERO (Retired) has lectured on satellite communications in numerous universities and continuing education courses world-wide. He was involved in several EU and ESA research programmes. Standing on the committees of AIAA and IEEE conferences, he is the recipient of the AIAA Communications Award for 2019. ZHILI SUN, PhD is Professor at the University of Surrey and Postgraduate Research Director. He has researched satellite communication networks for more than 26 years and worked in many major European framework research projects.
The updated 6th edition of the authoritative and comprehensive textbook to the field of satellite communications engineering The revised and updated sixth edition of Satellite Communications Systems contains information on the most recent advances related to satellite communications systems, technologies, network architectures and new requirements of services and applications. The authors – noted experts on the topic – cover the state-of-the-art satellite communication systems and technologies and examine the relevant topics concerning communication and network technologies, concepts, techniques and algorithms. New to this edition is information on internetworking with the broadband satellite systems, more intensive coverage of Ka band technologies, GEO high throughput satellite (HTS), LEO constellations and the potential to support the current new broadband Internet services as well as future developments for global information infrastructure. The authors offer details on digital communication systems and broadband networks in order to provide high-level researchers and professional engineers an authoritative reference. In addition, the book is designed in a user-friendly format. This important text: Puts the focus on satellite communications and networks as well as the related applications and services Provides an essential, comprehensive and authoritative updated guide to the topic Contains new topics including the space segment, ground, ground satellite control and network management, relevant terrestrial networks and more Includes helpful illustrations, tables and problems to enhance learning Offers a summary at the beginning of each chapter to help understand the concepts and principles discussed Written for research students studying or researching in the areas related to satellite communications systems and networks, the updated sixth edition of Satellite Communications Systems offers an essential guide to the most recent developments in the field of satellite communications engineering and references to international standards.

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