Cover Page

Contents

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

1 History of FacilitiesManagement

1.1 Origins of facilities management

1.2 A brief history of FM

1.3 Growth of the FM profession

1.4 Defining FM

1.5 Development of FM

1.6 Trends

1.7 FM standard

2 Key Drivers of FM

2.1 The business organisation

2.2 Demand and supply

2.3 Roles of FM

2.4 Drivers of FM

2.5 Champion of end-user

2.6 Flexibility in office space

2.7 A recruitment differentiator

2.8 Scope of services

2.9 Impact of work space on productivity

2.10 The virtual office

2.11 Technology systems integration

2.12 Building designs

2.13 Financial performance

2.14 Ownership of the property

2.15 Value added

2.16 Service Profit Chain

2.17 FM’s contribution

2.18 Performance measurement

2.19 Performance Indicators

2.20 Benchmarking

2.21 Future trends

3 Activities in FM

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Facilitation of services and information

3.3 Management functions

3.4 Premises and building management

3.5 Business support services

3.6 Scope and extent of FM activities and services

4 Delivering FM – FM Strategy

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Business strategy

4.3 Identifying the needs

4.4 Benefits of a strategic approach

4.5 Strategic analysis

4.6 Determining factors

4.7 Premises policy

4.8 Facilities audit

4.9 Audit process

4.10 Awareness

4.11 Space audit

4.12 Audit stage 1 – fact finding

4.13 Audit stage 2 – further investigation

4.14 Audit benefits

4.15 Developing Solutions

4.16 Strategy implementation

4.17 FM strategy models

4.18 In-house or self-perform

4.19 Single or packaged services

4.20 ‘Bundled’ services

4.21 Total or integrated facilities management

4.22 Managing agent

4.23 Private Finance Initiative (PFI)

4.24 Corporate PFI

4.25 Special purpose vehicles (SPVs)

5 Outsourcing

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Multi-service contracts

5.3 Best Value (BV)

5.4 Longer contracts

5.5 Integrated FM solutions

5.6 Benefit analysis

5.7 Intelligent client

5.8 FM outsourcing models

5.9 Selection process

6 Financial Management

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Financial systems and process

6.3 The finance department

6.4 Financial controls

6.5 Financial statements

6.6 Finance and the FM

6.7 Sources of funding

6.8 Use of funding

6.9 Fixed assets

6.10 Working capital

6.11 Investments

6.12 The balance sheet

6.13 The profit and loss account

6.14 Cash flow statement

6.15 Performance measurement

6.16 Profitability

6.17 Liquidity

6.18 Liquidity issues

6.19 Annual reports of accounts

6.20 Recent developments in financial accounting

6.21 Budgets

6.22 Roles of budgets

6.23 Budget design

6.24 Capital or revenue

6.25 Property costs

6.26 Budget variances

6.27 Cost data

6.28 Cost accounting

6.29 Cost centres

6.30 Cash flow

6.31 Tax

6.32 Value Added Tax (VAT)

6.33 Landfill Tax

6.34 Climate Change Levy

6.35 Business rates

6.36 Stamp duty

6.37 Income Taxes

6.38 Corporation Tax

6.39 Tax status of construction workers

6.40 Depreciation

6.41 Financial business cases

6.42 Investment appraisal methods

6.43 Cost benefit analysis

6.44 Payback period

6.45 Discounted cash flow (DCF)

6.46 Net present value (NPV)

6.47 Internal rate of return (IRR)

6.48 Preparing a financial proposal

6.49 Submission

6.50 Building life cycle costs

6.51 Life cycle costing methodology

6.52 Evaluating life cycle costs

6.53 Sinking funds

6.54 The impact of inflation

7 Property and Estates Management

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Property industry

7.3 Market influences

7.4 The cyclical nature of the market

7.5 A property portfolio

7.6 The investment market

7.7 Property investors

7.8 Property management

7.9 Property professionals and specialists

7.10 Developing a property strategy

7.11 Property and asset registers

7.12 Dilapidations

7.13 Vacant Property

8 Property Legislation and Leases

8.1 Ownership and tenure

8.2 The Estate Agents Act 1979

8.3 The Property Misdescriptions Act 1991

8.4 Defective Premises Act

8.5 Occupiers Liability Act

8.6 Energy Performance of Buildings (Certificates & Inspections) (EPC)

8.7 Health and Safety Legislation

8.8 Boundaries and Party Walls

8.9 Landlord and tenant legislation

8.10 The contents and terms of a commercial lease

8.11 Tenant’s covenants

8.12 Landlord’s covenants

8.13 Schedules

8.14 Trigger notices

8.15 Time limits

8.16 User

8.17 Alienation or assignment

8.18 Arbitration

8.19 Additional covenants

8.20 Lease renewals

8.21 Security of tenure

8.22 The machinery for termination – Sections 24–28

8.23 Landlord’s grounds for opposing a new tenancy – Section 30

8.24 The new tenancy

8.25 Section 32 Rule

8.26 Market forces and lease renewal

8.27 Repairs

9 Developing New Buildings

9.1 The development process

9.2 Planning legislation

9.3 The Town and Country Planning Act

9.4 Planning permission

9.5 The Town and Country Planning Use Classes Order 2005

9.6 Planning policy guidance notes

9.7 Development plans

9.8 Planning agreements

9.9 Breach of planning control

9.10 Users pre-1964

9.11 Listed buildings

9.12 Conservation areas

9.13 Building design

9.14 Types and uses

9.15 Drivers of building design

9.16 Sustainable construction

9.17 Passivhaus

9.18 Intelligent buildings

9.19 Building Information Modelling (BIM)

9.20 Structure and its effect on building use

9.21 Planning grids and the use of space

9.22 Developers’ fit-out

9.23 Measuring building efficiency

9.24 Building efficiency

9.25 Layout impact

9.26 Building performance

9.27 Design Quality Indicator (DQI)

9.28 Commercial building materials

9.29 Building Regulations

9.30 Approved Documents

10 Project Management

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Project management process

10.3 Fundamentals of project management

10.4 Project manager (PM) role

10.5 Responsibilities

10.6 Project briefs

10.7 TOR

10.8 Project programmes

10.9 Project timescales

10.10 Quality plan

10.11 FADE project methodology

10.12 PRINCE

10.13 Project planning

10.14 Planning techniques

10.15 Gantt charts

10.16 CPA

10.17 Project control

10.18 Risk management

10.19 Project budget

10.20 Project teams

10.21 Project support

10.22 Project handover

11 Space Management

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Data and information gathering

11.3 Importance of space

11.4 Space management policy

11.5 Space guidelines

11.6 Effective use of space

11.7 The FM cost driver

11.8 Business performance

11.9 Space planning

11.10 Impact of building structures on space use

11.11 Impact of building services on space use

11.12 Space allocation

11.13 Space utilisation

11.14 Space audits

11.15 Building efficiency

11.16 Building operating costs

11.17 Measuring terminology

11.18 New developments in space use

11.19 Legislation and compliance

12 Accommodation Management

12.1 Accommodation changes

12.2 Move requests

12.3 Churn

12.4 Swing space

12.5 Planning a move

12.6 Implementation

12.7 Post move

13 Procurement

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Purchase criteria

13.3 Procurement policy

13.4 Service contracts

13.5 Procurement strategy

13.6 Procurement stages

13.7 Strategic sourcing

13.8 Spend analysis

13.9 Identifying the need

13.10 Demand management

13.11 Supplier selection

13.12 Specifications

13.13 Tendering process

13.14 The tender document

13.15 Invitation to tender process

13.16 Cost models

13.17 Whole life costing

13.18 Value engineering (VE)

13.19 E-purchasing

13.20 Legislation

13.21 European procurement legislation

13.22 Bribery Act

14 Contracts and Contract Management

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Consideration

14.3 Communication of offer and acceptance

14.4 Acceptance to be identical with offer

14.5 Withdrawal and revocation of offer

14.6 Contracts by deed

14.7 Contracts which are not binding

14.8 Contract types

14.9 Contract methods

14.10 Contents of a contract

14.11 Lump sum contract

14.12 Measured term contract

14.13 Term contract

14.14 Fixed price contract

14.15 Reimbursable contract

14.16 Schedule of rates

14.17 Reimbursable and fixed fee contract

14.18 Contract relationships

14.19 Partnership

14.20 Contract extensions

14.21 Service level agreement (SLA)

14.22 Standard contract forms

14.23 Chartered Institute of Building Facilities Management Contract

14.24 Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) Forms of Contract

14.25 General Contract Works (GCW) 10 Facilities Management (2000)

14.26 NEC Contract

14.27 BSRIA Soft Landings

14.28 BE Collaborative Contract

14.29 Private Finance Initiatives (PFI)

14.30 Terms and conditions

15 Legislation

15.1 Introduction

15.2 UK legal system

15.3 Impact on facilities management

15.4 Duties

15.5 Negligence

15.6 Vicarious liability

15.7 Consultation

15.8 Competence

15.9 Operational compliance

15.10 Records

15.11 Strategic impact

15.12 Corporate Manslaughter

15.13 Bribery Act

16 Legislation AffectingFM Activities

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Safety policy

16.3 Enforcing authorities

16.4 Management of Health and Safety Regulations

16.5 The HSE five-step approach

16.6 Risk assessment standards

16.7 Hazards

16.8 Risk control

16.9 Risk register

16.10 Definitions of hazard and risk

16.11 Hazard identification

16.12 Work activities

16.13 Risk assessment

16.14 Risk assessment records

16.15 The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 amended 2002

16.16 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health

16.17 Working at Height Regulations 2005

16.18 Provision and Use of Workplace Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER)

16.19 Manual Handling Regulations 1992

16.20 Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (PPE)

16.21 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER)

16.22 Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005

16.23 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997

16.24 Part L Building Regulations 2010

16.25 Data Protection Act 1998

16.26 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIPA)

16.27 Human Rights Act 1998

16.28 Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations

16.29 Working Time Regulations 1998

16.30 Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Directors’ Reports) Regulations 2013

17 Fire Safety and Legislation

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Legislation and standards

17.3 Building design

17.4 Building Regulations

17.5 Designing space

17.6 Standards

17.7 Balanced solution

17.8 Fire separation

17.9 Classification of materials, buildings and fixtures

17.10 Building classifications

17.11 Furnishings

17.12 Means of escape

17.13 Fire signage

17.14 Fire detection and fire alarms

17.15 Fire detection system categories

17.16 Control panels

17.17 Zoning

17.18 Fire, smoke and heat detectors

17.19 Sounders

17.20 Call points

17.21 Cabling

17.22 Suppression systems

17.23 Fire extinguishers

17.24 Hose reels

17.25 Fire blankets

17.26 Sprinklers

17.27 Fire hydrants

17.28 Dry and wet risers

17.29 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005

17.30 Risk assessment

17.31 Assessment methods

17.32 Training records

17.33 Fire-trained staff

17.34 The fire drill

17.35 Refuges

18 Electrical Suppliesand Electrical Safety

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Single-phase supply

18.3 Three-phase low voltage supply

18.4 High voltage three-phase supply

18.5 Wiring

18.6 Inspection and testing

18.7 Standards – 17th Edition

18.8 Portable electrical equipment

18.9 Safety

18.10 Electric shock

18.11 Earthing

18.12 Bonding

18.13 Circuit protection

18.14 Cable management

18.15 Power quality

18.16 Power failures

18.17 Assessing the need

18.18 Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)

18.19 Generators

19 Accessibility

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Inclusive FM

19.3 The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) (1995)

19.4 Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Act 2001

19.5 Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004

19.6 Disability Discrimination Act 2005

19.7 Equality Act 2010

19.8 Disability awareness

19.9 Front of house services

19.10 Personal Emergency Evacuation Plans (PEEP)

19.11 Communication

19.12 Physical adjustments

19.13 Claims

20 First Aid at Work

20.1 Definition of first aid

20.2 Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981

20.3 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995

20.4 Fit Note

21 Asbestos

21.1 Regulations

21.2 Asbestos management plan

21.3 Management options

21.4 Asbestos survey types

21.5 Asbestos material assessment algorithm

21.6 Asbestos priority assessment

21.7 Asbestos management strategies

21.8 Managing an asbestos incident

21.9 Summary checklist

22 Water Supplies and Water Safety

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Water systems

22.3 Water consumption

22.4 Benefits of water conservation

22.5 Water industry

22.6 Compliance

22.7 Water pollution

22.8 Drinking water

22.9 Washing and cleaning

22.10 Food preparation

22.11 Water pressure

22.12 Drainage

22.13 Sustainable Urban Drainage Scheme (SUDS)

22.14 Specialist maintenance

22.15 Water design capacity

22.16 Supply continuity

22.17 Management review

22.18 Water management policy

22.19 Water-saving technology

22.20 Water recycling systems

22.21 Urinal controls

22.22 Water-saving tips

22.23 Leak detection

22.24 Water safety

22.25 L8 ACoP

22.26 Code of Conduct

22.27 Risk assessment

22.28 Legionnaires’ disease

22.29 The maintenance implications of Legionnaires’ disease

22.30 Maintenance routines and operating procedures

22.31 Coliform bacteria

22.32 Pseudomonas aeruginosa

22.33 Water quality legislation

22.34 Water quality testing

23 Construction Design and Management Regulations

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Notifiable works

23.3 Impact of Regulations on FM

23.4 CDM co-ordinator duties

23.5 Designer duties

23.6 Principal Contractor (PC) duties

23.7 Competence

23.8 Corporate competency

23.9 Individual competency

23.10 Designers’ competency

23.11 CDM co-ordinator

23.12 Demolition

23.13 Documents

24 Business Continuity

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Basic principles

24.3 Legislation

24.4 Standards

24.5 Impact on business

24.6 Policy

24.7 Planning

24.8 Business impact analysis (BIA)

24.9 Corporate strategy

24.10 Critical assets

24.11 Hazards, consequences and impacts

24.12 Benefits of a BIA

24.13 Unavailability impact table

24.14 Risk assessment

24.15 Documents

24.16 Implementation

24.17 Two-team approach

24.18 Crisis management team

24.19 Logistics

24.20 Telephony and data communications

24.21 Testing the plan

24.22 Upkeep of records

24.23 Audit

25 Maintenance – Definitionsand Strategies

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Maintenance priorities

25.3 Maintenance Classifications

25.4 Maintenance policy

25.5 Computerised maintenance management systems (CMMS)

25.6 Asset registers

25.7 Maintenance programmes

25.8 Maintenance activities

25.9 Maintenance schedules

25.10 Controlling maintenance work

25.11 Building records

25.12 Annual inspections

25.13 Condition surveys

25.14 Planning the survey

25.15 Component life cycles

25.16 Bathtub curve

25.17 Element and component life expectancies

26 Mechanical and Electrical Systems and their Maintenance

26.1 Introduction

26.2 HVAC

26.3 Heating systems

26.4 Direct heating systems

26.5 Indirect heating systems

26.6 Ventilation

26.7 Relative humidity (RH)

26.8 Natural ventilation

26.9 Mechanical ventilation

26.10 Air conditioning

26.11 Comfort control

26.12 Selection of an appropriate system

26.13 Air conditioning systems

26.14 Dampers

26.15 Fans

26.16 Filters

26.17 Displacement ventilation systems

26.18 Fan coil units

26.19 Chilled beam

26.20 Diffusers

26.21 Heat pumps

26.22 Packaged air conditioning units

26.23 Refrigeration

26.24 Humidification

26.25 Cooling systems

26.26 Fire safety

26.27 Standards

26.28 Lifts

26.29 Lighting

26.30 Lighting requirements

26.31 Light fittings

26.32 Lighting efficiency

26.33 Lighting controls

26.34 BMS

26.35 Intelligent buildings

27 Information Communication Technology

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Ownership options

27.3 Telephone systems

27.4 Telephony services

27.5 Communication wiring

27.6 Fibre Optics

27.7 Cabling distribution

27.8 Structured Cabling Systems

27.9 Data Rooms / Data Centres

27.10 Wireless networks (WLANs)

27.11 Cellular networks

27.12 Personal area networks

27.13 Virtual private networks (VPNs)

27.14 Firewalls

27.15 Smartphones

27.16 Cloud Computing

27.17 Tele-presence

27.18 Video conferencing

27.19 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

27.20 Applications

28 Grounds and External Areas

28.1 External areas

28.2 In-house or contract-out landscaping maintenance

28.3 Landscaping standards

28.4 Landscape architects

28.5 Decay of trees

28.6 Damage to trees

28.7 Removal of trees and tree stumps

28.8 Ownership of trees

28.9 Spreading of roots and branches

28.10 Dangerous trees

28.11 Licence to plant

28.12 Tree preservation orders (TPOs)

28.13 Conservation areas

28.14 Internal planting

28.15 Artificial plants

28.16 Maintenance of hardstandings and external areas

28.17 Vegetation and planted areas

28.18 Boundary fencing

28.19 Brickwork walls

28.20 Grounds maintenance contract

28.21 Site footpaths and roads

28.22 Workplace parking

28.23 Parking policy

28.24 Car park categories

28.25 Car park design

28.26 Bicycle parking

28.27 Motorcycle parking

28.28 Car parking standards

28.29 Travel planning

29 Fabric Maintenance

29.1 Maintenance implications of building structures

29.2 Fabric maintenance programmes

29.3 Internal and external finishes

29.4 External walls and building envelope

29.5 Guttering and rain downpipes

30 Energy Management

30.1 Introduction

30.2 Energy consumption

30.3 Energy efficient building designs

30.4 Energy management

30.5 Carbon footprint

30.6 Choice of fuel

30.7 Electricity

30.8 Combined heat and power (CHP) systems

30.9 Renewable energy sources

30.10 Gas

30.11 Energy monitoring

30.12 Metering

30.13 Investment

30.14 Energy policy

30.15 CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme

30.16 Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Directors’ Reports) Regulations 2013

30.17 Carbon Trust Standard

30.18 Energy Standard – ISO 50001

30.19 Energy Audit Standard

30.20 PAS 2060

30.21 Legislation

30.22 Building Regulations

30.23 Building Energy Performance Directive (EPBD)

30.24 Energy Performance Certificates (EPC)

30.25 Display Energy Certificates (DEC)

30.26 Feed in Tariff (FIT)

30.27 Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI)

31 Front of House

31.1 Reception services

31.2 The first impression

31.3 The welcome process

31.4 Welcome formalities

31.5 Managing visitor expectations

31.6 Best practice

31.7 Customer service

31.8 Customer satisfaction

31.9 Visiting groups

31.10 Meet and greet service

31.11 Styles of welcome and reception service

31.12 Welcome boards

31.13 Remote entry points

31.14 The goodbye

31.15 Reception service standards

31.16 Corporate duty of care

31.17 Recording visitor information

31.18 Display of company signage

31.19 Visitor risk assessments

31.20 Fire precautions in the reception area

31.21 CCTV surveillance

31.22 Trespassing and theft

31.23 Switchboard services

31.24 Room booking services

32 Housekeeping and Cleaning Services

32.1 Cleaning services

32.2 Cleaning methods

32.3 Cleaning standards

32.4 Cleaning specifications

32.5 Cleaning costs

32.6 Advantages and disadvantages of contract cleaning

32.7 Staff

32.8 Daytime cleaning

32.9 Equipment

32.10 Microfibre materials

32.11 Ionators and Active Water

32.12 Cleaning chemicals

32.13 Detergents

32.14 Properties of detergents

32.15 Types of detergent

32.16 Sealants

32.17 Solvents

32.18 Example contract cleaning specification

32.19 Checklist

33 Security Management

33.1 Introduction

33.2 Security strategy

33.3 Contract security services

33.4 Licensed security roles

33.5 Increased importance

33.6 Contractor selection

33.7 Service standards

33.8 Site survey and analysis

33.9 Assignment instructions (AIs)

33.10 Access control

33.11 Structure of buildings

33.12 Control concepts

33.13 Access control system design

33.14 Manned access control

33.15 Access log or register

33.16 Entry to interior or restricted areas

33.17 Vehicle control

33.18 Equipment control

33.19 Asset tagging

33.20 Door security

33.21 Door furniture

33.22 Windows

33.23 Electronic access control systems

33.24 Components in electronic systems

33.25 Advantages and disadvantages of electronic systems

33.26 Training

33.27 Special considerations

33.28 Disability discrimination

34 Customer Relations

34.1 The importance of good service delivery

34.2 Customer care

34.3 Customer service

34.4 Communication

34.5 Service delivery requirements

34.6 Analysis tools

34.7 Questionnaires

34.8 User groups

34.9 Mystery shopping

34.10 Critical service features

34.11 Gap analysis

34.12 Service quality (SERVQUAL)

34.13 Internal customer service

34.14 FM Helpdesk

34.15 Service level agreements (SLAs)

34.16 Service standards

35 Waste Management

35.1 Introduction

35.2 Waste management policy

35.3 Waste management structure

35.4 Waste management procedures

35.5 Duty of care

35.6 Waste minimisation

35.7 Building design

35.8 Operational buildings

35.9 Business activities and business processes

35.10 Product labelling

35.11 Recycling

35.12 Anaerobic Digestion (AD)

35.13 Waste to Energy (WTE)

35.14 Waste product database

35.15 Waste classification

35.16 Waste management audits

35.17 Targets

35.18 Landfill

35.19 Legislation

36 Catering and HospitalityServices

36.1 Introduction

36.2 Contracted-out catering services

36.3 Contract types

36.4 Catering strategy

36.5 Catering objectives

36.6 Catering specification

36.7 Catering costs

36.8 Catering services review

36.9 Food hygiene and safety

36.10 Legislation

37 Quality Management

37.1 Quality

37.2 Quality management (QM)

37.3 Continuous improvement

37.4 Lean

37.5 Quality systems and procedures

37.6 Total quality management

37.7 Business Excellence Model – European Foundation of Quality Management

37.8 Six Sigma

37.9 Quality standards and accreditation schemes

37.10 Standards

37.11 Benchmarking

37.12 FM benchmarking

38 Document Management Services

38.1 Corporate information

38.2 Document management

38.3 Mail

38.4 Reprographics

38.5 Photocopiers

38.6 Printers

38.7 Multi-function devices (MFDs)

38.8 Facsimile (fax) machines

38.9 Electronic document management system (EDMS)

38.10 Audio visual equipment

38.11 Archives

39 Sustainability andEnvironmental Issues

39.1 Introduction

39.2 Historical overview

39.3 Definitions

39.4 Earth’s Resources

39.5 Ecological footprint

39.6 One Planet Living Principles

39.7 FM’s role

39.8 Environmental Impacts

39.9 History of CSR

39.10 CSR responsibilities

39.11 CSR Standards

39.12 Measuring CSR

39.13 Benchmarking CSR

39.14 CSR and Environmental Policy

Index

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List of Abbreviations

AC

air conditioning

AC/DC

alternating current/direct current

ACM

asbestos-containing material

ACoP

Approved Code of Practice

ACPO

Association of Chief Police Officers

ACPOS

Association of Chief Police Officers Scotland

ACT

advanced corporation tax

AD

anaerobic digestion

ADSL

asymmetric digital subscriber line

AFM

Association of Facilities Managers

AGA

Authorised Guarantee Agreement

AHU

air handling unit

AI

Assignment Instruction

AIB

asbestos insulating board

AMR

automatic meter reader

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

AVAB

Automatic Vending Association of Britain

BACS

British Association for Chemical Specialities

BALI

British Association of Landscape Industries

BCM

business continuity management

BCP

business continuity planning/plan

BE

built environment

BIA

Business Impact Analysis

BICSc

British Institute of Cleaning Science

BIFM

British Institute of Facilities Management

BITC

Business in the Community

BMI

building maintenance information or building maintenance index

BMS

building management system

BOO

build, own, operate

BOT

build, operate, transfer

BPA

British Parking Association

BRE

Building Research Establishment

BREEAM

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method

B&ES

Building and Engineering Services Association

BS

British Standard

BSI

British Standards Institute

BSIA

British Security Industry Association

BSRIA

Building Services Research and Information Association

BV

Best Value

BVPP

Best Value Performance Plan

CAD

computer-aided drafting/design

CAFM

computer-aided facilities management

CAR

Control of Asbestos Regulations

CAWR

Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 2006

CBA

cost benefit analysis

CBM

condition based maintenance

CCIA

Computer Communications Industry Association

CCITT

Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphique et Téléphonique

CCTV

closed circuit television

CEA

cost effectiveness analysis

CD

compact disc

CDG – CPL

Carriage of Dangerous Goods – Classification Packaging and Labelling Regulations

CDM

Construction Design and Management Regulations

CEA

cost effectiveness analysis

CFM

Centre for Facilities Management

CHAS

Contractors Health and Safety Assessment Scheme

CHIP

Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging or Supply) Regulations

CHP

combined heat and power

CIAT

Chartered Institute of Architectural Technologists

CIBSE

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineering

CIOB

Chartered Institute of Building

CIPS

Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply Management

CIS

Construction Industry Scheme

CITES

Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species

CMMS

computer-based maintenance management system

COSHH

control of substances hazardous to health

CPA

critical path analysis

cps

characters per second

CPSS

Cleaning Professional’s Skills Suite

CPU

central processing unit

CRC

Carbon Reduction Commitment

CRM

customer relationship management

CSR

corporate social responsibility

CV

constant volume

DBFO

design, build, finance, operate

DCF

discounted cash flow

DCLG

Department of Communities and Local Government

DCMF

design, construct, manage, finance

DDA

Disability Discrimination Act

DEC

Display Energy Certificate

DECC

Department of Energy and Climate Change

DECT

Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications

DHWS

Domestic Hot Water System

DNO

distribution network operator

DOB

Daily Occurrence Book or Date of Birth

DoE

Department of Environment in Northern Ireland

DPC

damp proof course

DSL

digital subscriber line

EA

Environment Agency

ECA

enhanced capital allowance

EDMS

electronic document management system

EfW

energy from waste

EFQM

European Foundation of Quality Management

EHO

Environmental Health Officer

EIA

Electronic Industries Association

EIA/TIA

Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunications Industry Association

EMI

electromagnetic interference

EMS

Electromagnetic screen

EPBD

Building Energy Performance Directive

EPC

Energy Performance Certificate

ERP

enterprise resource planning

EU

European Union

FAQs

frequently asked questions

FCSI

Food Service Consultants Society International

FF&E

fittings, furniture and equipment

FFI

fees for intervention

FIT

feed-in tariff

FM

Facilities Management or Facilities Manager

FMA

Facilities Management Association

FMI

Facility Management Institute

FTSE

Financial Times Stock Exchange

GCW

General Contract Works

GDO

General Development Order

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GEA

gross external area

GHG

greenhouse gases

GIA

gross internal area

GPRS

general packet radio service

GPS

global positioning system

GRI

global reporting initiative

GSM

global system for mobile communication

HACCP

hazard analysis of critical control points

HCIMA

Hotel and Catering International Management Association

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HMIP

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Pollution

HMRC

Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs

HQ

head quarters

HR

Human Resources

HSE

Health and Safety Executive

HVAC

heating, ventilation, air conditioning systems

IAM

Institute of Administrative Management

IBM

International Business Machines

ICA

Institute of Chartered Accountants

ICE

Institute of Civil Engineers

ICF

Intelligent Client Function

IDC

IBM data connector

IEE

Institute of Electrical Engineers, now part of the IET

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IET

Institute of Engineering & Technology

IFM

Institute of Facilities Management or integrated facilities management

IFMA

International Facility Management Association

IFRS

International Financial Reporting Standards

IiP

Investors in People

IOSH

Institute of Occupational Safety and Health

IP

internet protocol

IPC

integrated pollution control

IPPC

Integrated Pollution Prevention Control

IPSA

International Professional Security Association

IPSOTEK

Intelligent Pedestrian Observation Technologies

IRR

internal rate of return

ISA

Individual Savings Account

ISDN

integrated services digital network

ISO/IEC

International Organisation for Standardisation/International Electrotechnical Commission

ISP

internet service provider

IStructE

Institute of Structural Engineers

IT

information technology

ITU-T

International Telecommunications Union

JCT

Joint Contract Tribunal

KPI

key performance indicator

LA

local authority

LAN

local area network

LCC

life-cycle costing

LCD

liquid crystal display

LCR

least cost routing

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

LEO

low earth orbit

LNG

liquefied natural gas

LOLER

Lift Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations

LPA

local planning authority

LPG

liquefied petroleum gas

LTM

long term maintenance

M&E

mechanical and electrical

MDHS

method for determining hazardous substances

MEL

maximum exposure limits

MERS

most economical route selection

MFD

multi-function device

MICC

mineral insulated copper cable

MIS

management information system

MMS

multimedia services

MOU

memorandum of understanding

MS

Microsoft

NACOSS

National Approval Council for Security Systems

NEBOSH

National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health

NEC

New Engineering Contract

NFMA

National Facility Management Association

NHBC

National Housing Building Council

NHSS

National Highways Sector Scheme

NI

national insurance

NIA

net internal area

NPV

net present value

NRA

National Rivers Authority

NSI

National Security Inspectorate

NUA

net usable area

NVQ

National Vocational Qualification

O&Ms

operation and maintenance manuals

ODP

Ozone Depletion Potential

OES

occupational exposure limits

OGC

Office of Government Commerce

OHP

overhead projector

OJEU

Official Journal of the European Union

PACE

Property Advisers to the Civil Estate

PAN

personal area network

PAT

portable appliance testing

PBX

private branch exchange

PC

principal contractor or personal computer

PDA

personal digital assistant

PDCA

plan, do, check, action

PEEP

personal emergency evacuation plan

PERT

program evaluation and review technique

PFI

Private Finance Initiative

PF2

revised format of PFI

PIA

Post Implementation Analysis

PIN

prior information notice or personal identification number

PIP

Pricing in Proportion

PIR

passive infra red

PLC

public limited company

PPP

public-private partnerships

PM

project manager

PMSPA

Park Mark Safer Parking Award

POE

Post Occupation Evaluation

PPE

personal protective equipment

PQQ

pre-qualification questionnaire

PRINCE

projects in controlled environments

PSTN

public switched telephone network

PUE

power utilisation efficiency

PUWER

Provisions for Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1999

PV

photovoltaic

PVC

polyvinyl chloride

PZB

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry

QCF

Qualification Credit Framework

QM

quality management

QMS

quality management system

RAM

random-access memory

RCDs

residual current devices

REIT

Real Estate Investment Trust

REACH

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

REP

Real Estate Partnership

RF

radio frequency

RFI

requests for information

RFID

radio frequency identification

RH

relative humidity

RHI

Renewable Heat Incentive

RIBA

Royal Institute of British Architects

RICS

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors

RIDDOR

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995

RIFD

radio frequency identification

ROCE

return on capital employed

ROI

return on investment

ROLO

Registration of Land based Operatives

ROM

read-only memory

RRO

Regulatory Reform Order

SCS

structured connectivity solutions

SENDA

Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Act

SEPA

Scottish Environment Protection Agency

SERVQUAL

service quality

SIA

Security Industry Authority

SIC

Standard Industrial Classification

SIM

subscriber identity module

SLA

service level agreement

SMEs

small- and medium-sized enterprises

SME

subject matter expert

SMS

short messaging service

SOR

statement of requirements

SPC

statistical process control

SPS

Safer Parking Scheme

SPV

special purpose vehicle

SSSI

Sites of Special Scientific Interest

STP

shielded twisted pair

STS

customer (student/patient/resident) telephony service

SWOT

strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

SUDS

Sustainable Urban Drainage System

TAC

trunk access class

TDS

total dissolvable solid

TFM

Total Facilities Management

TIA

Telecommunications Industry Association

TOR

terms of reference

TPO

tree preservation order

TPS/FPS

telephone/fax preference service

TM

technical memorandum

TQM

total quality management

TSB

Technical Systems Bulletin

TUPE

Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations

UBR

uniform business rate

UDP

unitary development plan

UPS

uninterruptible power supply

UPVC

unplasticised polyvinyl chloride

UTP

unshielded twisted pair

VAT

value added tax

VAV

variable air volume

VDT

visual display terminal (computer screen)

VE

value engineering

VIP

very important person

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol

VPN

virtual private network

WAN

wide area network

WAP

wireless application protocol

WC

water closet

WEEE

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations

WiFi

wireless fidelity

WLAN

wireless local area network

WMS

Water Management Society

WPA

WiFi protected access

WRAs

waste regulation authorities

WSL

water supply licensing

WTE

waste to energy

Introduction

Facilities management (FM) covers a wide range of disciplines – sometimes referred to as the jack of all trades or the Cinderella function in an organisation. Many employees will turn to the Facilities Manager (FM) to sort out their workplace problems so that a competent FM must be able to turn their hand to practically anything. With constant changes to legislation, advances in the use of technology in the workplace, organisations are striving to maintain their competitive advantage. FMs are frequently expected to ensure compliance, provide opportunities for the organisation to adopt new ways of using built environments and other creative ways to reduce operational occupancy cost, yet maintain appropriate working environment standards. Juggling the many demands on their knowledge, experience and time, this reference text will be a useful “bible” as the FM facilitates solutions and adaptations to their client’s built environments.

Facilities Manager’s Desk Reference provides a useful source of information to help in the daily activities of FM, specifically helping any person who is responsible for the management of premises and provision of business support services. Many people undertaking this role may not consider themselves ‘facilities managers’, and may work under titles such as office manager, practice manager, warehouse manager, leisure centre manager, business services manager, etc. It will be useful for people working at all levels of FM, but especially those starting their careers in FM, such as the team leader of a group of operatives. Supervisors, FM co-ordinators and assistant FMs will also find this text helpful as they gain more experience across the wide roles and responsibilities of FM.

Recommended as course text in several academic organisations, students will also find this reference text useful to support their studies, as it covers the fundamentals of various topics in the syllabi of many FM courses, or FM modules in property management and business management courses.

This second edition is updated to reflect some of the important changes in the Facilities Management industry and discipline. Many of the original 38 chapters are updated with changes in legislation and operational practice. A new chapter on sustainability is added to reflect the importance of this dimension of the FM role in many organisations.

1

History of Facilities Management

1.1 Origins of facilities management

The origins of facilities management (FM) can be traced to an era of scientific management and the subsequent explosion in office administration in the early 1900s. The main catalyst in the 1960s towards FM was the introduction of computers in the workplace. The energy crisis in the 1970s brought home the importance of cost-in-use and the need to better manage costs associated with premises that support the organisation’s business. As the pace of change has speeded up and as new technologies have been adopted, FM has developed and expanded in the more recent decades.

1.2 A brief history of FM

FM owes its origin to the growth of office administration – bringing together large groups of people into buildings. The introduction of computers into the workplace was a major catalyst for change in the workplace.

1960s era

The 1960s could claim to be the first period in the history of FM. This was when the term ‘Facilities Management’ was first coined by Ross Perot of EDS in the USA. At that time, it was associated with the trends affecting the management of IT systems and networks. However, quite soon, the scope of FM had expanded to include system/modular furniture and office design.

1970s era

The energy crisis of the 1970s forced organisations to analyse critically their true cost base. Also during the 1970s, office furniture manufacturers, such as Herman Miller and Steelcase, were developing ever more sophisticated furniture systems. The problem was that the new office furniture was ahead of office design. It was certainly ahead of the thinking of the average office manager, who was typically responsible for procuring new ‘desks and chairs’, rather the ‘systems furniture’.

Herman Miller, realising that the market was being supply led, concluded that it needed to interact with knowledgeable clients – clients who understood the importance of space planning and value of space, and who could consequently understand the relevance of the permutations which could be contrived from the new furniture systems.

Herman Miller brought together a group of would-be knowledgeable property users and various property advisers in 1979. It was only at this point that the importance of FM in the process of strategic organisational planning was recognised, and discussed openly at senior management level. Very quickly this group established itself as the Facility Management Institute (FMI) and it is the FMI that is generally credited with the coining of the term ‘Facilities Management’. One member, Dave Armstrong, a leading proponent of the FMI, is recognised by many as the unofficial ‘father’ of FM.

The FMI was founded in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1979 as an offshoot of parent company Herman Miller Inc. The aim was to establish and advance FM as a new management science and professional activity. FMI laid the groundwork for organisational recognition of the importance of facilities in corporate strategic planning (although there was much emphasis on utilisation of space).

1980s era

A year later, in 1980, the National Facility Management Association (NFMA) came into existence, born of the need to create independence from a furniture/space planning commercial parent in order to allow FM’s full potential to develop. NFMA very quickly evolved into the IFMA. The year 1980 is therefore a key date in the development of FM generally.

1990s era

This era is a period of great change, with more organisations outsourcing to specialist providers. Many new laws were introduced in the UK, affecting employees, working practices and contracts. Large scale infrastructure projects linked with the operational services in ‘Private Finance Initiative’ schemes raised the awareness of FM across a wider population of users and customers.

2000s era

In this era, the FM profession has raised its profile in many organisations. Issues such as business continuity, security threats, risk management, corporate social responsibility and financial instability have put increasing pressure on FMs to deliver efficiencies in the workplace. Pan European and Global FM contracts have become a reality, supported with an increasing use of technologies in all facets of FM.

2010s era

As the FM profession reaches a more mature status, career pathways and qualifications for practitioners working in or others entering the profession have developed. FM contractors are getting larger, mostly through acquisition of smaller FM providers, and are now able to offer more services to the clients. The debate on benefits of outsourcing continues, as the drive for more accurate performance metrics and evidence of the impact of FM on productivity from client organisations continues. Integration of FM with property (real estate), technology, HR and other support service departments is still an aspiration for many. Some FM providers are extending their range of services into scientific support in both the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors, showing the potential of FM is limitless. Another example of the broadening of FM is the expansion of FM service providers into the care home sector.

1.3 Growth of the FM profession

International Facility Management Association (IFMA)

The IFMA is based in the USA, and also operates internationally via chapters or groups in overseas countries. There are approximately 23,100 members in 85 countries worldwide. It is estimated that in excess of 60,000 people use the job description of Facilities Manager (FM) in the USA. They have their own education programme, awarding the designation CFM, SFP and FMP to their members who have been tested in their knowledge of FM across 11 competences – approximately 6700 have achieved these qualifications.

FM in the UK

In the UK, FM developed ahead of the rest of Europe. Major strides in FM development were made in the UK particularly in the early 1990s. Until 1993 there were two organisations competing for members and status in the FM market, resulting in many people waiting until they merged before they joined.

The Association of Facilities Managers (AFM).

The Institute of Facilities Management (IFM).

Association of Facilities Managers (AFM)

The AFM was registered in 1985 and launched in 1986 by a small group of 10 FMs as the first such body in the UK, formed to support the professional practising FM.

Institute of Facilities Management (IFM)

The IFM was launched in June 1990. It grew out of the Facilities Management Group and Office Design Group (of the Institute of Administrative Management, IAM). The ODG had been active within the IAM for 25 years. This institute also owned and ran the Office of the Year Awards, the precursor to today’s British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM) Awards for Excellence. The IFM developed qualification examinations with the IAM’s support.

British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM)

The merger of these two organisations was formalised on 1 September 1993, and in January 1994, this merged organisation was named the British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM). By 2002, membership had grown to around 7300. In 2013, there are some 13,800 members and it is often quoted as the fastest growing membership association. There are five categories of member – affiliate, associate, member, certified and fellow. The BIFM have developed their own suite of qualifications, from level 2 to level 7, accredited by their Awarding Body in accordance with the Ofqual regulator.

Facilities Management Association (FMA)

The Facilities Management Association (FMA) is the UK’s leading representative trade body for employers engaged in delivering non-core services in the FM sector.

The FMA represents employers of those engaged in the provision of services for companies’ non-core business and activities. The need to establish the association arose as a result of peer pressure and popular demand. As the professional disciplines of the individuals are represented by institutions to cherish and voice their needs, so there is an association to represent the employers.

Against this background, many employers in FM have requested that their interests are represented by an association, and that is precisely what the FMA aims to do. One common aspiration unites the FMA membership, and that is ‘service provision and fair reward’. One noteworthy contribution by the FMA is the Young Managers Forum, nurturing new and young FMs to develop their career. FMA have developed a Master’s programme for their members in partnership with a UK university.

EuroFM

EuroFM is a network of more than 75 organisations, all focused on FM. They are based in more than 15 European countries and represent professional (national) associations, education and research institutes and corporate organisations.

The open network of professionals, academics and researchers generates a rich mix of activity, initiated by three network groups: the Practice Network Group, the Education Network Group and the Research Network Group. These network groups form the core of EuroFM. The EuroFM members are involved in an open exchange of information and experience through meetings, seminars and workshops, through collaboration in research projects, sometimes funded by EC and through the development of joint educational programmes. Proceedings of these activities are disseminated through the network via the EuroFM website, an annual conference and through newsletters, research papers and publications.

Global FM

Global FM is a worldwide federation of member-centred organisations committed to providing leadership in the FM profession. Global FM is a formal alliance of FM-related associations, an international association of associations. The founding members are the BIFM, the Facility Management Association of Australia and the IFMA. Global FM builds on the work done through the BIFM International Memorandum of Understanding to promote collaboration between the three bodies in the interests of their members and to extend such benefits to the wider FM community around the world.

As a single, united entity promoting FM, Global FM is a conduit for furthering the knowledge and understanding of FM, sharing of best practices and resulting in added value to the individual members of each member organisation.

The vision of Global FM is ‘to be the worldwide community of organisations that provides leadership in facilities management’.

Asset Skills

This is one of many Sector Skills Agencies appointed by the UK government. Asset Skills represent the housing, cleaning, property and FM sectors. The aim is to improve productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. Their key purpose is to work with employers to ensure their staff and potential staff have the skills they need to do their work well. There are three core activities – qualifications, employer engagement and labour market information. Asset Skills have developed the new national occupational standards for FM. They have also worked with the industry market leaders, professional bodies and educational establishments to develop apprenticeships in FM.

1.4 Defining FM

It has been difficult to establish a standard definition due to lack of commonality between organisations teaching FM, practising FM and representing FM. Currently there are as many definitions as there are different types of organisation in the industry. This emphasises the very dynamic nature of FM and its rapid development as a profession. It really depends on where you come from and your viewpoint as to which one you find the most acceptable and suitable in your organisation.

Many definitions are very general, whilst others are very specific. This restricts their use and gives rise to a limited view of the FM industry and profession. The most widely accepted definitions of FM are as follows.

International Facility Management Association (IFMA)

‘The practice of co-ordinating people and the work of an organisation into the physical workplace.’

‘An integrated management process that considers people, process and place in an organisational context.’

Association of Facilities Managers (AFM)

‘… the management of premises and buildings together with the facilities, services and people contained therein; this has implications in respect of initial design, maintenance, the day-to-day administration and control of manpower, energy and related resources’ (1986).