Table of Contents

Title Page



About the Editors



Part One: Components of RFID Systems and Performance Metrics

Chapter 1: Performance of Passive UHF RFID Systems in Practice

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Ideal RFID System

1.3 Practical RFID Systems

1.4 Overview of the Book

1.5 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Performance Metrics and Operational Parameters of RFID Systems

2.1 Overview

2.2 Key Operational Parameters

2.3 Classification of Commercially Available Products

2.4 Conclusion

Chapter 3: UHF RFID Antennas

3.1 Dipoles and Relatives

3.2 T Match and Relatives

3.3 Putting it Together: Building an RFID Tag

3.4 The Environment

3.5 Conclusions, Trends, and Challenges

Chapter 4: RFID Tag Chip Design

4.1 Tag Architecture Systems

4.2 Memory in Standard CMOS Processes

4.3 Baseband of RFID Tag

4.4 RFID Tag Performance Optimization

4.5 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Design of Passive Tag RFID Readers

5.1 Overview

5.2 Basics of Passive RFID Operation

5.3 Passive RFID Reader Designs

5.4 Advanced Topics on RFID Reader Design

5.5 Conclusion

Chapter 6: RFID Middleware: Concepts and Architecture

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Overview of an RFID Middleware Architecture

6.3 Readers Management

6.4 Data Management and Application Level Events

6.5 Store and Share Data

6.6 Example

6.7 Conclusion

Part Two: Tag Identification Protocols

Chapter 7: Aloha Based Protocols

7.1 Pure Aloha

7.2 Slotted Aloha

7.3 Framed Slotted Aloha

7.4 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Tree Based Anti Collision Protocols for RFID Tags

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Principles of Tree Based Anti Collision Protocols

8.3 Tree Protocols in the Existing RFID Specifications

8.4 Practical Issues and Transmission Errors

8.5 Cooperative Readers and Generalized Arbitration Spaces

8.6 Conclusion

Chapter 9: A Comparison of TTF and RTF UHF RFID Protocols

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Requirements for RFID Protocols

9.3 Different Approaches Used in UHF Protocols

9.4 Description of Stochastic TTF Protocols

9.5 Comparison between ISO18000 6C and TTF Protocols

9.6 Conclusion

Part Three: Reader Infrastructure Networking

Chapter 10: Integrating RFID Readers in Enterprise IT

10.1 Related Work

10.2 RFID System Services

10.3 Reader Capabilities

10.4 RFID System Architecture Taxonomy

10.5 EPCglobal Standards

10.6 Adoption of High Level Reader Protocols

10.7 Potential Future Standardization Activities

10.8 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Reducing Interference in RFID Reader Networks

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Interference Problem in RFID Reader Networks

11.3 Access Mechanism, Regulations, Standards and Algorithms

11.4 Comparison

11.5 Conclusion

Chapter 12: Optimal Tag Coverage and Tag Report Elimination

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Overview of RFID Systems

12.3 Tree Walking: An Algorithm for Detecting Tags in the Presence of Collisions

12.4 Reader Collision Avoidance

12.5 Coverage Redundancy in RFID Systems: Comparison with Sensor Networks

12.6 Network Model

12.7 Optimal Tag Coverage and Tag Reporting

12.8 Redundant Reader Elimination Algorithms: A Centralized Heuristic

12.9 RRE: A Distributed Solution

12.10 Adapting to Topological Changes

12.11 The Layered Elimination Optimization (LEO)

12.12 Related Work

12.13 Conclusion

Chapter 13: Delay/Disruption Tolerant Mobile RFID Networks: Challenges and Opportunities

13.1 Motivation

13.2 Overview of FINDERS

13.3 General Feasibility Study

13.4 Unique Challenges and Tactics

13.5 Related Work

13.6 Conclusion

Part Four: Addressing other Challenges in RFID Systems

Chapter 14: Improving Read Ranges and Read Rates for Passive RFID Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Signal Descriptions and Formulations for Passive Backscatter RFID Systems

14.3 Improving the Read Range of a Passive RFID System

14.4 Improving the Read Rate of a Passive RFID System

14.5 Two Design Examples for RFID System

14.6 Conclusion

Chapter 15: Principles and Techniques of RFID Positioning

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Tag Range Estimation Techniques

15.3 DOA Estimation Techniques

15.4 RFID Positioning Techniques

15.5 Improving Positioning Accuracy

15.6 Conclusion

Chapter 16: Towards Secure and Privacy Enhanced RFID Systems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Security and Privacy

16.3 Classification of RFID Systems

16.4 Attacks on RFID Systems and Appropriate Countermeasures

16.5 Lightweight Cryptography for RFID

16.6 Conclusion

Chapter 17: Cryptographic Approaches for Improving Security and Privacy Issues of RFID Systems

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Threats Against the RFID System

17.3 Required Properties

17.4 Cryptographic Protocols for Identification with Privacy

17.5 Cryptographic Protocols for Authentication without Privacy

17.6 Cryptographic Protocols for Privacy and Other Requirements

17.7 Implementation

17.8 Real Systems and Attacks

17.9 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Novel RFID Technologies: Energy Harvesting for Self Powered Autonomous RFID Systems

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Novel Low Power Architectures

18.3 Energy Harvesting Optimized for RFID

18.4 Future Trends in Energy Harvesting

18.5 Conclusion

Chapter 19: Simulators and Emulators for Different Abstraction Layers of UHF RFID Systems

19.1 Introduction

19.2 The Simulation/Emulation Platforms

19.3 UHF RFID Simulation Platform

19.4 Real Time HIL Verification and Emulation Platform

19.5 Higher Class Tag Architecture Based on Energy Harvesting

19.6 Conclusion


Title Page

To my wife Andjelka and children Marija,

Natasa and Katarina.

Miodrag Boliimages/cacute.gif

To Isabelle, my wife.

David Simplot Ryl

To my wife Natasa and children

Milos and Milica.

Ivan Stojmenoviimages/cacute.gif

About the Editors

Miodrag Boliimages/cacute.gif,,∼mbolic

Miodrag Boliimages/cacute.gif received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Serbia in 1996 and 2001, respectively, and his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Stony Brook University, NY, in 2004. Since 2004, he has been with the University of Ottawa, Canada, where he is an associate Professor at the School of Information Technology and Engineering. His current research interests include computer architectures, biomedical signal processing and RFID. He has eight years of industrial experience from the US and Serbia related to digital signal processing and embedded system design. He is a co founder of a start up Astraion Inc., NY, that develops novel RFID systems. He is a founder and director of Computer architecture research group and RFID research group at the University of Ottawa. He has been a principal investigator on a number of projects funded by NSERC, Canada, Ontario Centres of Excellences and industry. Dr. Boliimages/cacute.gif has been involved in a number of research service activities including: chair of the joint chapter of signal processing, oceanic engineering, geosciences and remote sensing for the IEEE Ottawa section, and associate editor of Telecommunication Systems journal, Springer.

David Simplot Ryl,,∼simplot

David Simplot Ryl received the Graduate Engineer degree in computer science, automation, electronic and electrical engineering, and M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the University of Lille, France, in 1993 and 1997, respectively. In 1998, he joined the Fundamental Computer Science Laboratory of Lille (LIFL), France, where he is currently professor. He received the Habilitation degree from the University of Lille, France, in 2003. His research interests include sensor and mobile ad hoc networks, mobile and distributed computing, embedded operating systems, smart objects and RFID technologies. Recently, his main occupation is contributing to international standardization on RFID tag identification protocols in partnership with Gemplus and TagSys companies. He has written scientific papers, book chapters and patents and received the Best Paper award at the 9th International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004) and at the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN 2006). He is an associate editor of Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks: An International Journal (Old City Publishing) and a member of the editorial board of International Journal of Computers and Applications (Acta Press), the International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing (Inderscience), and International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems (Taylor & Francis).

Ivan Stojmenoviimages/cacute.gif,,∼ivan

Ivan Stojmenoviimages/cacute.gif received the Ph.D. degree in mathematics. He has held regular and visiting positions in Serbia, Japan, the USA, Canada, France, Mexico, Spain, the UK (as Chair in Applied Computing at the University of Birmingham), Hong Kong, and Brazil, and is a Professor at the University of Ottawa, Canada. He has published over 250 different papers, and has edited four books on wireless, ad hoc and sensor networks and applied algorithms with Wiley/IEEE. He is the editor of over a dozen journals, is editor in chief of IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (from January 2010), and founder and editor in chief of three journals (Multiple Valued Logic and Soft Computing; Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems; and Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks). Dr. Stojmenoviimages/cacute.gif has h index 35 and >6000 citations. One of his articles was recognized as the Fast Breaking Paper, for October 2003 (the only one for the whole of computer science), by Thomson ISI Essential Science Indicators. He is the recipient of the Royal Society Research Merit Award, UK. He was elected to IEEE Fellow status (Communications Society, class of 2008), and is a recipient of Excellence in Research Award of the University of Ottawa, 2008–2009. He has chaired and/or organized >50 workshops and conferences, and served on over 100 program committees. Among others, he was/is program co/vice chair at IEEE PIMRC 2008, IEEE AINA 07, IEEE MASS 04&07, EUC 05&08, WONS 05, MSN 05&06, ISPA 05&07, has founded workshop series at IEEE MASS, IEEE ICDCS and IEEE DCOSS, and been Workshop Chair at IEEE MASS 09, ACM Mobicom/Mobihoc 07 and Mobihoc 08.


RFID networks are currently recognized as one a research area of priority. Research activities related to RFID technology have been booming recently. A number of ongoing projects are being funded in Europe, Asia, and North America. According to leading market analysts, the development of the RFID market is projected to increase from approximately $3 billion in 2005 to $25 billion in 2015. Several countries have dedicated innovation programs to support and develop RFID systems and related technologies: the RFID initiative in Taiwan, Ubiquitous Japan and the NSF SBIR program in the USA. The EU has recently advertised its Strategic Research Roadmap concerning the Internet of Things, which first of all refers to the RFID technology before being extended to communicating devices as in M2M (Machine to Machine). In this roadmap, several application domains have been identified:

The potential of RFID technology is huge. Contrary to popular belief, RFID technology is not recent and the delay in its deployment in commercial applications is not only due to its excessive cost. Ten years ago, standardization activities were insufficiently developed to allow the emergence of one standard which guarantees interoperability. In the meantime, ISO and worldwide organizations such as GS1 have proposed solutions, but new problems have arisen such as privacy issues and reading accuracy in proximity of certain materials such as water. The integration of RFID data in information systems is also a non trivial problem. In the vision of the Internet of Things, future applications bring scalability and programmability issues.

The book is intended to cover a wide range of recognized problems in RFID protocols and low level research challenges, striking a balance between theoretical and practical coverage. The theoretical contributions are limited to the scenarios and solutions that are believed to have some practical relevance. This book is unique in addressing RFID protocols and communication issues in comprehensive manner.

The book is divided into four parts. Part I provides an introduction and describes architectures of both passive UHF readers and tags. In addition, it defines performance metrics and introduces different classifications of RFID systems. Part II is related to networking protocols that involve one reader and multiple tags with the goal of resolving tag to tag interference. Tag identification protocols are covered in a systematic way. They include Aloha based and tree based protocols, which are the most popular. In addition tag talks first and tag talks only protocols are discussed and compared with reader talks first protocols. Part III provides coverage of networking protocols that involve a host and multiple readers. First, the interface between the host and the readers is considered. Next, MAC layer solutions for reducing reader to tag interference are discussed. In addition, the redundant reader elimination problem and delay tolerant networks are covered. In Part IV, several major research challenges in the RFID field are presented, such unsatisfactory read accuracy even in the most favorable RF environments, low read ranges, security problems, localization of tags, energy harvesting and simulators and emulators for RFID systems. Some of these challenges are so serious that they are preventing the widespread use of RFID technology (e.g. low read accuracy and security). Therefore, a number of these challenges and potential solutions are analyzed in this part of the book.

At the end of most chapters, problems are presented and the solutions to some of the problems are provided on the book's website

We believe that this book is an appropriate and timely forum, where industry, and academics from several different areas can learn more about the current trends in RFID networking and become aware of the protocols and current issues in RFID networks. It is well recognized that RFID technology will become a part of everyday life soon. Additionally, we believe that, given the huge interest in this topic shown by the industrial and academic worlds, this book can become a standard guide to modern RFID systems.

Miodrag Boliimages/cacute.gif

University of Ottawa, Canada

David Simplot Ryl

INRIA, France and University of Lille, France

Ivan Stojmenoviimages/cacute.gif

University of Ottawa, Canada


We would like to express our gratitude to the authors of book chapters who not only contributed a book chapter but also reviewed one additional chapter. In addition, we would like to thank a number of people who helped us review this book as shown below (the reviewers are not listed in any specific order).

Gustaw Mazurek (Warsaw University of Technology), Daniel M. Dobkin (Enigmatics), Timo Kasper (Ruhr Universität Bochum), Venkatesh Sarangan (Oklahoma State University), Carlisle Adams (University of Ottawa), Zhang Xiong (Beihang University), Jeffrey S. Fu (Chang Gung University), Masahiro Miyakawa (Tsukuba University of Technology), Justin Wenck (University of California, Davis), Pradeep Shah (Texas MicroPower Inc.), Christoph Angerer (Vienna University of Technology), Seok Joong Hwang (Korea University), Ilker Onat (University of Ottawa), Md. Suruz Miah (University of Ottawa), Lin Wang (University of Pittsburgh), Fusheng Wang (Emory University), Junho Yeo (Daegu University), Stevan Preradovic (Monash University), Nicolas Pauvre (GS1 France), Mustapha Yagoub (University of Ottawa), Rony Amaya (Carleton University), Francesca Lonetti (ISTI CNR), Francesca Martelli (Università di Pisa), Gaetano Marrocco (Università di Roma), Michael E. Knox (Mode1corp), Pankaj Mishra (University of Ottawa), Nemai Chandra Karmakar (Monash University), Zhou Yuan (Nanyang Technological University), Guan Yong Liang (Nanyang Technological University), Petar M. Djuric (Stony Brook University), Ali Miri (University of Ottawa), Mohamad Forouzanfar (University of Ottawa), Daniel Shapiro (University of Ottawa), Qinghan Xiao (Defence Research and Development Canada), Qiang Guan (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Bela Stantic (Griffith University), Xianjin Zhu (Stony Brook University) and many others.

We greatly appreciate the support, guidance and encouragement given by Wiley's team including Sarah Tilley, Anna Smart and Tiina Ruonamaa.

Part One

Components of RFID Systems and Performance Metrics