Cover Page


Title Page




Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Organizational Chart

Office of Campus Recreation Organizational Structure

Athletic Director Political Map

Recreation Staff Member Political Map


Sport Club National Governing Bodies

Organizations and Certifications in Campus Recreation and Fitness

Source of Revenue for NCAA Intercollegiate Athletics Programs

Source of Expense for NCAA Intercollegiate Athletics Programs

Common Errors in Facility Planning Process

General Event Management Planning List

A Guide to Common Event Revenue and Expense Items

Examples of Engaged Learning Opportunity Sites

Positions in Intercollegiate Athletics

Positions in Campus Recreation

Examples of Professional Organizations in Intercollegiate Athletics

Examples of Professional Organizations in Campus Recreation

Examples of Campus Athletics and Recreation Periodicals


The Handbook of College Athletics and Recreation Administration (HCARA) is intended to serve as an authoritative, comprehensive, practical, and informative resource for undergraduate or graduate students in a formal program of study in intercollegiate athletics and college recreation and for those who are helping prepare those students. HCARA is also intended to serve as a resource for professionals changing roles within the field or coming into the field from another career area.

The book is organized in three parts:

1. Foundations
2. Skills
3. Issues

The authors contributing chapters to HCARA are among the leading names in intercollegiate athletics and recreation and represent a rich blend of practitioners, scholars, and scholar-practitioners. As a group they draw on their work in a wide variety of institutional settings and professional roles. Both their personal diversity and diversity of theoretical perspectives reflect that of college recreation and athletics.

The chapters in HCARA present theories and models of practice, cite classical and contemporary literature for support, and highlight issues in the contemporary professional administration of intercollegiate athletics and recreation. Each chapter includes a list of key points that can serve as either a study guide or executive summary, and case studies are shared throughout Part One and Part Two to provide opportunities to apply the information about professional foundations and skills to professional practice.

In addition to the main themes of the book, a great deal of effort has gone into assuring that the content of HCARA addresses both college athletics and recreation in a variety of institutional types, sizes, and athletics associations. The reader will also find that while topics such as ethics, diversity, and the law each have their own chapter, these issues are also woven throughout HCARA as essential considerations in all aspects of professional practice.


HCARA is presented to meet the needs of undergraduate or graduate students in courses or programs on intercollegiate athletics and recreation administration and to faculty members for those courses or programs. It is also intended to serve as a useful professional resource for entry-, mid-, or senior-level professionals in the field. Individuals entering into college recreation or athletics from another area or who are entering a new facet of recreation or athletics should find HCARA to be a helpful tool in their transition as well.


The Handbook of College Athletics and Recreation (HCARA) represents the collective efforts of a host of people who have contributed in a variety of ways. Each of those contributors has been in turn supported in a variety of ways by their own network of colleagues, friends, and family. We would like to take this opportunity to thank our contributors and their supporters, who provided invaluable support to us throughout our work on this project.

The idea for this handbook originated with Dr. Dudley B. Woodard, Jr., a faculty member in Higher Education at the University of Arizona (U of A) who, in addition to his many other forms of service to that institution, for years served as the Faculty Athletics Representative. Nearing his retirement, Dr. Woodard decided not to pursue the book project. Several years later George McClellan, a doctoral student at U of A and Dr. Woodard's graduate assistant at the time the project was originally discussed, took the idea up again with the editorial staff of Jossey-Bass. Over a decade after the idea was initially proposed it has come to fruition in the form of this book. We are grateful to Dr. Woodard for inspiring this project.

We are particularly grateful to the authors who have contributed or co-contributed chapters to HCARA. Our goal was to attract a diverse and talented pool of practitioners and scholars to this project. A review of the experience and reputation of our authors shows them to be just such a group.

We also appreciate the work of our colleagues on the editorial staff at Jossey-Bass. Erin Null, Alison Knowles, and David Brightman make a terrific team, and we are fortunate to have had their advice and counsel throughout our work on HCARA.

George S. McClellan. Thanks to Chris and Don, my co-editors for this project. Working with them has been educational, enjoyable, and entertaining. What more could one ask for from one's partners? I am also grateful to my colleagues and friends at Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW) for their collaboration and encouragement. I especially appreciate the support I receive for my scholarly endeavors from Chancellor Michael Wartell. I am deeply indebted to my friend and mentor Peggy Barr for her advice, cheer, and high standards. Most important, I thank the students I have been fortunate enough to serve throughout my career. They inspire me, particularly the student-athletes whose achievements in the classroom, in the community, and on the field are truly remarkable.

Chris King. I would like to thank my co-editors George and Don for the opportunity to be part of a collaborative effort that has been built upon the contributions of successful educators and practitioners in higher education. I also thank the late Dr. Susan Hofacre, Dr. Dave Synokwa, and Tom Olson, who were great teachers and role models at Robert Morris College (now Robert Morris University). They were vested in my development as an undergraduate student and made sure that I graduated with practical experience in the college sports industry. I am grateful to have worked for, with, and alongside a number of great coaches, colleagues, faculty, and university administrators in my career. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to the staff and coaches at Campbell University, Liberty University, the University of Central Florida, University of Alabama, and currently the University of Texas–Pan American. I would particularly like to thank my athletic director mentors and teachers: Tom Collins, Kim Graham, Steve Sloan, and Mal Moore, who provided me with the necessary skills, guidance, and professional development to become an athletic director. Most important, I would like to thank my wife Alica for her understanding of the time invested in this project, support through the transition to the University of Texas–Pan American, and the wonderful gift of our first-born child, Kylie Marie.

Donald L. Rockey, Jr. I would like to express my sincerest appreciation to George McClellan, who invited me to work on this project. This is the third project we have worked on together, and each time has been a valuable learning experience. George's guidance and mentoring have been greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank Chris King, who keeps my faculty mentality well grounded and humble. I am grateful to all the faculty members who provided guidance and leadership through my college years. While the list of names is lengthy, I particularly wish to acknowledge Dr. Kim Beason, Dr. Jim Gilbert, Dr. Judith Cole, and Dr. Linda Chitwood. Finally, I would like to thank my wife Christine Rockey for all her support and patience as I worked on this project.

The readers will have the ultimate say in whether or not we have achieved our goals for HCARA. To whatever extent that is the case, the credit goes to all our contributors and supporters. Wherever there is a sense that the goals have not been fully realized, the responsibility is ours.


Robertha Abney is an associate professor at Slippery Rock University in the Department of Sport Management and previously served as associate athletic director and senior women administrator at that institution. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in sport management and ethics, sport communication, and introduction to sport management. Her areas of research include role models and mentoring women in sport (WoMentoring), and the status of minorities and women in leadership roles in sport. Abney has written several chapters in sport management textbooks. She is a board member on the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation and has served on six committees within the National Collegiate Athletic Association. She is a past president of the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

Robert J. Barcelona is an assistant professor in the Youth Development Leadership program and the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management at Clemson University. He has worked with numerous recreation and sport organizations in both programming and research efforts and is a member of the Society of Park and Recreation Educators’ Board of  Directors. Barcelona has won teaching excellence awards at both Indiana University and the University of New Hampshire, and he received a special citation award from the New Hampshire Recreation and Parks Association for his work with youth sports and coaching education. His research on sport and recreation management has been published in refereed journals, trade magazines, and textbook chapters. Dr. Barcelona is also co-author, along with Amy Hurd and John Meldrum, of Leisure Services Management.

Valerie M. Bonnette is president and founder of Good Sports, Inc., Title IX and Gender Equity Specialists, a consulting firm assisting colleges, universities, and secondary schools in complying with the athletics provisions of Title IX (). She is the author of “Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics: How It All Works—In Plain English,” a self-evaluation manual and desk reference for colleges and universities. Prior to founding Good Sports, Inc., in 1994, Bonnette was a senior program analyst for 15 years in the Washington, D.C., headquarters office of the Office for Civil Rights, United States Department of Education. She coauthored OCR's 1990 Title IX Athletics Investigator's Manual, trained OCR attorneys and staff on Title IX athletics policy, and provided technical assistance to educational institutions.

Scott Branvold is a professor of Sport Management and the internship coordinator in the Marketing Department at Robert Morris University. He also serves as the institution's Faculty Athletics Representative. Branvold has 26 years of college teaching experience in sport management programs at both the undergraduate and graduate levels at Robert Morris and the University of Oklahoma. He has taught Sport Marketing, Sport Sociology, Legal Issues in Sport, and other sport management courses. Branvold is the coauthor of Sports Public Relations: Managing Organizational Communication (2006) with G. Clayton Stoldt and Stephen Dittmore, and he has published articles in both the Journal of Sport Management and the Sport Marketing Journal. He has presented papers at various conferences including the North American Society for Sport Management, the Sport Marketing Association, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, and the International Sports Business Conference.

Walter Brock began his duties at Conference USA as assistant director of Sport Services in September 2008. Before joining Conference USA, he was the assistant director of Athletics at the University of New Haven.

Michael L. Buckner is a licensed attorney and private investigator who specializes in advising organizations on athletics compliance, investigation, and ethics issues. Mr. Buckner represents academic institutions before all NCAA committees, including colleges and universities in the enforcement process. As an independent consultant for the NCAA (2006–07), he conducted on-site investigative audits of nontraditional and preparatory schools in the United States and Puerto Rico. He is the author of two books, Athletics Investigation Handbook: A Guide for Institutions and Involved Parties During the NCAA Enforcement Process and The ABCs of Ethics: A Resource for Leaders, Managers, and Professionals. Mr. Buckner is admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, and all federal and state courts in Florida.

Scott Bukstein is a faculty member at the University of Central Florida (UCF). In addition to teaching undergraduate and graduate sport business and sport law courses, he is the program coordinator of the undergraduate Sport Business Management Program at UCF. Bukstein's research focus is on leadership and diversity issues in sport, the perceptions and academic performance of college student-athletes, and the intersection of sport and the law. He is a former corporate law attorney.

Timothy D. DeSchriver is an associate professor of Sport Management in the Department of Business Administration, Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics at the University of Delaware. Dr. DeSchriver instructs undergraduate and graduate courses in sport finance, sport economics, and sport marketing. He is the coauthor of Sport Finance (1st and 2nd eds.) along with Gil Fried and Steve Shapiro; and has published research articles in journals such as the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Management Review, Sport Marketing Quarterly, and the Eastern Economic Journal. Dr. DeSchriver serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Sport Management, the International Journal of Sport Finance, and Sport Marketing Quarterly. He has also made numerous professional presentations at international sport management conferences including presentations in South Korea, Turkey, and Thailand.

John H. Dunkle is the executive director of the Counseling and Psychological Services at Northwestern University. He is a frequent presenter on issues related to addressing the mental health needs of college students. Dunkle's written work includes serving as editor of Dealing with the Behavioral and Psychological Problems of Students: A Contemporary Update (New Directions in Student Services no. 128), coauthor of “Helping Students with Health and Wellness Issues,” a chapter in the Handbook for Student Affairs Administration (3rd ed.), and author or coauthor of numerous other articles.

Joy Gaston Gayles is an associate professor of higher education administration at North Carolina State University. Her research focuses on the college student experience and diversity issues in higher education, most notably for intercollegiate student-athletes. In 2007 she was named an Emerging Scholar for the American College Personnel Association (ACPA).

James E. Greenwell is the executive senior associate director of Athletics for Georgia State Athletics. He formerly served as senior associate director of Athletics for Facilities, Operations and Events at the University of Maryland and as the assistant AD for Facilities and Operations at the University of Central Florida.

Bill Hogan is the director of Athletics at Seattle University. He has served as an NCAA director of Athletics for 30 years, including 10 years at Saint Joseph's College (IN) and the University of San Francisco (USF) for 15 years. He was selected as the NACDA West Regional Athletic Director of the Year and was a tenured associate professor of Business Administration at Saint Joseph's College (IN) while serving as head men's basketball coach and director of athletics. While serving as the director of athletics at USF and Seattle, Hogan also taught undergraduate Business classes in Marketing and Management and Sports Administration.

Mary F. Howard-Hamilton is a professor of Higher Education in the Department of Educational Leadership at Indiana State University. Her areas of research are multicultural identity development and diversity issues in higher education. She has been presented with numerous awards, most notably the University of Iowa Al Hood Outstanding Alumni Award and the Robert Shaffer Award for Excellence as a Graduate Faculty Member.

C. Keith Harrison is an associate professor of Sport Business Management in the College of Business Administration and is also the associate director of the Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport at the University of Central Florida. He is also founder and director of the Paul Robeson Research Center for Academic and Athletic Prowess. Harrison has held faculty positions at Washington State University, the University of Michigan, and Arizona State University. He has published numerous peer-review journal articles and book chapters on intercollegiate athletics, diversity in sport, and representations of athletes in mass media.

Carrie A. Jaworski the director of the Division of Primary Care Sports Medicine and Primary Care Sports Medicine Fellowship director. She is an assistant clinical professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Chicago's Pritzker School of Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem and serves as a Board of Trustee Member for the American College of Sports Medicine.

Edgar N. Johnson is an associate professor of Sport Management in the Department of Business Administration, Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics at the University of Delaware. Mr. Johnson was the director of athletics at the University of Delaware for twenty-five years and director of athletics and recreation services for the last eleven years of his administrative career. He has served on the NCAA Transition Management Council and on the NCAA Management Council (1996–2001). He has also served on numerous conference committees in both the America East and Colonial Athletic Association along with holding several conference leadership positions. He instructs courses in Sport Law and Finance at the undergraduate level.

Chris King serves as the director of intercollegiate athletics at the University of Texas–Pan American. He has also worked in intercollegiate athletics at the University of Alabama, University of Central Florida, Liberty University, and Campbell University. King authored a chapter on developing gambling action teams and coauthored (along with Don Rockey) a chapter on sports wagering in Ahead of the Game: Understanding and Addressing College Gambling. He also served as a member of the Harvard University Division on Addiction's Task Force on College Gambling Policies.

Heather J. Lawrence is an associate professor of Sports Administration and director of the Professional Master of Sports Administration program at Ohio University. She also holds a visiting professor appointment at Instituto de Empressa Business School in Madrid, Spain. Prior to beginning her academic career, Lawrence worked in various administrative positions within intercollegiate athletics. She is co-editor of Event Management Blueprint: Creating and Managing Successful Sports Events and has published in the areas of the student-athlete recruiting experience, luxury suite ownership in professional sport, and sport facility management.

George S. McClellan is the vice-chancellor for student affairs at Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW). Before coming to IPFW he was vice-president for student development at Dickinson State University and served students in a variety of roles at the University of Arizona and Northwestern University. He is the author, coauthor, and co-editor of numerous books, book chapters, monographs, and articles related to various topics in student affairs. Most recently McClellan coauthored Budgets and Financial Management in Higher Education (2011) with Margaret Barr, co-edited Ahead of the Game: Understanding and Addressing College Gambling (2006) with Thomas Hardy and Jim Caswell, co-edited Serving Native American Students in Higher Education with MaryJo Tippeconic Fox and Shelly Lowe (2005), and co-edited the Handbook of Student Affairs Administration (3rd ed., 2009) with Jeremy Stringer. McClellan was recently honored as a Pillar of the Profession by the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Foundation.

Colleen A. McGlone is associate professor of Recreation and Sport Management at Coastal Carolina University. Her areas of research involve hazing in collegiate athletics, legal aspects of hazing including institutional liability, and organizational culture and leadership in sport environments. McGlone serves on the board of directors for the National Sport and Recreation Law Association.

Barbara Osborne is an associate professor of Sports Administration at the University of North Carolina. Prior to becoming a faculty member she held a variety of administrative roles in intercollegiate athletics, including service as the senior woman administrator and associate athletics director at Brandeis University. Osborne is the author of numerous chapters and articles legal issues in sports. She is admitted to practice law by both the North Carolina and Massachusetts Bar Associations.

Stephen Rey is the director of intramural-recreational sports and an adjunct faculty member of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport at Western Kentucky University (WKU). Prior to arriving at the WKU campus, he served as the associate director of recreational sports and an instructor in the School of Human Performance and Recreation at the University of Southern Mississippi. Rey has 30 years of experience in recreational sports and is a registered collegiate recreational sports professional.

B. David Ridpath is an Assistant Professor of Sport Administration at Ohio University in the College of Business. Ridpath has several years of practical experience in the sports industry and teaches classes in marketing, sponsorship, risk management, sports law, issues in intercollegiate athletics, and other areas. He serves as faculty advisor and associate general manager of the Southern Ohio Copperheads, a summer collegiate wooden bat baseball team that is a main experiential learning laboratory for graduate and undergraduate sports administration and sports management students and is entirely student run. Ridpath previously served at Ohio University as assistant wrestling coach from 1994 to 1995. Prior to returning to Ohio University, Ridpath spent two years directing the graduate sports administration program at Mississippi State University and over a decade working in intercollegiate athletic administration and higher education at Marshall University and Weber State University. He has over 30 national and international refereed presentations and a dozen peer reviewed academic articles in print, three published academic book chapters, and writings and editorials featured in the NCAA News, Sports Business Journal, and Legal Issues in College Athletics.

Donald L. Rockey, Jr. is an associate professor in the Recreation and Sport Management Program at Coastal Carolina University (CCU). For the past 17 years, in addition to teaching recreation courses at CCU, he has taught at the University of Mississippi, Missouri Western State College, Texas State University, and Shepherd College. Rockey has conducted research in college student gambling, fantasy sport participation, and tourism. He has presented 34 papers at national and international conferences and has nine publications in professional journals. Rockey also collaborated with Chris King in writing a chapter entitled “Sport Wagering” for Ahead of the Game: Understanding and Addressing College Gambling.

David A. Shor is assistant director for clinical services of the Counseling and Psychological Services at Northwestern University. Dr. Shor also serves as liaison and mental health consultant to Northwestern's Department of Athletics and Recreation.

Jeremy Stringer is founder and director of the master's program in Student Development Administration at Seattle University. He has served as a vice-president for student development, associate provost, dean of students on board the Semester at Sea, chief housing officer, and department chair for several academic programs. Athletics and recreation are two areas that have reported to him during his career. Along with George McClellan he is co-editor of the Handbook of Student Affairs Administration (3rd ed.). He was in the inaugural class of the NASPA Faculty Fellows and served as chair of the Faculty Fellows for two years.

David P. Synowka serves as director of Sport Management and professor of Sport Management at Robert Morris University. He has been at Robert Morris University for over 32 years as a part of both the Sport Management and the NCAA Division I Athletics programs. Synowka has also served as a visiting professor and acting chair for the Sports Medicine Education Program at West Chester University and as an assistant professor of sport medicine in the Graduate School of Health and Physical Education at the University of Pittsburgh.

John R. Thelin is University Research Professor at the University of Kentucky. Prior to joining the University of Kentucky in 1996, he was Chancellor Professor at The College of William & Mary in Virginia and professor at Indiana University. He is a member of the NCAA's research advisory board and was an invited speaker at the Knight Commission on the Future of College Sports hearings in 1990 and in 2009. He is the author of Games Colleges Play and A History of American Higher Education, both published by The Johns Hopkins University Press. An alumnus of Brown University, he concentrated in history, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and was a letterman on the varsity wrestling team. In 2006 the Ivy League selected John for its 50th anniversary celebration of outstanding scholar-athletes.

Michael A. Wartell serves as chancellor of Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW). Prior to taking on that role in 1994, he was the vice-chancellor for academic affairs. In addition to his service at IPFW, Wartell's academic career includes serving as a faculty member and department chair in chemistry at Metropolitan State College in Denver, dean of the School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Slippery Rock University, dean of the College of Letters and Sciences at James Madison University, and provost and vice-president for academic affairs at Humboldt State University. His professional experience also includes being a department manager for Sandia National Laboratories. Wartell is a member of the U.S. Army Science Board and a recipient of the State of Indiana's Sagamore of the Wabash honor.

David F. Wolf has been involved in higher education fundraising and development for more than twelve years. Wolf currently serves as executive director for the Office of Planned and Major Gifts at UCLA. He has previously served as vice-president for advancement at the University of Southern Mississippi, assistant vice-president and director of Athletic Development at the University of Alabama, vice-president for development at Cameron University, and director of Development at the University of Texas at Arlington. Prior to working in university development, Wolf worked in the cable television advertising industry.



Higher education can be a complex and challenging field in which to work, and the administration of college athletics and recreation in higher education is an important role on many college campuses. The complexity, challenge, and importance, coupled with a rapidly and ever-changing environment, requires intercollegiate athletics and recreation professionals to be quick learners and adaptive managers. While theirs is a dynamic arena in which to serve, these administrators can draw from a substantial and stable foundation of history, theory, ethics, law, and governance to inform their practice. Part One focuses on these elements in that foundation.

The first two chapters provide a historical overview. In Chapter One, John Thelin traces intercollegiate athletics from its origins at Harvard to its contemporary expression in the 21st century. Drawing on historical, cultural, and sociological perspectives, he thoughtfully points out how the uniquely American model of intercollegiate athletics emerged and evolved. Donald Rockey and Robert Barcelona provide a similar overview for the history of fitness and recreation in Chapter Two. They clearly describe the origins and development of the various elements of collegiate recreation, including physical education departments, organized recreation programs, open exercise and recreation opportunities, outdoor recreation programs, and wellness education.

In Chapters Three and Four, the authors expertly take abstract constructs and demonstrate to the reader their tangible applications. Mary Howard-Hamilton and Joy Gaston Gayles discuss a variety of bodies and models of theories that inform campus recreation and intercollegiate athletics administration. Issues in campus recreation and intercollegiate ethics are addressed by Michael Buckner within the broad framework of every day ethics.

Legal principles and precedent also provide a foundational framework for the administration of college athletics and recreation. While there is no substitute for sage legal counsel, it is helpful and important for practitioners to have an understanding of the law as it relates to their work. Barbara Osborne offers a thorough and practical discussion of important relevant topics in the law in Chapter Five. Gender equity is a critically important legal topic in intercollegiate athletics and recreation, and Title IX is at the heart of the law in this area. Valerie Bonnette's work in Chapter Six highlights both the letter and spirit of Title IX while also offering useful insights on evaluating and assuring compliance.

Governance is an essential element of the organizational framework in which intercollegiate athletics and campus recreation take place at the institution as well as throughout the nation. In Chapter Seven David Ridpath and Robertha Abney provide a description of the elements of governance from faculty senates to athletics associations.