This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of the scholarship that has shaped our current understanding of the past. Defined by theme, period and/or region, each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The aim of each contribution is to synthesize the current state of scholarship from a variety of historical perspectives and to provide a statement on where the field is heading. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.


A Companion to Roman Britain
Edited by Malcolm Todd

A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages
Edited by S. H. Rigby

A Companion to Tudor Britain
Edited by Robert Tittler and Norman Jones

A Companion to Stuart Britain
Edited by Barry Coward

A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Britain
Edited by H. T. Dickinson

A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Britain
Edited by Chris Williams

A Companion to Early Twentieth-Century Britain
Edited by Chris Wrigley

A Companion to Contemporary Britain
Edited by Paul Addison and Harriet Jones

A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland c.500–c.1100
Edited by Pauline Stafford


A Companion to Europe 1900–1945
Edited by Gordon Martel

A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Europe
Edited by Peter H. Wilson

A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Europe
Edited by Stefan Berger

A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance
Edited by Guido Ruggiero

A Companion to the Reformation World
Edited by R. Po-chia Hsia

A Companion to Europe Since 1945
Edited by Klaus Larres

A Companion to the Medieval World
Edited by Carol Lansing and Edward D. English


A Companion to the American Revolution
Edited by Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole

A Companion to 19th-Century America
Edited by William L. Barney

A Companion to the American South
Edited by John B. Boles

A Companion to American Indian History
Edited by Philip J. Deloria and Neal Salisbury

A Companion to American Women’s History
Edited by Nancy A. Hewitt

A Companion to Post-1945 America
Edited by Jean-Christophe Agnew and Roy Rosenzweig

A Companion to the Vietnam War
Edited by Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco

A Companion to Colonial America
Edited by Daniel Vickers

A Companion to 20th-Century America
Edited by Stephen J. Whitfield

A Companion to the American West
Edited by William Deverell

A Companion to American Foreign Relations
Edited by Robert D. Schulzinger

A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction
Edited by Lacy K. Ford

A Companion to American Technology
Edited by Carroll Pursell

A Companion to African-American History
Edited by Alton Hornsby, Jr

A Companion to American Immigration
Edited by Reed Ueda

A Companion to American Cultural History
Edited by Karen Halttunen

A Companion to California History
Edited by William Deverell and David Igler

A Companion to American Military History
Edited by James Bradford

A Companion to Los Angeles
Edited by William Deverell and Greg Hise

A Companion to American Environmental History
Edited by Douglas Cazaux Sackman


A Companion to Western Historical Thought
Edited by Lloyd Kramer and Sarah Maza

A Companion to Gender History
Edited by Teresa A. Meade and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks

A Companion to International History 1900–2001
Edited by Gordon Martel

A Companion to the History of the Middle East
Edited by Youssef M. Choueiri

A Companion to Japanese History
Edited by William M. Tsutsui

A Companion to Latin American History
Edited by Thomas Holloway

A Companion to Russian History
Edited by Abbott Gleason

A Companion to World War I
Edited by John Horne

A Companion to Mexican History and Culture
Edited by William H. Beezley


List of Maps

Europe at the outbreak of World War I

The western front, 1914–18

The eastern front, 1914–17

The Austro-Italian front, 1915–18

The Ottoman Empire, 1914–18

Africa in World War I

Occupied Europe, 1914–18

Europe after World War I

Notes on Contributors

Robert Aldrich is Professor of European History at the University of Sydney. Among his works in colonial history are Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion (1996) and Vestiges of the Colonial Empire in France: Monuments, Museums and Colonial Memories (2005). He was guest editor of an issue of Outre-Mers in 2006 on “Sites et moments de mémoire,” and his edited collection, Age of Empires, was published in 2007.

Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau is Director of Studies at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales and president of the Research Centre at the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France. His main area of interest is the history of World War I, and also the historical anthropology of the modern combatant. His publications include Men at War. National Sentiment and Trench Journalism in France during the First World War (1992), Understanding the Great War (with Annette Becker et al., 2002), Encyclopédie de la Grande Guerre, 1914–1918 (edited with Jean-Jacques Becker, 2004), Combattre. Une anthropologie historique de la guerre moderne, XIXe–XXIe siècle (2008), and Les armes et la chair. Trois objets de mort en 14–18 (2009).

Theo Balderston was Senior Lecturer in Economic History at the University of Manchester until his retirement in 2008. His publications include Economics and Politics in the Weimar Republic (2002) and the edited collection, The World Economy and National Economies in the Interwar Slump (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

Annette Becker is Professor of Modern History at the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, and a member of the Institut Universitaire de France. She shares her activity between the Research Centre at the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France and the Memorial de la Shoah, Paris. She has published widely on the history of the two world wars, including studies of intellectuals and artists. Recent publications include Apollinaire, une biographie de guerre, 1914–1918 (2009), (with Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau) Understanding the Great War (2002), and (with Leonard Smith and Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau) France and the Great War, 1914–1918 (2003).

Jean-Jacques Becker, born in 1928 in Paris, is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense. He has published essentially on World War I and on twentieth century French politics, especially communism. He co-authored (with Gerd Krumeich) a Franco-German history of World War I (La Grande Guerre. Une histoire franco-allemande, 2008). He is Honorary President of the Research Centre of the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France.

Hamit Bozarslan, Director of Studies at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, is currently working on the political and historical sociology of the Middle East. His recent publications include Conflit kurde (2009) and Une histoire de la violence au Moyen-Orient (2008).

Mark Cornwall is Professor of Modern European History at the University of Southampton and chair of the Forum of British, Czech and Slovak Historians. He specializes in modern East–central Europe, particularly the collapse of the Hapsburg Empire, the creation of Yugoslavia, and the Czech–German relationship in the Bohemian lands. Publications on these themes have included The Undermining of Austria-Hungary (2000), The Last Years of Austria-Hungary (2002), and (edited with R. J. W. Evans) Czechoslovakia in a Nationalist and Fascist Europe (2007).

Sophie Delaporte is Maître de Conférénces in the Faculty of Philosophy and Human and Social Sciences at the Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens. She is the author of Les Médecins dans la Grande Guerre (2003) and Gueules cassées de la Grande Guerre (2004). She is a member of the Groupe d’Etudes Guerre et Médecine (Study Group on War and Medecine) and editor of the review Guerre, médecine et trauma on the website of the Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire de Médecine. She is currently working on the medical history of wars since the mid-20th century and in particular on Vietnam, the 1973 Arab–Israeli conflict and the wars in the Falkands and Iraq.

Carole Fink, Distinguished Humanities Professor in History at The Ohio State University, and a specialist in European International History, is the author of three monographs, Defending the Rights of Others: The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878–1938 (2004), The Genoa Conference: European Diplomacy, 1921–1922 (1984), both of which were awarded the George Louis Beer prize of the American Historical Association, and Marc Bloch: A Life in History (1989), which has been translated into five languages. She has edited six volumes and has written some fifty articles and chapters on contemporary European history.

Peter Gatrell is Professor of Economic History at the University of Manchester. He is the author of several books, including A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War 1 (1999; paperback 2005) and Russia’s First World War: A Social and Economic History (2005). He is currently writing a book entitled The Making of the Modern Refugee and researching World Refugee Year, 1959–60. He also co-directs a collaborative research project on “Population displacement, state practice and social experience in Russia and Eastern Europe, 1930–1950s,” one outcome of which was a special issue of Contemporary European History (November 2007). His ongoing interests in Russian economic history include studies of the pre-revolutionary fiscal system and a chapter on “Russia’s Age of Economic Extremes, 1900–2000” in R. G. Duny (ed.), Cambridge History of Russia, Volume 3, The Twentieth Century (2006).

Antonio Gibelli is Professor of Modern History at the University of Genoa and founder of one of the most important centers in Italy for the study of personal writings by ordinary people, including letters of soldiers and prisoners of war during World War I. His publications include: L’Officina della Guerra: La Grande Guerra e le trasformazioni del mondo mentale (1991, new ed. 2007); La Grande Guerra degli Italiani (1998, new ed. 2006); and Il Popolo bambino: infanzia e nazione dalla Grande Guerra a Salò (2005). Additionally, he edited La Prima Guerra Mondiale (2007), the Italian edition of the Encyclopédie de la Grande Guerre, ed. Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Jean-Jacques Becker et al. (2004).

Susan R. Grayzel teaches modern European history at the University of Mississippi. She is the author of two books, Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France during the First World War (1999), which was awarded the British Council Prize in 2000, and Women and the First World War (2002), a global history. Her most recent book project (coedited with Philippa Levine) is Gender, Labour, War and Empire: Essays on Modern Britain (2009).

Adrian Gregory is Lecturer in Modern History at Pembroke College, University of Oxford. His previous publications include The Silence of Memory: Armistice Day, 1919–1946 (1994); as editor, with Senia Paseta, A War to Unite Us All: Ireland and the Great War (2002) and most recently, The Last Great War. British Society and the First World War (2008).

Paul Halpern is Professor Emeritus at Florida State University, Tallahassee and specializes in twentieth-century naval history. His publications include The Mediterranean Naval Situation, 1908–1914 (1971), The Naval War in the Mediterranean, 1914–1918 (1987), A Naval History of World War I (1994), Anton Haus: Österreich-Ungarns Großadmiral (1998) and The Battle of the Otranto Straits (2004). He has edited four volumes for the Navy Records Society, including the Keyes Papers (1972–81), and is currently editing two volumes on the Mediterranean Fleet, 1919–39.

Holger H. Herwig is Professor of History and Canada Research Chair in the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies at the University of Calgary. He has published widely on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Germany. His most recent books include The Marne, 1914, War Planning, 1914, and (with Michael Keren), War, Memory and Popular Culture (all 2009).

Christopher Hilliard is a senior lecturer in history at the University of Sydney. He is the author of To Exercise Our Talents: The Democratization of Writing in Britain (Harvard, 2006).

Gerhard Hirschfeld is Director of the Bibliothek für Zeitgeschichte/Library of Contemporary History and Professor of Modern European History at the University of Stuttgart. His publications include numerous books and articles on the history of both world wars as well as on the history of the Netherlands in the twentieth century. He coedited (with Gerd Krumeich and Irina Renz) the international Enzyklopädie Erster Weltkrieg (2003, revised edition 2009, English edition forthcoming) and Die Deutschen an der Somme. Krieg, Besatzung, Verbrannte Erde (2006), which also appeared in Dutch and English.

John Horne is Professor of Modern European History at Trinity College, Dublin, and a member of the Research Centre at the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France. He has published widely on the history of World War I and of twentieth-century France, including Labour at War: France and Britain, 1914–1918 (1991), (ed.) State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War (1997) and (with Alan Kramer), German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial (2001), which has appeared in French and German.

Jennifer D. Keene is Professor of History and Chair at Chapman University, southern California. She is the author of three books on American involvement in World War I, Doughboys, the Great War and the Remaking of America (2001), The United States and the First World War (2000), and World War I (2006). A recipient of numerous fellowships, including Fulbright awards to Australia and France, she is currently completing a project on African American soldiers’ experiences during World War I.

John Keiger is Professor of International History and Director of the European Studies Research Institute at the University of Salford. He is the author of France and the Origins of the First World War (1983), Raymond Poincaré (1997), France and the World since 1870 (2001) and editor of 19 volumes of British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print (1989–91). He has been a Visiting Professor at several foreign universities, including the Institut d’Etudes Politiques in Paris in 2003.

David Killingray is Professor Emeritus at Goldsmiths College, and a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London. He is the author of books and articles on aspects of African, Caribbean, imperial, and English local history, and also on the black Diaspora. His most recent book, Fighting for Britain: African Soldiers in the Second World War, is forthcoming.

Alan Kramer is Professor of European History at Trinity College Dublin. He has published on the British occupation of Germany, 1945–50, on the West German economy 1945–55, and on the history of World War I. Recent publications include Dynamic of Destruction. Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War (2007) and (with John Horne) German Atrocities 1914: A History of Denial, 2001 (German translation, 2004; French translation, 2005). He is currently working on the history of Italian prisoners of war during World War I, and a major project on the “International History of Concentration Camps,” funded by a grant from the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences.

Gerd Krumeich is Professor of Modern History at the University of Düsseldorf. He was educated at the universities of Innsbruck, Göttingen, Paris, Cologne, and Düsseldorf and was Professor of the History of Western Europe at the University of Freiburg. His publications include Armaments and Politics in France on the Eve of the First World War (1980; English ed. 1984) and (with Jean-Jacques Becker), La Grande Guerre: une histoire franco-allemande (2008). Together with Gerhard Hirschfeld and Irina Renz, he edited the Enzyklopädie Erster Weltkrieg (2003, revised edition 2009, English edition forthcoming), the major German reference work on World War I. He is Vice-president of the Research Centre of the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France.

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius is Associate Professor of Modern European History at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He has published War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I (2000), which also appeared in German translation, and The German Myth of the East: 1800 to the Present (2009).

Eric Lohr is the author of Nationalizing the Russian Empire: The Campaign Against Enemy Aliens during World War I (2003) and The Papers of Grigorii Nikolaevich Trubetskoi (2006), and editor (with Marshall Poe) of Military and Society in Russian History, 1450–1917 (2002). His current book projects include a study of citizenship in imperial and revolutionary Russia and a history of World War I and the end of the Russian Empire. He is founder and chair of the Washington Russian History Workshop, held monthly at Georgetown University. He received his MA in Russian Studies and PhD in history from Harvard University, then taught there as an assistant professor of history (2000–3). He is currently an assistant professor of history at American University, Washington DC.

John H. Morrow, Jr. is Franklin Professor of History at the University of Georgia. He specializes in the history of modern Europe and of war and society. He is the author of The Great War: An Imperial History (2004), The Great War in the Air: Military Aviation from 1909 to 1921 (1993), German Air Power in World War I (1982), and Building German Air Power, 1909–1914 (1976), and edited A Yankee Ace in the RAF: The World War I Letters of Captain Bogart Rogers (1996).

Robin Prior graduated in history at the University of Adelaide and lectured in the Australian Defence Force Academy, before becoming head of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at ADFA (part of the University of New South Wales). He has published Churchill’s ‘World Crisis’ as History (1983) and is currently preparing a book on the Dardanelles conflict, 1915. He has also coauthored four books with Trevor Wilson: Command on the Western Front (2004), Passchendaele: the Untold Story (1998; new ed. 2002), The First World War (1999; new ed. 2006), and The Somme (2005).

Christophe Prochasson is Director of Studies in Modern French History at the Ecole des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Paris. He has published widely on the cultural and political history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century France. On World War I he has published Vrai et faux dans la Grande Guerre (with Anne Rasmussen, 2004) and, more recently, Sortir de la Grande Guerre: Le monde et l’après 1918 (edited with Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau, 2008). He has also published 14–18. Retours d’expériences (2008).

Anne Rasmussen is a historian, Maître de conférences at the University of Strasbourg, and a member of the Research Centre at the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France. Her research focuses on the cultural and social history of science in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She is the author of articles on the scientific, medical, and intellectual aspects of World War I, and has published (with Christophe Prochasson), Au nom de la patrie. Les intellectuels et la Première Guerre mondiale, 1910–1919 (1996) and Vrai et faux dans la Grande Guerre (2004).

Giorgio Rochat specializes in military, colonial, and political history from Italian unification (1861) to World War II. He was Professor of Modern History and then History of Military Institutions at the University of Milan (1969), Ferrara (1976) and Turin (1980–2005). His most recent works include (with Mario Isnenghi) La Grande Guerra 1914–1918 (2000, 2008) and Le guerre italiane 1935–1943 (2005).

Sophie De Schaepdrijver teaches modern European history at Pennsylvania State University. She is a member of the Scientific Councils of the Research Centre of the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, and of the In Flanders Fields Museum, Ypres, Belgium, and of the editorial board of the journal First World War Studies. She has published widely on Belgium in World War I, with specific reference to military occupation (La Belgique et la Première Guerre Mondiale (1997, 2004). Her latest book is a study of transnational experiences of occupation, ‘We who are so Cosmopolitan’: the War Diary of Constance Graeffe, 1914–1915 (2008).

Leonard V. Smith is Frederick B. Artz Professor of History at Oberlin College, Ohio. His books include Between Mutiny and Obedience: The Case of the French Fifth Infantry Division during World War I (1994), (with Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker) France and the Great War (2003), and The Embattled Self. French Soldiers’ Testimonies of the Great War (2007).

Dennis Showalter is Professor of History at Colorado College and Past President of the Society for Military History. Joint Editor of War in History, he specializes in comparative military history. His recent monographs include The Wars of Frederick the Great (1996); The Wars of German Unification (2004), and Patton and Rommel: Men of War in the Twentieth Century (2005).

Pierre Sorlin is Professor Emeritus of Film Studies at the University of Paris III-Sorbonne Nouvelle and research fellow at the Historical Institute Ferruccio Parri in Bologna. Among his publications on film and history are European Cinemas, European Societies, 1939–1990 (1991) and Italian National Cinema, 1896–1996 (1996).

Hew Strachan is Chichele Professor of the History of War at Oxford, and a Fellow of All Souls College. His books include The First World War: To Arms (2001), the first volume of a projected trilogy, and The First World War: a New Illustrated History (2003) which was linked to the major Channel 4 series on World War I, broadcast in ten parts in 2003.

Ulrich Trumpener is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Since 1960 he has published extensively on German policies in the Middle East, on the Prussian army, and on various military and naval operations during World War I. His most recent research papers, on Max Hoffmann and Konstantin Schmidt von Knobelsdorf, appeared in Chief of Staff, ed. David T. Zabecki (2 vols., 2008).

Trevor Wilson is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Adelaide. He is a graduate of Auckland University and of Oxford University, and became a lecturer in history in Adelaide in 1960. His books include The Downfall of the Liberal Party 1914–1935, The Political Diaries of C P Scott 1911–1928, and The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914–1918. He has also coauthored four books with Robin Prior: Command on the Western Front (2004), Passchendaele: The Untold Story (1998), The First World War (1999), and The Somme (2005).

Jay Winter teaches history at Yale University. Educated at Columbia and Cambridge universities, he taught for many years at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He is the author of Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (1995) and is general editor of the forthcoming Cambridge History of the First World War.

Laurence Van Ypersele is Professor of History at the Catholic University of Louvain. Her books include a study of the kingship of Albert I of Belgium, Le Mythe du roi Albert, 1909–1934 (1995; reedited in 2006), a history of espionage in Belgium during World War I (with Emmanuel Debruyne), De la Guerre de l’ombre aux ombres de la guerre. L’espionnage de 14–18 en Belgique occupée (2004) and (ed.), Imaginaires de guerre: l’histoire entre mythe et réalité (2003). She is interested in political imagery, national heroes, and collective identities, and the history of World War I in Belgium. She is a member of the Executive Committee of the Research Centre of the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne.

Editor’s Acknowledgments

It is perhaps not surprising that a volume with thirty-nine contributors has taken a long time to produce. It is even less surprising that as editor, in completing it, I should be acutely aware of just how collaborative such an undertaking is and how much I owe to the many people who have helped me. Christopher Wheeler first proposed the idea. It seemed exciting to me then, as it still does now, and I thank him for it. My thirty-eight fellow authors have been a model of tolerance, good humor, and collegiality. I have been acutely aware of the responsibility of editing and publishing their work, and I hope they feel that the finished volume is adequate reward for their patience. The price of inviting the top scholars in a truly international field to contribute to a book such as this is translation. But the price of translation is skill and fluency so that the reader should have the impression of reading native English. Twelve chapters were translated, nearly a third of the total, from three languages, and I would like to acknowledge the abilities and dedication of my fellow translators, Heather Jones, Mark Jones, Helen McPhail, and Paul O’Brien. I should also like to thank the Grace Lawless Lee Fund of Trinity College Dublin, which helped fund the cost of the translations. Chartwell Illustrators were painstaking in their production of the maps and must be thanked too. I have been fortunate since the outset in my editors at Wiley-Blackwell - Tessa Harvey, Gillian Kane, Helen Lawton, and Hannah Rolls. However, over the last year, my production editor, Tom Bates, and my copy editor, Juanita Bullough, have been truly outstanding. They have thrown me more life-lines than any editor or author has a right to expect and always showed me exemplary courtesy and understanding. If they feel the result is worthwhile, I shall be very gratified. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Michèle, and my daughters, Alannah and Chloë. Their love and support made the Companion possible, as so much else.

John Horne
Dublin, February 2010