Cover Page



Half Title page

Title page

Copyright page

Notes on Contributors

Chapter 1: Negotiating Statehood: Dynamics of Power and Domination in Africa


Negotiating Statehood: A Heuristic Framework

Actors, Resources and Repertoires

Negotiation Arenas and Tables

Objects of Negotiation

The Hegemonic Quest of the State in Africa



Chapter 2: Protection for Sale? War and the Transformation of Regulation on the Congo–Ugandan Border


Origins of A Network

A Continuation of Violence by other Means

Protection for Sale?

The Pluralization of Economic Regulation

Governance Without Government?



Chapter 3: The Struggle Continues? The Spectre of Liberation, Memory Politics and ‘War Veterans’ in Namibia


Namibian Ex-Combatant ‘Reintegration’: The Politics of Biopolitics

Ex-Combatants, Swapo and the State: from Jobs to Compensation

The Liberation Narrative and its Underside



Chapter 4: Federal Restructuring in Ethiopia: Renegotiating Identity and Borders along the Oromo–Somali Ethnic Frontiers


Ethiopian Federalism: Borders, Identity and Territoriality

Renegotiating Identity and Borders among the Borana, Garre and Gabbra

Renegotiating Identity and Borders Between the Gerri and the Jarso



Chapter 5: Facing Up to the Centre: The Emergence of Regional Elite Associations in Angola’s Political Transition Process


The Angolan State: Centralization and Regional Inequality

Negotiating The Local State: The Sub-National Reforms

Regional Elite Associations in HuÍLa Province

Representation: The Two Regional Elite Associations Compared



Chapter 6: The People, the Power and the Public Service: Political Identification during Guinea’s General Strikes in 2007


Post-Colonial State Building in Guinea

ForÉCariah During the 2007 Strikes

The Perpetual Construction of State



Chapter 7: The Party and the State: Frelimo and Social Stratification in Post-socialist Mozambique


The State, The Party and Africa

The Brave New World

Rising from The Ashes



Chapter 8: Maintenant, on sait qui est qui: Statehood and Political Reconfiguration in Northern Côte d’Ivoire


Security First

New Opportunities



Chapter 9: Negotiating Statehood in a Hybrid Political Order: The Case of Somaliland


Negotiating Statehood in the National Arena

Negotiating Statehood in the Local Arena



Chapter 10: Researching African Statehood Dynamics: Negotiability and its Limits


Queries and Objectives

Conceptual Reach

Contrasted Contexts

Negation vs Negotiation

External Dimensions and Involvements

Limits and Policy Implications of Negotiability




Negotiating Statehood

Development and Change Book Series

As a journal, Development and Change distinguishes itself by its multidisciplinary approach and its breadth of coverage, publishing articles on a wide spectrum of development issues. Accommodating a deeper analysis and a more concentrated focus, it also publishes regular special issues on selected themes. Development and Change and Wiley-Blackwell collaborate to produce these theme issues as a series of books, with the aim of bringing these pertinent resources to a wider audience.

Titles in the series include:

Negotiating Statehood: Dynamics of Power and Domination in Africa
Edited by Tobias Hagmann and Didier Péclard

The Politics of Possession: Property, Authority, and Access to Natural
Edited by Thomas Sikor and Christian Lund

Gender Myths and Feminist Fables: The Struggle for Interpretive Power in Gender and Development
Edited by Andrea Cornwall, Elizabeth Harrison and Ann Whitehead

Twilight Institutions: Public Authority and Local Politics in Africa
Edited by Christian Lund

China’s Limits to Growth: Greening State and Society
Edited by Peter Ho and Eduard B. Vermeer

Catalysing Development? A Debate on Aid
Jan Pronk et al.

State Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction
Edited by Jennifer Milliken

Forests: Nature, People, Power
Edited by Martin Doornbos, Ashwani Saith and Ben White

Gendered Poverty and Well-being
Edited by Shahra Razavi

Globalization and Identity
Edited by Birgit Meyer and Peter Geschiere

Social Futures, Global Visions
Edited by Cynthia Hewitt de Alcantara

Title Page

Notes on Contributors

Tobias Hagmann is a visiting scholar at the Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley and an associated researcher at the Department of Geography, University of Zürich (email: tobias. He has researched resource conflicts, local and state politics in the Ethio-Somali borderlands and maintains a strong interest in the political sociology of the state, critical conflict research and development studies. He is the co-editor (with Kjetil Tronvoll) of Contested Power: Traditional Authorities and Multi-party Elections in Ethiopia (forthcoming).

Didier Péclard is senior researcher at the Swiss Peace Foundation (swisspeace) in Bern and lecturer in political science at the University of Basel (email: He has worked and published extensively on Christian missions and nationalism as well as on the politics of peace and transition in Angola. As a fellow of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North–South, his current main research focus is on the dynamics of statehood in societies after violent conflicts.

Timothy Raeymaekers is lecturer of Political Geography at the University of Zürich ( He has done extensive research on cross-border trade and local politics in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Amongst others, he is currently working on a book manuscript about cross-border trade in the borderland of Congo-Uganda based on his PhD thesis.

Lalli Metsola is a researcher at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland (email: For his PhD, he has researched and published on state formation, citizenship and political subjectivity in Namibia through the case of ex-combatant ‘reintegration’. Recently, he has also done research on policing, violence and the rule of law in Namibia.

Asnake Kefale is assistant professor at the Department of Political Science and International Relations, Addis Ababa University (email: He has done extensive research and published on issues of federalism, conflict, governance and civil society in Ethiopia.

Inge Ruigrok is a consultant for the European Commission and an associate researcher at the Centro de Estudos Africanos (CEA/ISCTE) in Lisbon (email: She holds a PhD in Political Anthropology and an MSc degree in International Relations. Her doctorate research was on governance, culture and political change in post-war Angola, with a special focus on the redefinition and negotiation of central-local relations. She previously worked as a journalist in Europe and Southern Africa.

Anita Schroven is a researcher at Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Halle/Saale, and the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Bielefeld Germany (email: She has conducted extensive research on state, governance, decentralization and oral tradition in Guinea as well as on gender and post-war societies in Sierra Leone and Liberia. She is author of the book Women after War (LIT Verlag, 2006).

Jason Sumich is a research fellow for the SARChI Chair on Social Change, University of Fort Hare, 4 Hill Street, East London, 5201, South Africa (email: His main areas of interest concern nationalism, urban ethnography, the middle class, social class formation and social stratification in Mozambique. He is currently researching nationalism, Islam and Indian Ocean trade networks in Mozambique and India.

Till Förster is director of the Centre for African Studies and professor of social anthropology (chair) at the University of Basel (email: He has conducted long-term research on political transformations in Africa, in particular in d’Ivoire and Cameroon, and is currently studying the interaction of local, state and rebel governance in northern d’Ivoire. He is co-editor of Non-State Actors as Standard Setters (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Marleen Renders is a post-doctoral research associate at the Human Rights Centre, Ghent University (email: She currently works in Kenya’s Coastal Province, investigating women’s human rights in contexts of legal pluralism involving customary and Islamic law. She conducted her PhD fieldwork in Somaliland in 2002/2003 and was a research fellow at the Academy for Peace and Development, a local dialogue NGO carrying out participatory action research, in Hargeisa. Her work on Somaliland is shortly to be published by Brill (Leiden).

Ulf Terlinden is a research associate at the Institute for Development and Peace (INEF) at the University of Duisburg-Essen (email: He has been a resident political analyst in Somaliland since mid-2005 and his main research interest revolves around governance and post-conflict peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa. He has worked as research fellow and capacity builder with the Academy for Peace and Development, a local dialogue NGO carrying out participatory action research, in Hargeisa.

Martin Doornbos is Emeritus Professor of Political Science at the Institute of Social Studies, PO Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, The Netherlands (e-mail: and Visiting Professor of Development Studies at Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda. He has done extensive research on state–society relations and the politics of resource allocation in Eastern Africa (mainly Uganda and the Horn) and in India, and is currently working on encounters between research and politics in the development arena. His most recent book is Global Forces and State Restructuring: Dynamics of State Formation and Collapse (Palgrave, 2006) and his forthcoming book (with Wim van Binsbergen) is entitled Researching Power and Identity in African State Formation: Comparative Perspectives.