Details

Satellite Communications Payload and System


Satellite Communications Payload and System


IEEE Press 2. Aufl.

von: Teresa M. Braun, Walter R. Braun

84,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 21.07.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119384304
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 720

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Beschreibungen

SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS PAYLOAD AND SYSTEM <p><b>A valuable reference on communications satellite systems</b><p>This book presents the state of the art in commercial communications satellite systems, thoroughly and in detail not to be found in any other book. These systems provide the television and some of the telephone and Internet services in use every day. The book focuses on the satellite payload, which consists of antennas, receivers, and transmitters. The book discusses the what, the how, and the why of various choices that have been made in currently operating systems.<p>The book is organized into three parts:<ol Type="1"><li>In-depth description of various payload units, not requiring specialist knowledge. For each unit and the payload as a whole, the architectures, the theory of operation, analysis, performance, and specifications are presented.</li><li>End-to-end system context in which the payload operates. Digital communications theory and satellite communications protocols are introduced. The time-varying properties of satellite-to-ground links are explored. Tips on system simulation are given.</li><li>Current commercial end-to-end satellite communications systems, in their grand variety. Emphasis is placed on the satellite payload and its interactions with the satellite bus, ground stations, and user terminals.</li></ol><p>The second edition adds the third part of the book. Payload unit descriptions have been updated and enlarged. The communications theory chapter has been upgraded and the protocols chapter added to briefly describe all the elements mentioned in part 3. Non-geostationary satellite considerations have been included throughout the book.<p>If you are a payload systems engineer, this book can serve as a valuable tool for expanding your knowledge base. If you’re a graduate student, it will guide your introductory learning. As an industry professional, you can make this book a go-to reference.
<p><b>1 Introduction 2</b></p> <p>1.1 End-to-End Satellite Communications System 2</p> <p>1.2 What the Book Is About 3</p> <p>1.3 Channel and Channel Sharing 3</p> <p>1.4 Payload 4</p> <p>1.5 Ground Transmitter and Ground Receiver 7</p> <p>1.6 System 8</p> <p>1.7 Conventions 8</p> <p>1.8 Book Sources 9</p> <p>1.9 Summary of Rest of Book 10</p> <p>References 12</p> <p><b>PART I. PAYLOAD 2</b></p> <p><b>2 Payload’s On-Orbit Environment 2</b></p> <p>2.1 What Determines Environment 2</p> <p>2.2 On-Orbit Environment and Mitigation by Spacecraft Bus 8</p> <p>2.3 General Effects of Mitigated Environment on Payload 19</p> <p>References 24</p> <p><b>3 Antenna Basics and Single-Beam Antenna 2</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>3.2 Examples of Single-Beam Antenna 2</p> <p>3.3 General Antenna Concepts 3</p> <p>3.4 Reflector-Antenna Basics 9</p> <p>3.5 Steerable Single-Beam Antennas 15</p> <p>3.6 Reflector Technology for Single-Beam Antennas 16</p> <p>3.7 Horn for Single-Beam Antennas 17</p> <p>3.8 Other Antenna Components 20</p> <p>3.9 Antenna Pointing Error 24</p> <p>3.10 Antenna Autotrack 26</p> <p>3.11 Reflector-Antenna Inefficiencies 28</p> <p>3.12 Testing 32</p> <p>References 35</p> <p><b>4 Payload-Integration Elements 2</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>4.2 Coaxial Cable vs. Waveguide 2</p> <p>4.3 Coaxial Cable 2</p> <p>4.4 Waveguide 7</p> <p>4.5 Other Integration Elements 13</p> <p>4.6 Redundancy Configurations 17</p> <p>4.7 Impedance Mismatch and Scattering Parameters 21</p> <p>References 26</p> <p><b>5 Microwave Filter 2</b></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>5.2 Basics of Analog Filters 2</p> <p>5.3 Basics of Specifically Microwave Filters 7</p> <p>5.4 Technology for Bandpass Filters 13</p> <p>5.5 Filter Units 17</p> <p>5.6 Bandpass Filter Specification 23</p> <p>References 24</p> <p><b>6 Low-Noise Amplifier and Frequency Converter 2</b></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>6.2 LNAs and Frequency Converters in Payload 2</p> <p>6.3 Nonlinearity of LNA and Frequency Converter 4</p> <p>6.4 Noise Figure 8</p> <p>6.5 Low-Noise Amplifier 8</p> <p>6.6 Frequency Converter 11</p> <p>6.7 Receiver 23</p> <p>6.A Appendix. Formula for Integrating Phase Noise Spectrum 24</p> <p>References 24</p> <p><b>7 Preamplifier and High-Power Amplifier 2</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>7.2 HPA Concepts and Terms 2</p> <p>7.3 Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier vs. Solid-State Power Amplifier 7</p> <p>7.4 Traveling-Wave Tube Subsystem 9</p> <p>7.5 Solid-State Power Amplifier 26</p> <p>References 34</p> <p><b>8 Payload’s Analog Communications Parameters 2</b></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>8.2 Gain Variation with Frequency 4</p> <p>8.3 Phase Variation with Frequency 7</p> <p>8.4 Channel Bandwidth 9</p> <p>8.5 Phase Noise 10</p> <p>8.6 Frequency Stability 10</p> <p>8.7 Spurious Signals from Frequency Converter 10</p> <p>8.8 HPA Nonlinearity 11</p> <p>8.9 Near-Carrier Spurious Signals from HPA Subsystem 12</p> <p>8.10 Stability of Gain and Power-Out 13</p> <p>8.11 Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power 14</p> <p>8.12 Figure of Merit G/Ts 15</p> <p>8.13 Saturation Flux Density 17</p> <p>8.14 Self-Interference 17</p> <p>8.15 Passive Intermodulation Products 19</p> <p>8.A Appendices 20</p> <p>References 21</p> <p><b>9 More Analyses for Payload Development 2</b></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>9.2 How to Deal with Noise Figure 2</p> <p>9.3 How to Make and Maintain Payload Performance Budgets 4</p> <p>9.4 HPA Topics 16</p> <p>9.5 What Nonlinearity Does to Modulated Signal 20</p> <p>9.6 Simulating Payload Performance as a Function of Gaussian Random Variables 24</p> <p>References 24</p> <p><b>10 Processing Payload and Flexible Payload 2</b></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>10.2 Processing Operations 7</p> <p>10.3 Non-Regenerative Processing Payloads 13</p> <p>10.4 Regenerative Payloads 16</p> <p>10.5 Communications Parameters of Digital Processing Payload 20</p> <p>References 20</p> <p><b>11 Multi-Beam Antenna and Phased Array 2</b></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>11.2 MBA Introduction 3</p> <p>11.3 Reflector for MBA or Contoured Beam and Configuration of Feeds 6</p> <p>11.4 Horn and Feed Assembly for GEO 11</p> <p>11.5 Location of Radiating Elements in Offset-Fed Reflector MBA 16</p> <p>11.6 Single-Feed-Per-Beam MBA 19</p> <p>11.7 Phased Array Introduction 20</p> <p>11.8 Radiating Element of Phased Array 23</p> <p>11.9 Beam-Forming Network 27</p> <p>11.10 Applications of Phased Array 30</p> <p>11.11 Beam-Hopping 32</p> <p>11.12 Amplification of Phased Array 33</p> <p>11.13 Phased Array Pointing Error 39</p> <p>11.14 Mutual Coupling in Radiating-Element Cluster 40</p> <p>11.15 Testing MBA 41</p> <p>References 42</p> <p><b>PART II. END-TO-END SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM 2</b></p> <p><b>12 Digital Communications Theory 2</b></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>12.2 Signal Representation 2</p> <p>12.3 Filtering in General 7</p> <p>12.4 White Gaussian Noise 8</p> <p>12.5 End-to-End Communications System 9</p> <p>12.6 Bit Manipulation 10</p> <p>12.7 Modulation Introduction 14</p> <p>12.8 Memoryless Modulation 14</p> <p>12.9 Maximum-Likelihood Estimation 22</p> <p>12.10 Demodulation for Memoryless Modulation 23</p> <p>12.11 Modulation with Memory 32</p> <p>12.12 Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Estimation 34</p> <p>12.13 Demodulation for Modulation with Memory 34</p> <p>12.14 Bit Recovery 35</p> <p>12.15 Inter-Symbol Interference 36</p> <p>12.16 SNR, Es/N0, and Eb/N0 39</p> <p>12.A Appendix. Sketch of Proof That Pulse Transform and Signal Spectrum Are Related for Memoryless Modulation 41</p> <p>References 42</p> <p><b>13 Satellite Communications Standards 2</b></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>13.2 Background 2</p> <p>13.3 Application Examples of First-Generation Standards 6</p> <p>13.4 Second-Generation DVB Communications Standards 8</p> <p>13.5 Satmode Communications Standard 15</p> <p>References 16</p> <p><b>14 Communications Link 2</b></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>14.2 Primary Information Sources 2</p> <p>14.3 Link Availability 3</p> <p>14.4 Signal Power on Link 4</p> <p>14.5 Noise Level on Link 18</p> <p>14.6 Interference on Link 19</p> <p>14.7 End-to-End C/(N0 + I0) 29</p> <p>14.8 Link Budget 30</p> <p>14.9 Implementation Loss Item in Link Budget 32</p> <p>References 32</p> <p><b>15 Probabilistic Treatment of Downlink Margin for Multi-Beam Payload 2</b></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>15.2 Multi-Beam-Downlink Payload Specifications 2</p> <p>15.3 Analysis Method 3</p> <p>15.4 Analysis Assumptions 4</p> <p>15.5 Repeater-Caused Variation of C and C/Iself and Nominal Value 5</p> <p>15.6 Combining Antenna-Caused Variation and Nominal Value into Repeater-Caused Variation 11</p> <p>15.7 Combining Atmosphere-Caused Variation into Payload-Caused Variation 14</p> <p>15.8 Optimizing Multi-Beam-Downlink Payload Specified on Link Availability 15</p> <p>15.A Appendix. Iteration Details for Optimizing Multi-Beam Payload Specified on Link Availability 16</p> <p><b>16 Model of End-to-End Communications System 2</b></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>16.2 Considerations for Both Software Simulation and Hardware Emulation 2</p> <p>16.3 Additional Considerations for Simulation 6</p> <p>16.4 Additional Considerations for Emulation 15</p> <p>References 18</p> <p><b>PART III. SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 2</b></p> <p><b>17 Fixed and Broadcast Satellite Services 2</b></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>17.2 Satellite Television 2</p> <p>17.3 Regulations in General 4</p> <p>17.4 Fixed Satellite Service 4</p> <p>17.5 Broadcast Satellite Service 13</p> <p>References 17</p> <p><b>18 High-Throughput Satellites        2</b></p> <p>18.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>18.2 Frequency and Bandwidth 4</p> <p>18.3 Residential Internet HTS 6</p> <p>18.4 Commercial Communications HTS 13</p> <p>References 15</p> <p><b>19 Non-Geostationary Satellite Systems 2</b></p> <p>19.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>19.2 Iridium 3</p> <p>19.3 Globalstar 9</p> <p>19.5 O3b 14</p> <p>19.6 OneWeb 21</p> <p>19.7 Starlink 26</p> <p>19.8 Telesat LEO 32</p> <p>References 33</p> <p><b>20 Mobile Satellite Systems 2</b></p> <p>20.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>20.2 Thuraya 5</p> <p>20.3 Inmarsat-4 and Alphasat 12</p> <p>20.4 TerreStar/EchoStar XXI 27</p> <p>20.5 SkyTerra 35</p> <p>20.6 Inmarsat-5 (Global Xpress) F1-F4 44</p> <p>References 53</p>
<p><b>Teresa M. Braun, PhD</b>, has 26 years of experience in satellite and ground systems and technology, including 23 years in communications and three years in navigation at major corporations. She is the author of the first edition of <i>Satellite Communications Payload and System</i> and the co-proprietor of Braun Communications Consulting GmbH in Switzerland.</p><p><b>Walter R. Braun, PhD,</b> has over 40 years of experience in communication systems technology and analysis in the areas of satellite, military, mobile, powerline, and secure communications, mostly in Switzerland. He is the co-proprietor of Braun Communications Consulting GmbH.</p>
<p><b>A valuable reference on communications satellite systems</b></p><p>This book presents the state of the art in commercial communications satellite systems, thoroughly and in detail not to be found in any other book. These systems provide the television and some of the telephone and Internet services in use every day. The book focuses on the satellite payload, which consists of antennas, receivers, and transmitters. The book discusses the what, the how, and the why of various choices that have been made in currently operating systems.</p><p>The book is organized into three parts:</p><ol Type="1"><li>In-depth description of various payload units, not requiring specialist knowledge. For each unit and the payload as a whole, the architectures, the theory of operation, analysis, performance, and specifications are presented.</li><li>End-to-end system context in which the payload operates. Digital communications theory and satellite communications protocols are introduced. The time-varying properties of satellite-to-ground links are explored. Tips on system simulation are given.</li><li>Current commercial end-to-end satellite communications systems, in their grand variety. Emphasis is placed on the satellite payload and its interactions with the satellite bus, ground stations, and user terminals.</li></ol><p>The second edition adds the third part of the book. Payload unit descriptions have been updated and enlarged. The communications theory chapter has been upgraded and the protocols chapter added to briefly describe all the elements mentioned in part 3. Non-geostationary satellite considerations have been included throughout the book.</p><p>If you are a payload systems engineer, this book can serve as a valuable tool for expanding your knowledge base. If you’re a graduate student, it will guide your introductory learning. As an industry professional, you can make this book a go-to reference.</p>

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