Title Page

Notes on the Contributors


Karen E. Makuch is lecturer in environmental law and energy law in the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. She teaches postgraduate students on the MSc in Environmental Technology and has run courses on Environmental Analysis & Assessment, Pollution Management and Global Environmental Change & Policy for the MSc. She has taught postgraduate and undergraduate lawyers and non-lawyers alike, including engineering students at the University of London and USA Juris Doctor students in London, UK. Karen also teaches environmental law to undergraduate science students and supervises doctoral students. Karen has a wide-range of experience in the practical application of EU Environmental Law and its implementation including in new and potential EU Member States and has worked in many Central and Eastern European countries on matters related to the approximation of EU environmental law including the drafting of environmental legislation. Karen has published papers and chapters, inter alia, on the approximation of environmental law, on human rights law and the environment, on climate change and on pollutant release and transfer registers. Karen faced two new challenges (I&J) while preparing this work and dedicates this book to them with love.

Sincere gratitude goes to Professor Maggie Dallman, Professor Dot. Griffiths and Kim Everitt for the award of the Imperial College, London, Elsie Widdowson Fellowship.

Ricardo Pereira is Research Associate & Lectures in Environmental & Energy Law in the Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London. He also convenes and lectures on a part-time basis in the LLM in Environmental Law at Queen Mary, University of London, on the International Natural Resources Law and International Law of the Sea courses. Since January 2009 he has acted as Book Review Editor for the European Energy and Environmental Law Review. He holds a Ph.D. in European Environmental Law awarded by the University of Essex in 2009 and an LLM in International Law, City University. He is author of a forthcoming manuscript to be published by Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (the Harmonisation of Environmental Criminal Law – International and European Perspectives), based on his Ph.D. thesis, and is author of articles and chapters in books in the fields of environmental and human rights law.


Kenneth E. Afe Aidelojie is a lawyer and currently a Doctoral Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. His research interests cover Legal and Regulatory Risk Management, Oil and Gas law, International Environmental Law and Climate Change mitigation strategies with particular interest in the UNFCCC flexible mechanism and Carbon Capture and Storage technology. He has worked with the United Nation Department of Sustainable Development on climate change sustainability issues for developing countries. Kenneth is a member of International and National Environmental and Energy institutes and currently serves in advisory capacity to environmental and energy organisations in Nigeria.

Martin Birt is a Technical Director at URS Scott Wilson with 18 years experience of EIA management for a range of waste, residential, commercial, industrial and transport infrastructure projects. He has Masters Degrees in Environmental Assessment & Management (1992) and Urban Planning (1997) and is a Chartered Town Planner.

Arturo Castillo-Castillo is Lead Researcher in Waste-to-Energy-and-Materials at the Imperial Centre for Energy Policy and Technology. He has coordinated several European and UK research council consortium activities on thermal waste treatment analysis, sustainable bioenergy chains modelling and market data evaluation methodologies. He has collaborated with Japanese waste gasification technology proponents and with the thermal treatment laboratory in Aachen University, Germany. He is a member of the Energy Institute, the British Institute of Energy Economics and the Chartered Institution of Wastes Management.

Tim Cockerill is Senior Lecturer in Energy Policy & Technology at Imperial College London. His research focuses on the interfaces between the engineering of energy systems and energy policy. Tim's work draws on numerical modelling approaches to explore how the design of energy systems should respond to policy objectives, and equally how policy should respond to accomodate the limitations of technology. Particular technical interests lie in the techno-economics of CCS, Wind, and Energy Storage systems. Tim contributes to initiatives supported by The UK Research Councils and the IEA

Alexandra Collins is a Doctoral Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. Her research covers the integrated management of water resources, the optimisation of environmental decision making and the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. She is a member of the WSSTP water and energy task force, contributing to a report for the European Commission. Additionally, she has also presented her work at a European LIFE project workshop. She is currently a member of the Norfolk Broads Water Quality Partnership and the Better Thames Network, where she provides academic input to the delivery of river basin management plans and the improvement of aquatic ecosystems.

Sandip Deshmukh is a Research Fellow in the Centre for Environmental Strategy at University of Surrey. An engineer by training, his research relates to regional energy planning with a focus on decentralized energy systems and energy resource allocation for the socio-economic and techno-economic development. He has been involved in a number of projects in teaching related to the energy and policy issues. Presently, Sandip is involved in EPSRC funded research projects, to identify and characterize options for energy supply at the different development types.

Isabelle Fellrath is an associate with the law firm Tavernier Tschanz, Geneva. She focuses on international arbitration and commercial litigation, environmental law and energy law. She also lectures commercial arbitration (University of Glasgow 2005-2009) and energy law (University of Lausanne, 2009-current). She is a Member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators since 2006. She has published in the area of environmental, energy, contract and arbitration law.Before going into legal practice, she was a doctoral researcher at the University of Nottingham (1994-1998); her research covered environmental legal issues. She holds an LL.M Degree (1994) and Ph.D (1998) from the University of Nottingham and graduated from the University of Neuchatel (1993).

Slavina Z. Georgieva BA, MSc is a Doctoral Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. Her work focuses on the utilization of Life Cycle Analysis for sustainable industrial and policy design for the Carbon Capture and Storage industry.

Katrin Glatzel is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London where she is part of the Sustainable Transitions research group. Her research covers climate change adaptation finance strategies at EU and international level, policy design and implementation and European environmental policy and law. She holds a MSc in Public Management & Governance from the London School of Economics and a BA in European Studies from Maastricht University in the Netherlands.

Charlotte Jourdain obtained her PhD from the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. Her research focused on forest carbon. She has many years of experience as a consultant in climate change policy, helping major companies measure their greenhouse gas emissions and adhere to regulations, in particular the EU emissions trading scheme (EUETS) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). She has worked mostly with major international oil and gas and industrial companies, as well as multilateral organisations and NGOs. Charlotte was the UNFCCC focal point for Imperial College London and has followed the international climate change negotiations for several years. She is currently Senior Research Fellowat the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change, UK, working on the Global Carbon Project.

Marilena Karyampa is a postgraduate student at the MSc Environmental Technology of Imperial College London. Her current research is on ambient air quality focusing on NOx and PM emissions from the transport sector and the difficulties for compliance with the EU Air Quality legislation. Her previous research focused on extreme rainfall events due to climate change and the optimisation of Reading Borough Council's adaptation measures, as part of an MSc in Applied Meteorology from the University of Reading. She also holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and a BSc in Geology.

Matthew Leach is Professor of Energy and Environmental Strategy, and is Director of the Centre for Environmental Strategy at the University of Surrey. An engineer by training, his research relates to broader sustainability assessment of energy and waste systems, covering technical, economic, environmental, legal and policy aspects. Matthew is involved in a range of research projects in sustainable energy in the UK and the EU, and is active in policy analysis and advice. He is a past Chair of Council of the British Institute of Energy Economics, and current Vice President of the Energy Institute.

Henry Owen Lewis studied Biological Sciences at the University of Bristol and Environmental Technology at Imperial College. From 2001 to 2007 He worked at the Environment Agency on a mix of regional groundwater monitoring, reviewing the impacts of groundwater contamination, and regulation of groundwater risk through the planning system. In 2007 he moved to the London Borough of Hounslow, first as Land Quality officer and since 2008 as Principal Land Quality officer. In this role he overseas management of the borough's legacy or landfill and historic contamination through the planning system and the borough's own investigations.

Iain Maclean graduated in chemistry from Queens University Belfast in 1973. He worked in industry before joining Cork County Council in 1981 where he became Chief Environmental Officer. In 1993 he became one of the founding directors of the Environmental Protection Agency in Ireland with responsibility for the introduction of IPPC permitting. Since 2003, he has worked in the Ministries of Environment in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Croatia and Serbia mainly in the areas of IPPC and Environmental Approximation

Dr. Zen Makuch is Head of Department and Director of the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. He is also a practicing barrister. He is recognised by key institutions in Europe as, perhaps, the leading international researcher in the specialist fields of implementation of domestic, European and international environmental law, energy and other natural resource law. He has conducted research and, related to this activity, he has litigated, drafted, implemented and supported the enforcement of environment, energy and natural resource regulations in fiftyfour countries. Provision of research advisory services to Parliamentarians (including Ministers), select parliamentary committees, political parties and environment and human health, energy and natural resource management stakeholders are part of his daily academic working life. The drafting of environmental regulations, related institutional, implementation and compliance matters form part of his technical expertise and research experience. He has also provided strategic legal advice and technical assistance on environment and sustainability matters to several of the world's largest firms. He has held academic posts since the 1990s. His academic specialisms in these fields are manifold and include, inter alia, climate change regulation, legalities of carbon capture and storage, environment and energy regulation, approximation of EU environmental law, and, trade and the environment.

Panos Merkouris is the Brandon Fellowat the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law and teaches Climate Change Law and Policy and European Environmental Law at Queen Mary, University of London. His research has covered law of treaties, international environmental law, law of the sea and state responsibility.He has been involved in a number of international projects and conferences on the aforementioned areas. He is Series Editor (together with Professor Malgosia Fitzmaurice and Professor Phoebe Okowa) of the Queen Mary Studies in International Law published by BRILL/Martinus Nijhoff, and Managing Editor of the international law journal International Community Law Review.

Sekai Ngarize, is currently working as a Senior Science and Policy Advisor at the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), where she is responsible for developing policy on Land use and land use change and Forestry including Reducing emissions form Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) policy and R&D programme for LULUCF/REDD under the UNFCCC, UK Carbon Budgets and EUMM. She graduated with a PhD in Food Science from the University of Surrey. She also holds an Msc in Environmental Technology from Imperial College, London. She has previously worked at the Department of Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) for 5 and half years where was responsible for policy development of the UK International and Domestic Policy for Persistent Organic Pollutants under the International Treaty Stockholm Convention, and the UNECE. Her work involved representing the UK and participating in international negotiations under the UNEP and EU. Prior to that, She worked at the UK Food Standards Agency, where was responsible for Risk Assessment of food and environmental contaminants.

Dieudonné-Guy Ohandja PhD, DIC is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College. He is also co-convenor of the Water Management Option of the MSc in Environmental Technology. He has research interests in wastewater treatment technologies, anaerobic digestion, integrated catchment management and environmental change.

Behdeen Oraee-Mirzamani BEng (Hons.), MSc, AMIMA is a Doctoral Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. His PhD research is focussed on Risk Assessment and Risk Management associated with Carbon Capture and Storage.

Nikzad Oraee-Mirzamani, LL.B., MS.c., DIC is a doctoral researcher at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London. He graduated in Law from City Law school and subsequently studied MSc Management in Imperial College Business School. His interests range from company law to corporate governance and corporate business and environmental strategy. His research theme is the effects of on business sustainability.

John Paterson is a Professor in Law and Co-Director of the Centre for Energy Law at the University of Aberdeen. His research has covered systems theory, the regulation of risk, governance in the EU, corporate governance and energy law. He has been involved in a number of international projects both in research and teaching in the fields of risk governance and energy law and has acted as a consultant for the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. He is series editor (together with Professor JulianWebb) of the Law, Science and Society series published by Routledge-Cavendish.

Elizabeth Prichard (Ph.D.) has considerable experience in lecturing and training in the fields of analytical chemistry and metrology in commercial and academic sectors. Prior to her retirement she was a Consultant in Education and Training at LGC, the UK's designated National Measurement Institute for chemical and biochemical analysis and the National Reference Laboratory for a range of key areas. At LGC she developed and delivered courses in Quality Assurance, including statistics, method validation, measurement uncertainty, traceability and implementation of quality standards. She has written and edited books, produced guidelines for best practice in analytical chemistry laboratories and recently chaired the working group which produced a Eurachem Guide: Terminology in Analytical Measurement – Introduction to VIM 3. Prior to joining LGC Elizabeth spent many years in academia in the Universities of London and of Warwick. During that period she spent sabbaticals in UK pharmaceutical companies and at the National Physical Laboratory. She was a visiting professor in the Sudan, at the Universities of Khartoum and Gezira. She has contributed to several EU projects including the SWIFT-WFD STREP on implementation of the WFD.

Steven Smith is an Associate at URS specialising in spatial planning and the integration of sustainability into decision-making. He completed his PhD thesis on the implementation of the EU strategic environmental assessment (SEA) directive and has been involved in numerous SEAs and wider sustainability appraisals. In 2010, he completed a review of the SEA Directive's implementation in the context of spatial planning on behalf of the Department for Communities and Local Government. Steven is a member of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management's Sustainability and Environmental Management technical panel and a member of the OECD Development Assistance Committee's Task Team on SEA.

Frank Spoorenberg is a partner with the law firm Tavernier Tschanz, Geneva. He focuses on international arbitration and commercial litigation. His cases are related in particular to M&A, joint ventures, distribution, agency, service agreements and to international sales. His industry experience includes among others telecommunications, trading, machine industry, construction, oil and gas, pharma, sport industry and real estate. He has published in the area of contract and arbitration law.Before focusing on international arbitration and commercial litigation, Mr. Spoorenberg developed a strong expertise in M&A, financing, general corporate and commercial contracts.In 1993, he received an LLM Degree from the College of Europe in Bruges (Belgium). He graduated from the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) in 1991.

Chuan Teo-Tze holds a Ph.D. and was awarded an MSc in Environmental Technology from Imperial College London in 2009. His MSc thesis addresses regulatory, financial and structural barriers to clean development mechanism projects.

Helena Wright is a Doctoral Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial College in London. Her research covers adaptation to climate change, international climate policy, and technology transfer and innovation. She has worked in the renewable energy sector and also as a sustainability advisor for businesses. Helena has attended the UNFCCC climate change negotiations as an NGO delegate for several years, most recently with UNfairplay. She collaborated with DFID (UK Department for International Development) on the research for her Master's Thesis.


Environmental and Energy Law was originally conceived as an edited text on environmental law for engineering professionals and students. The idea appeared particularly appealing given that engineers are key players in the evolution of environmental standards through, for example, the development of cleaner environmental technologies. Yet it soon became clear to the editors that although the themes within environmental (and energy) law addressed in the book are particularly relevant to engineers and technical scientists, the same themes are by no means less relevant to environmental lawyers, law students and other social scientists who are increasingly interested in this evolving and topical field of law. Moreover, it was felt that by appealing to a broader range of readers and experts, the book could contribute to greater communication between scientists and law- and policymakers working in the environmental and energy sectors. Hence, you may note that we have often explicitly referred to engineers, scientists, technical experts or other non-lawyers in our book as this work is designed to appeal to the non-lawyer as well as those more familiar with environmental law.

The book is written to address what we perceived to be a gap in the literature – that which views or interprets environmental law also from the perspective of non-lawyers, offering insights into both the science, technology and engineering behind and, moving forwards, the environmental law developments of the day. In light of the strong interconnection between environmental and energy activities (for example in the context of climate change mitigation or energy resources exploitation), the book puts great emphasis on new and topical themes related to energy law.

Whether you are a student of environmental or energy law, or a professional working in a technical field, you should find this work useful, inspiring and accessible. As this is a first edition, we have consciously limited the content but we are hopeful that this work will continue to grow and expand with further editions, more so as we are legal experts working in a predominantly science and technology based university, Imperial College, London, and having access to a wide range of experts as well as knowledge of the latest developments, which includes our research and teaching in environmental and energy law in the multidisciplinary environment of the Centre for Environmental Policy.

We have been fortunate enough to work with some excellent contributors. They are individuals who not only possess great technical knowledge of their fields but also have an ability to understand policy and apply the law within their respective areas of expertise. We thank all our contributors for their valuable contributions. We acknowledge those contributors who had to appreciably update their work on account of the law changing (particularly the chapter on integrated pollution prevention and control).

In addition to professionals working in the field, we hope that the book will be particularly appealing to academics and students in the environmental or energy arenas because of its broad and comprehensive coverage of a number of general topics in environmental and energy law. A number of more specific topics are also covered in the book, making them particularly suitable case studies for analysis. With this in mind, we incorporated ‘Questions and Activities’ at the end of each part of the book which will allow the reader (including the student-reader) to apply and consolidate the knowledge gained.

We are grateful to Neil Warnock-Smith, for originally commissioning the work, Paul Sayer, Bethany Edgar, Gaurav Garg, Vikki Renwick, Teresa Netzler and the rest of the team at Wiley-Blackwell. We also thank the publishing team and the contributors for their patience in waiting for us to complete this work while Karen ventured into motherhood for the first (and then second!) time. On this note, sincere thanks go to Professor Maggie Dallman, Professor Dot Griffiths and Kim Everitt of Imperial College, London, for the award of the Elsie Widdowson Fellowship. Thanks also to Andrew Walker for his insight during our discussions on the interplay between science and policies into the context of reform of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We must also thank our co-workers, family and friends who have supported us in the course of project. Karen dedicates her work to I. & J. with love.

The law referred to in the text is accurate (to the best of our knowledge) up to March 2012. Some chapters that were received between March and June 2011 have only been selectively updated.

Karen E. Makuch and Ricardo Pereira
June 2012

List of Abbreviations

ABNE (African Biosafety Network of Expertise)
ACE (Association of Consulting Engineers)
AFNOR (Association Française de Normalisation)
ABNE (African Biosafety Network of Expertise)
AEI (average exposure indicator)
AF (Adaptation Fund)
AQMA (Air Quality Management Area)
ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers)
AMPS (Analysis and Monitoring of Priority Substances)
AOD (Argon oxygen decarburisation)
AOSIS (Association of Small Island States)
APC (atmospheric pollution control)
AQAP (Air Quality Action Plan)
AQGs (Air Quality Guidelines)
AQMA (Air Quality Management Area)
AFNOR (Association Française de Normalisation)
ACE (Association of Consulting Engineers)
AOSIS (Association of Small Island States)
BAT (best available techniques)
BATNEEC (best available techniques not entailing excessive costs)
BEPs (best environmental practice)
BERR (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform)
BPEO (best practicable environmental option)
BRTF (Better Regulation Task Force)
BMW (biodegradable municipal waste)
BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)
BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty)
BPEO (best practicable environmental option)
BREF (BAT Reference Document)
BRTF (Better Regulation Task Force)
BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)
BSE (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy)
CARB (California Air Resources Board)
CARB (California Air Resources Board)
CAPPCCO (Chinese advanced power plant carbon capture options)
CAP (Common Agricultural Policy)
CCS (carbon capture storage)
CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity)
CCAs (Climate Change Agreements)
CCC (Climate Change Committee)
CCL (Climate Change Levy)
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)
CEA (cost-effectiveness analysis)
CECA (Civil Engineering Contractors Association)
CELEX (EUR-LEX database)
CERs (certified emission reductions)
CERT (Carbon Emissions Reduction Target)
CRM (Certified Reference Material)
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)
CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)
CIMAH (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard)
CIS (Common Implementation Strategy)
CITAC (Cooperation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry)
CITES (Convention on Trade in Endangered Species)
CLCS (Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf)
CLEA (Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment)
COMAH (Control of Major Accident Hazard)
COP (Conference of the Parties)
CRM (Certified Reference Material)
CSA (Chief Scientific Adviser)
CSAC (Chief Scientific Committee)
CSCE (Canadian Society for Civil Engineering)
CSH (Code for Sustainable Homes)
CSR (corporate social responsibility)
CT (Carbon Trust)
CTS (Carbon Trust Standard)
CTESS (Committee on Trade and Environment Special Session)
CTF (Clean Technology Fund)
CTI (Climate Technology Initiative)
CTIP (Cooperative Technology Implementation Plans)
CTP (Climate Technology Partnership)
CTS (Carbon Trust Standard)
DBERR (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform)
DECC (Department of Energy and Climate Change)
DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government)
DER (dwelling emission rate)
DECC (Department of Energy and Climate Change)
DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)
DFID (Department for International Development)
DFT (Department for Transport)
DGs (Directorate Generals)
DOE (Department of the Environment)
DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters)
DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction)
DPDs (Development Plan Documents)
DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters)
DPs (Direct Participants)
DTI (Department of Trade and Industry)
EAF (electric arc furnace)
EALs (Environmental Assessment Levels)
EB (Executive Board)
EC (European Community)
ECCP (EU Climate Change Programme)
ECHA (European Chemicals Agency)
ECJ (European Court of Justice)
EMAS (Eco-management and Audit Scheme)
(ECOSOC) (Economic and Social Council)
ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community)
ECSR (European Committee of Social Rights)
ECT (Energy Charter Treaty)
EEA (European Economic Area)
EEC (European Economic Community)
EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index)
EEELR (European Energy and Environmental Law Review)
EEOI (Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator)
EEZ (exclusive economic zone)
EGTT (Expert Group on Technology Transfer)
EHRR (European Human Rights Reports)
ECCP (European Climate Change Programme)
ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights)
ECtHR (European Court of Human Rights)
ECJ (European Court of Justice)
ECSC (European Coal and Steel Commission)
EEC (European Economic Community)
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)
EIA (environmental impact assessments)
EAF (electric arc furnace)
EVs (electric vehicles)
EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index)
EEOI (Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator)
ELV (emissions limit value)
ELV (end-of-life vehicle)
EQS (Environmental Quality Standards)
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPAQS (Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards)
EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive)
EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction)
EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register)
ES (Environmental Statement)
ESDP (European Spatial Development Perspective)
EST (Energy Savings Trust)
EU (European Union)
Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community)
EUTL (EU Transaction Log)
EUAs (EU Allowances)
EUDC (Extra Urban Driving Cycle)
EIPCCB (European IPPC Bureau)
EPAQS (Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards)
EUDC (Extra Urban Driving Cycle)
FC (financial contribution)
FDI (Foreign direct investment)
FLEGT (Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade)
FSA (Financial Services Authority)
FSANZ (Food Standards Australia and New Zealand)
GACs (generic assessment criteria)
GAD (Global and Atmospheric Division)
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
GCCA (Global Climate Change Alliance)
GEEREF (Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund)
GEF (Global Environmental Facility)
GTR (Gene Technology Regulator)
GURT (gene-use restriction technology)
GACs (generic assessment criteria)
GM (genetically modified)
GMO (genetically modified organism)
GMMs (genetically modified microorganisms)
GIS (Green Investment Scheme)
GLA (Great London Authority)
GEEREF (Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund)
GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security)
GTR (Gene Technology Regulator)
GURT (gene-use restriction technology)
GWP (Global Water Partnership)
HCFC (hydrochloroflourocarbon)
HFC (hydrofluorocarbon)
HDVs (heavy duty vehicles)
HSC (Health and Safety Commission)
HELCOM (Helsinki Commission)
HMIP (Her Majesty's Inspectorate for Pollution)
HSC (Health and Safety Commission)
HSE (Health and Safety Executive)
HF (Hydrogen fluoride)
IACHR (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights)
IAgrE (Institution of Agricultural Engineers)
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer)
IASB (International Accounting Standards Board)
IASG (Impact and Adaptation Steering Group)
ICA (International Cooperative Alliance)
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)
ICC (International Criminal Court)
ICE (internal combustion engine)
ICJ (International Court of Justice)
ICTSD (International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development)
IMO (International Maritime Organisation)
IEA (International Energy Agency)
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
IED (Industrial Emissions Directive)
IEF (International Exchange Forum)
IEG (International Exchange Group)
IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standard)
IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle)
IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development)
ILA (International Law Association)
ILAC (International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation)
IMEP (International Measurement Evaluation Programme)
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
IMO (International Maritime Organization)
IASG (Impact and Adaptation Steering Group)
IAgrE (Institution of Agricultural Engineers)
IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle)
IACHR (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights)
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
IASB (International Accounting Standards Board)
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer)
ISBA (International Seabed Authority)
ITLOS (International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea)
IOC (international oil company)
IPC (Integrated Pollution Control)
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
IPP (Integrated Product Policy)
IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control)
IPRs (intellectual property rights)
IPTS (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies)
IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency)
IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement)
IWRM (Integrated Water Resource Management)
JCGM (Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology)
JI (Joint Implementation)
JRC (Joint Research Centre)
KPIs (key performance indicators)
KP (Kyoto Protocol)
LAF (Ladle arc furnace)
LAQM (Local Air Quality Management)
LAs (local authorities)
LAPC (Local Air Pollution Control)
LAPPC (Local Air Pollution Prevention and Control)
LATS (Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme)
LCA (life cycle analysis)
LCPs (Large Combustion Plant)
LDCF (Least Developed Countries Fund)
LDCs (least developed countries)
LDDs (Local Development Documents)
LDFs (Local Development Framework)
LDVs (light duty vehicles)
LDCF (Least Developed Countries Fund)
LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System)
LOSC (Law of the Sea Convention)
LNG (liquefied natural gas)
LPAs (Local Planning Authority)
MAC (maximum allowable concentration)
MARPOL (The International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973/1978)
MEMs (major economies meetings)
MEMs (major economies meetings)
MCERTS (Monitoring Certification Scheme)
MFHR (Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights)
MCERTS (Monitoring Certification Scheme)
MEAs (Multilateral Environmental Agreement)
MLR (Modern Law Review)
MPs (Members of Parliament)
MFN (most favourite nation)
MPs (Members of Parliament)
MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement)
MRFs (materials recovery facilities)
MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement)
NAIC (National Association of Insurance Commissioners)
NAMAs (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action)
NAPAs (National Adaptation Programs of Action)
NAPs (national action plans)
NCP (National Contingency Plan)
NEDC (New European Driving Cycle)
(NAs)(negotiated agreements)
NERT (National Exposure Reduction Target)
NPV (net present value)
NFFO (Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation)
NGOs (non-governmental organisations)
NHBC (National House Building Council)
NNOC (Nigerian National Oil Company)
NLS (National Laboratory Service)
NMIs (National measurement institutes)
NONS (Notification of New Substances)
NPI (National Pollution Inventory)
NPL (National Physical Laboratory)
NPRI (National Pollutant Release Inventory)
NPSs (National Policy Statements)
NPV (net present value)
ODA (Official Development Aid)
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development)
OELs (Occupational Exposure Limits)
QELROs (Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objective)
Ofgem (Office of Gas and Electricity Markets)
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development)
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
OPSI (Office of Public Sector Information)
OSPRAG (Oil Spill Prevention and Response Advisory Group)
OSPAR (The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, 1992)
QRA (Quantitative Risk Assessment)
PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
PDDs (Project Design Document)
PLD (Performance Liquidated Damages)
POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants)
PPC (Pollution Prevention and Control)
PPCR (Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience)
PPPs (public-private partnerships)
PRTRs (Pollutant Release and Transfer Register)
PSCs (production sharing contracts)
PT (Proficiency Testing)
RBMP (River basin management planning)
RCEP (Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution)
RCEP (Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution)
R&D (Research and Development)
RDF (refuse-derived fuels)
RO (Renewables Obligation)
RETs (release estimation techniques)
RHI (Renewable Heat Incentive)
ROCs (Renewable Obligations Certificate)
SA (sustainability appraisal)
SBI (Subsidiary Body for Implementation)
SBSC (Sustainability Balance Score Card)
SBSTA (Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice)
SCCF (Special Climate Change Fund)
SCE (substances concentration efficiency)
SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks)
SCF (Strategic Climate Fund)
SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks)
SDRs (Special Drawing Rights)
SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment)
SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan)
SEPA (Scottish Environment Protection Agency)
SGP (Small Grants Programme)
SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan)
STELs (Short-term exposure limits)
SIDS (small island developing states)
SIWI (Stockholm International Water Institute)
SMS (safety management systems)
SPDs (Supplementary Planning Documents)
SCCF (Special Climate Change Fund)
SPV (special purpose vehicle)
STELs (Short-term exposure limits)
SWMPs (Site Waste Management Plans)
TBT (Technical Barriers to Trade)
TC (Technical Committee)
TER (target emission rate)
TEU (Treaty on the European Union)
TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration)
TNAs (technology needs assessments)
TOC (total organic carbon)
TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act)
TWA (time-weighted average)
TWGs (Technical Working Groups)
UN (United Nations)
UNCED (UN Conference on the Environment and Development)
UNCLOS (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea)
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation)
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)
VAM (valid analytical measurement)
VCC (Voluntary Codes of Conduct)
VOCs (volatile organic compounds)
WCA (waste collection authority)
WDAs (waste disposal authorities)
WDF (Waste Data Flow)
WML (Waste Management Licensing)
WMO (World Meteorological Organisation)
WFEO (World Federation of Engineering Organisations)
WSSD (World Summit on Sustainable Development)
WTO (World Trade Organisation)
WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature)
ZEV (zero-emissions vehicle)

Part One