Details

Rhythms of Insect Evolution


Rhythms of Insect Evolution

Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China
1. Aufl.

von: Dong Ren, Chungkun Shih, Taiping Gao, Yongjie Wang, Yunzhi Yao

178,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 13.03.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119427995
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 728

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Beschreibungen

Documents morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, evolutionary changes, and interactions of 23 orders of insects from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous faunas in Northern China This book showcases 23 different orders of insect fossils from the Mid Mesozoic period (165 to 125 Ma) that were discovered in Northeastern China. It covers not only their taxonomy and morphology, but also their potential implications on natural sciences, such as phylogeny, function, interaction, evolution, and ecology. It covers fossil sites; paleogeology; co-existing animals and plants in well-balanced eco-systems; insects in the spotlight; morphological evolution and functional development; and interactions of insects with co-existing plants, vertebrates, and other insects. The book also includes many elegant and beautiful photographs, line drawings, and 3-D reconstructions of fossilized and extant insects. Rhythms of Insect Evolution: Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China features chapter coverage of such insects as the: Ephemeroptera; Odonata; Blattaria; Isoptera; Orthoptera; Notoptera; Dermaptera; Chresmodidae; Phasmatodea; Plecoptera; Psocoptera; Homoptera; Heteroptera; Megaloptera; Raphidioptera; Neuroptera; Coleoptera; Hymenoptera Diptera; Mecoptera; Siphonaptera; Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Combines academic natural science, popular science, and artistic presentation to illustrate rhythms of evolution for fossil insects from the Mid Mesozoic of Northern China Documents morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolutionary changes of 23 orders of insects from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous faunas in Northern China Presents interactions of insects with plants, vertebrates, and other insects based on well-preserved fossil evidence Uses photos of extant insects and plants, fossil and amber specimens, line drawings, and 3-D computer-generated reconstruction artworks to give readers clear and enjoyable impressions of the scientific findings Introduces insect-related stories from western and Chinese culture in text or sidebars to give global readers broader exposures Rhythms of Insect Evolution: Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China will appeal to entomologists, evolutionists, paleontologists, paleoecologists, and natural scientists. 
Preface xi List of Contributors xiii Acknowledgements xvii 1 Jurassic-Cretaceous Non-Marine Stratigraphy and Entomofaunas in Northern China 1 Dong Ren 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Non-marine Jurassic and Cretaceous Insect Fossil-Bearing Lithostratigraphic Division and Correlation in Northern China 1 1.2.1 Yumen-Jiuquan Basin in Gansu Province 1 1.2.2 Intermountain Volcanic Basins in Beijing-Northern Hebei-Western Liaoning-Southeastern Inner Mongolia 3 1.3 Non-marine Jurassic and Cretaceous Entomofaunas in Northern China 4 1.3.1 Yanliao Entomofauna 5 1.3.2 Jehol Entomofauna in the Yanliao Area 8 1.3.3 Fuxin Entomofauna 10 1.4 Geological Ages of Non-marine Jurassic and Cretaceous Strata and Entomofaunas in Northern China 10 References 12 2 Coexisting Animals and Plants in the Ecosystems 17 Chungkun Shih, Taiping Gao, and Dong Ren 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Representative Fossils of Coexisting Animals 17 2.3 Representative Fossils of Coexisting Plants 24 References 28 3 Insects – In the Spotlight 31 Taiping Gao, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 3.1 Introduction to Insects 31 3.2 How to Identify an Insect 31 3.3 Origin and Evolution of Insects 35 References 38 4 A History of Paleoentomology in China 41 Dong Ren, Chungkun Shih, and Taiping Gao 4.1 Introduction 41 4.2 Early Foundational Studies (1923–1935) 41 4.3 Early Taxonomic Studies (1965–1985) 42 4.4 Major Taxonomic Studies (1985–Present) 43 4.5 Phylogenetic and Paleobiological Studies (1991–Present) 44 4.6 International Cooperative Studies (2000–Present) 45 References 48 5 Ephemeroptera – Mayflies 51 MeiWang, Qingqing Lin, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 5.1 Introduction to Ephemeroptera 51 5.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Ephemeroptera 53 5.3 Representative Fossils of Ephemeroptera from Northern China 53 References 59 6 Odonata – Dragonflies and Damselflies 63 Qiang Yang, Dong Ren, Hong Pang, and Chungkun Shih 6.1 Introduction to Odonata 63 6.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Odonata 66 6.3 Representative Fossils of Odonata from Northern China 66 References 86 7 Blattaria – Cockroaches 91 Junhui Liang, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 7.1 Introduction to Blattaria 91 7.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Blattodea 92 7.3 Representative Fossils of Blattaria from Northern China 93 References 109 8 Termitoidae – Termites 113 Zhipeng Zhao, Dong Ren, and Chungkun Shih 8.1 Introduction to Termitoidae 113 8.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Termites 115 8.3 Representative Fossils of Termites from Northern China 116 References 117 9 Orthoptera – Grasshoppers and Katydids 121 Jun-Jie Gu, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 9.1 Introduction to Orthoptera 121 9.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Orthoptera 122 9.3 Representative Fossils of Orthoptera from Northern China 124 References 134 10 Notoptera – Rock Crawlers and Ice Crawlers 137 Yingying Cui, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 10.1 Introduction to Notoptera (Mantophasmatodea and Grylloblattodea) 137 10.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Notoptera (Mantophasmatodea and Grylloblattodea) 138 10.3 Representative Fossils of Notoptera (Mantophasmatodea and Grylloblattodea) from Northern China 139 References 145 11 Dermaptera – Earwigs 149 Mingyue Ren, Chungkun Shih, Changyue Xing, and Dong Ren 11.1 Introduction to Dermaptera 149 11.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Dermaptera 150 11.3 Representative Fossils of Dermaptera from Northern China 150 References 155 12 Chresmodidae –Water-Walking Insects 157 Chaofan Shi, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 12.1 Introduction to Chresmodidae 157 12.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Chresmodidae 158 12.3 Representative Fossils of Chresmodidae from Northern China 159 References 162 13 Phasmatodea – Stick Insects and Leaf Insects 165 Chaofan Shi, Chungkun Shih, Sha Chen, and Dong Ren 13.1 Introduction to Phasmatodea 165 13.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Phasmatodea 166 13.3 Representative Fossils of Phasmatodea from Northern China 168 References 172 14 Plecoptera – Stoneflies 175 Yingying Cui, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 14.1 Introduction to Plecoptera 175 14.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Plecoptera 176 14.3 Representative Fossils of Plecoptera from Northern China 176 References 183 15 Psocoptera – Barklice and Booklice 185 RuiqianWang, Yunzhi Yao, Dong Ren, and Chungkun Shih 15.1 Introduction to Psocoptera 185 15.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Psocoptera 185 15.3 Representative Fossils of Psocoptera from Northern China 186 References 187 16 Homoptera – Cicadas and Hoppers 189 Ying Wang, Xiao Zhang, Tingying Zhang, Xue Liu, Chungkun Shih, Yunzhi Yao, and Dong Ren 16.1 Introduction to Homoptera 189 16.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Homoptera 190 16.3 Representative Fossils of Homoptera from Northern China 192 References 218 17 Heteroptera – True Bugs 225 Sile Du, Shan Lin, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren, and Yunzhi Yao 17.1 Introduction to Heteroptera 225 17.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Heteroptera and Fossil Coleorrhyncha 227 17.3 Representative Fossils of Heteroptera from Northern China 228 References 262 18 Megaloptera – Dobsonflies, Fishflies, and Alderflies 269 Yongjie Wang, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 18.1 Introduction to Megaloptera 269 18.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Megaloptera 269 18.3 Representative Fossils of Megaloptera from Northern China 271 References 273 19 Raphidioptera – Snakeflies 275 Hui Fang, Yongjie Wang, Dong Ren, and Chungkun Shih 19.1 Introduction to Raphidioptera 275 19.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Raphidioptera 275 19.3 Representative Fossils of Raphidioptera from Northern China 276 References 282 20 Neuroptera – Lacewings 285 Zhenzhen Chen, Shuo Huang, Yu Chang, Yongjie Wang, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 20.1 Introduction to Neuroptera 285 20.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Neuroptera 287 20.3 Representative Fossils of Neuroptera from Northern China 290 References 32920.1 Introduction to Neuroptera 285 20.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Neuroptera 287 20.3 Representative Fossils of Neuroptera from Northern China 290 References 329 21 Coleoptera – Beetles 337 Yali Yu, Zhenhua Liu, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 21.1 Introduction to Coleoptera 337 21.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Coleoptera 342 21.3 Representative Fossils of Coleoptera from Northern China 344 References 414 22 Hymenoptera – Sawflies and Wasps 429 Mei Wang, Longfeng Li, Chungkun Shih, Taiping Gao, and Dong Ren 22.1 Introduction to Hymenoptera 429 22.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Hymenoptera 435 22.3 Representative Fossils of Hymenoptera from Northern China 436 References 490 23 Diptera – True Flies with TwoWings 497 Ye Han, Xiuna Ye, Cuiping Feng, Kuiyan Zhang, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 23.1 Introduction to Diptera 497 23.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Diptera 500 23.3 Representative Fossils of Diptera from Northern China 501 References 546 24 Mecoptera – Scorpionflies and Hangingflies 555 Xiaodan Lin, Chungkun Shih, Sheng Li, and Dong Ren 24.1 Introduction to Mecoptera 555 24.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Mecoptera 558 24.3 Representative Fossils of Mecoptera from Northern China 559 References 589 25 Siphonaptera – Fleas 597 Taiping Gao, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 25.1 Introduction to Siphonaptera 597 25.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Fleas 598 25.3 Representative Fossils of Siphonaptera from Northern China 600 References 605 26 Trichoptera – Caddisflies 607 Mei Wang,Weiting Zhang, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 26.1 Introduction to Trichoptera 607 26.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Trichoptera 607 26.3 Representative Fossils of Trichoptera from Northern China 608 References 616 27 Lepidoptera – Butterflies and Moths 619 Weiting Zhang, Chungkun Shih, and Dong Ren 27.1 Introduction to Lepidoptera 619 27.2 Progress in the Studies of Fossil Lepidoptera 620 27.3 Representative Fossils of Lepidoptera from Northern China 622 References 629 28 Insect Feeding 631 Chungkun Shih, Taiping Gao, Yunzi Yao, and Dong Ren 28.1 Introduction 631 28.2 PollinationMutualism – Feeding on Pollination Drops Before Angiosperms 631 28.2.1 Scorpionflies with Elongate Siphonate Mouthparts 631 28.2.2 Kalligrammatid Lacewings with Elongate Siphonate Mouthparts 632 28.3 Predation – Preying on Other Insects 635 28.3.1 Mantispid Lacewings with Raptorial Forelegs 635 28.3.2 Dipteromantispidae with Raptorial Forelegs 636 28.3.3 Hangingflies – Bittacidae and Cimbrophlebiidae 636 28.4 Blood Feeding by Ectoparasite Fleas 636 28.5 Blood Feeding by True Bugs 639 28.6 Herbivores: Feeding on Plant Matter as Evidenced by Insect Damage Types 643 References 646 29 Camouflage,Mimicry or EyespotWarning 651 Chungkun Shih, YongjieWang, and Dong Ren 29.1 Introduction 651 29.2 Camouflage by Fossil Insects 651 29.2.1 Irregular Light and Dark Patches Covering the EntireWing 651 29.2.2 Irregular Dark or Light Markings on Part of the Margin and/or Center ofWing 653 29.2.3 Dispersed Dark Spots Large or Small 654 29.2.4 Dispersed Small Light Spots or Large Light Spots Surrounded by Small Dark Spots 654 29.2.5 Regular Transverse (from Anterior to Posterior Margin) Stripes of Light and Dark Bands 654 29.2.6 Regular Longitudinal (from Base to the Apex) Stripes of Light and Dark Bands 655 29.3 Mimicry by Fossil Insects 655 29.3.1 Ancient Pinnate Leaf Mimicry among Lacewings 656 29.3.2 Mimicry and Mutualism among Hangingflies and Ginkgo Plants 657 29.4 EyespotWarning for Fossil Insects 659 29.4.1 Eyespots and Spots on the Forewings of Kalligrammatids 659 29.5 Summary and Prospects 660 References 662 30 Gene Propagation – Courtship, Mating, and Next Generation 667 Chungkun Shih, Taiping Gao, and Dong Ren 30.1 Introduction 667 30.2 Extreme Sexual Display 667 30.3 Serenade with Love Songs 668 30.4 Sensing and Locating PotentialMates with Ramified Antennae 670 30.5 Forever Love –The Hitherto Earliest Record of Copulating Insects 670 30.6 Long Ovipositors Used for Laying Eggs into Hosts 673 30.7 Breeding – Oviposition, Gall and Leaf Mining 675 References 679 Index 683
DONG REN, CHUNGKUN SHIH, TAIPING GAO, YONGJIE WANG and YUNZHI YAO are all professors in the College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China. Dr. Shih is also a volunteer Research Associate in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA.
DISCOVER THE SECRETS AND SILENT STORIES REVEALED BY EXTRAORDINARY INSECT FOSSILS FROM THE MID-MESOZOIC FAUNAS IN NORTHERN CHINA Rhythms of Insect Evolution: Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China showcases 23 different orders of insect fossils from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (165 to 125 Ma) that were collected in Northern China. The book exhibits and reports these fascinating insect fossils in brilliant detail, telling their stories with a combination of expert commentary and specially produced photographs, line drawings, and 3-D reconstructions. It covers not only their taxonomy and morphology, but also their potential implications on natural sciences, such as phylogeny, function, interaction, evolution, and ecology. It highlights fossil sites; stratigraphy; co-existing animals and plants in well-balanced eco-systems; insects in the spotlight; morphological evolution and functional development; and interactions of insects with co-existing plants, vertebrates, and other insects. The content of the book includes: A combination of academic natural science, popular science, and artistic presentation to illustrate rhythms of evolution for these fossil insects Documents of morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolutionary changes of 23 orders of insects from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous faunas in Northern China Interactions of insects with plants, vertebrates, and other insects based on well-preserved fossil evidence Photos of extant insects and plants, fossil and amber specimens, line drawings, and 3-D reconstruction artworks to give readers clear and enjoyable impressions of the scientific findings Insect-related stories from Western and Chinese culture in text or sidebars to give global readers broader exposures Entomologists, evolutionists, paleontologists, paleoecologists, and anyone with an interest in the natural sciences will find Rhythms of Insect Evolution an illuminating and colourful journey through the evolutionary changes of these ancient creatures.

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