Quantitative Assessments of Distributed SystemsMethodologies and Techniques
Performability Engineering Series 1. Aufl.
Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed systems and covering aspects such as performance evaluation, reliability/availability, energy efficiency, scalability, and sustainability. Specifically, techniques for checking and verifying if and how a distributed system satisfies the requirements, as well as how to properly evaluate non-functional aspects, or how to optimize the overall behavior of the system, are all discussed in the book. The scope has been selected to provide a thorough coverage on issues, models. and techniques relating to validation, evaluation and optimization of distributed systems. The key objective of this book is to help to bridge the gaps between modeling theory and the practice in distributed systems through specific examples.
Preface xiiiPART I VERIFICATION1. Modeling and Verification of Distributed Systems Using Markov Decision Processes 31.1 Introduction 41.2 Markov Decision Processes 51.3 Markov Decision Well-Formed Net formalism 81.4 Case study: Peer-to-Peer Botnets 101.5 Conclusion 18Appendices: Well-formed Net Formalism 21A.1.1 Syntax of Basic Predicates 22A.1.2 Markings and Enabling 23References 252 Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Systems in Stoklaim: A Tutorial 272.1 Introduction 282.2 StoKlaim: Stochastic Klaim 292.3 StoKlaim Operational Semantics 342.4 MoSL: Mobile Stochastic Logic 432.5 jSAM: Java Stochastic Model-Checker 472.6 Leader Election in StoKlaim 492.7 Concluding Remarks 52References 533 Stochastic Path Properties of Distributed Systems: the CSLTA Approach 573.1 Introduction 583.2 The Reference Formalisms for System Definition 593.3 The Formalism for Path Property Definition: CSLTA 613.4 CSLTA at work: a Fault-Tolerant Node 673.5 Literature Comparison 713.6 Summary and Final Remarks 73References 75PART II EVALUATION4 Failure Propagation in Load-Sharing Complex Systems 814.1 Introduction 824.2 Building Blocks 844.3 Sand Box for Distributed Failures 894.4 Summary 102References 1035 Approximating Distributions and Transient Probabilities by Matrix Exponential Distributions and Functions 1075.1 Introduction 1085.2 Phase Type and Matrix Exponential Distributions 1095.3 Bernstein Polynomials and Expolynomials 1145.4 Application of BEs to Distribution Fitting 1165.5 Application of BEs to Transient Probabilities 1215.6 Conclusions 124References 1256 Worst-Case Analysis of Tandem Queueing Systems Using Network Calculus 1296.1 Introduction 1306.2 Basic Network Calculus Modeling: Per-flow Scheduling 1326.3 Advanced Network Calculus Modeling: Aggregate Multiplexing 1486.4 Tandem Systems Traversed by Several Flows 1526.5 Mathematical Programming Approach 1546.6 Related Work 1656.7 Numerical Results 1666.8 Conclusions 168References 1717 Cloud Evaluation: Benchmarking and Monitoring 1757.1 Introduction 1767.2 Benchmarking 1767.3 Benchmarking with mOSAIC 1847.4 Monitoring 1857.5 Cloud Monitoring in mOSAIC?s Cloud Agency 1917.6 Conclusions 193References 1958 Multiformalism and Multisolution Strategies for Systems Performance 2018.1 Introduction 2028.2 Multiformalism and Multisolution 2038.3 Choosing the Right Strategy 2058.4 Learning by the Experience 2068.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 218References 219PART III OPTIMIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY9 Quantitative Assessment of Distributed Networks Through Hybrid Stochastic Modeling 2259.1 Introduction 2269.2 Modeling of Complex Systems 2289.3 Performance Evaluation of KNXnet/IP Networks Flow Control Mechanism 2349.4 LCII: On-line Risk Estimation of A Power-Telco Network 2489.5 Conclusion 259References 26110 Design of IT Infrastructures of Data Centers: An Approach Based on Business and Technical Metrics 26510.1 Introduction 26610.2 Fundamental Concepts 26710.3 Business-Oriented Models 27010.4 Data Center Infrastructure Models 27410.5 Methodology 27710.6 Case Study - Data Center Design 28310.7 Conclusion 292References 29711 Software Rejuvenation and its Application in Distributed Systems 30111.1 Introduction 30211.2 Software rejuvenation scheduling classification 30411.3 Software rejuvenation granularity classification 30711.4 Methods, policies and metrics of software rejuvenation 31411.5 Software rejuvenation in distributed systems 31511.6 Summary 318References 32112 Machine Learning Based Dynamic Reconfiguration of Distributed Data Management Systems 32712.1 Introduction 32812.2 Methodologies 33012.3 Brief overview of Neural Networks 33412.4 System Architecture and Performance Prediction Scheme 33612.5 Experimentation 33912.6 Conclusions 346References 34713 Going Green with the Networked Cloud: Methodologies and Assessment 35113.1 Introduction 35213.2 Modeling of Data Centre Power Consumption 35313.3 Energy Efficiency in the Cloud 35613.4 Performance Analysis Methodologies and Tools 36113.5 Case Study: Performance Evaluation of Energy Aware Resource Allocation in the Cloud 36613.6 Summary 370References 371Index 375
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