Table of Contents

Titles in the Jossey-Bass Education Book of Lists Series

Jossey-Bass Teacher

Title Page


About This Book

About the Authors


Section 1: Reading

1.1 Long Vowels and Spellings

1.2 Short Vowels and Spellings

1.3 Special Vowel Sounds and Spellings

1.4 Vowels and a Final E

1.5 Consonants and Consonant Sounds

1.6 Common Phonograms

1.7 Common Prefixes

1.8 Common Suffixes

1.9 Synonyms

1.10 Antonyms

1.11 Homographs

1.12 Homophones

1.13 Ways to Build Vocabulary

1.14 Important Words for Primary Students to Know

1.15 Important Words for Elementary Students to Know

1.16 Compound Words

1.17 Idioms

1.18 Comprehension Strategies

1.19 Questions to Aid Comprehension

1.20 Common Signal Words for Readers

1.21 How to Find Main Ideas and Supporting Details

1.22 How to Use Context Clues

1.23 Habits of Good Readers

1.24 Overcoming Poor Reading Habits

1.25 Helping Students Select Books to Read

1.26 Types of Fiction and Nonfiction Your Students Might Read

1.27 Important Parts of a Book

1.28 Major Parts of Stories

1.29 Reading Log Guidelines

1.30 Some Suggestions for Student Entries in Reading Logs

1.31 Famous Children's Authors

1.32 Books for Pre-Readers

1.33 Books for Beginning Readers

1.34 Great Books for Any Primary or Elementary Classroom

1.35 Books for Reluctant Readers

1.36 Books for Young Readers Written by African American Authors

1.37 Poetry Books for Children

1.38 Magazines for Children

1.39 Suggestions for Parents and Guardians to Help Their Children with Reading

1.40 Reading Teaching Tips

1.41 Checklist for a Successful Reading Program

Section 2: Writing

2.1 The Writing Process: The Way Writers Write

2.2 Habits of Good Student Writers

2.3 Finding Ideas for Writing

2.4 Writing Prompts

2.5 Developing Writing According to the Five W's and How

2.6 Basic Structure for Composition

2.7 High-Frequency Words for Writing

2.8 Kinds of Sentences

2.9 Sentence Forms

2.10 Subjects and Predicates

2.11 Compound Subjects and Predicates

2.12 Fragments and Run-Ons

2.13 Point of View

2.14 Figurative Language: Similes, Metaphors, and Personification

2.15 Guidelines for Revision

2.16 Guidelines for Proofreading

2.17 Words That Are Easy to Confuse

2.18 The Parts of Speech

2.19 Nouns

2.20 Rules for Forming Plural Nouns

2.21 Special Irregular Plural Nouns

2.22 Possessive Nouns

2.23 Action Verbs

2.24 Linking Verbs

2.25 The Tenses of Verbs

2.26 Rules for Forming Verb Tenses

2.27 Irregular Verbs

2.28 Verb Contractions with Not

2.29 Rules for Subject-Verb Agreement

2.30 Pronouns

2.31 Subject Pronouns

2.32 Object Pronouns

2.33 Possessive Pronouns

2.34 Pronoun Contractions

2.35 Adjectives

2.36 Comparing with Adjectives

2.37 Some Special Adjectives

2.38 Adverbs

2.39 Comparing with Adverbs

2.40 Negative Words

2.41 Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases

2.42 Conjunctions

2.43 Interjections

2.44 Common Abbreviations

2.45 Rules for Using End Punctuation

2.46 Rules for Using Commas

2.47 Rules for Using Colons

2.48 Rules for Using Apostrophes

2.49 Rules for Using Quotation Marks

2.50 Rules for Using Italics

2.51 Rules for Using Hyphens

2.52 Rules for Capitalization

2.53 Rules for Spelling Words Correctly

2.54 Strategies for Improving Spelling

2.55 Tough Words to Spell

2.56 Tips for Student Writing Journals

2.57 Grading Student Writing

2.58 Ways to Share the Writing of Your Students

2.59 Checklist for a Successful Writing Program

Section 3: Mathematics

3.1 Math Concepts and Attributes

3.2 Habits of Good Student Mathematicians

3.3 Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers

3.4 Addition Table and Additional Facts

3.5 Place Value Chart for Whole Numbers

3.6 Steps for Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers

3.7 Multiplication Table and Multiplication Facts

3.8 Prime Numbers

3.9 Prime Factorization and Factor Trees

3.10 Composite Numbers

3.11 Square Numbers and Cube Numbers

3.12 Divisibility Tests

3.13 Steps for Multiplying and Dividing Whole Numbers

3.14 Big and Very Big Numbers

3.15 Mathematical Signs and Symbols

3.16 Place Value Chart for Decimal Numbers

3.17 Steps for Rounding Numbers

3.18 Types of Decimals

3.19 Steps for Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Decimals

3.20 Steps for Finding the Greatest Common Factor

3.21 Steps for Finding the Least Common Multiple

3.22 Types of Fractions

3.23 Renaming Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions

3.24 Steps for Simplifying Fractions

3.25 Steps for Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Fractions

3.26 Steps for Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Mixed Numbers

3.27 Steps for Changing Decimals to Fractions

3.28 Steps for Changing Fractions to Decimals

3.29 Steps for Changing Decimals to Percents

3.30 Steps for Changing Percents to Decimals

3.31 Steps for Changing Fractions to Percents

3.32 Steps for Changing Percents to Fractions

3.33 The Customary System of Measures

3.34 Steps for Converting Units in the Customary System of Measures

3.35 Steps for Computing with the Customary System of Measures

3.36 Visualizing the Metric System

3.37 Metric System Units and Prefixes

3.38 Steps for Converting Units in the Metric System

3.39 Steps for Computing in the Metric System

3.40 Steps for Measuring Length

3.41 Time Words

3.42 Measuring Temperature

3.43 Angles

3.44 Steps for Measuring and Drawing Angles

3.45 Polygons

3.46 Classifying Triangles

3.47 Classifying Quadrilaterals

3.48 Tangrams

3.49 Tessellations

3.50 Circle Words and Facts

3.51 Solid Figures

3.52 Cubes

3.53 Symmetry

3.54 Formulas

3.55 The Number Line

3.56 Transformations

3.57 Common Graphs

3.58 Mean, Median, and Mode

3.59 Math Manipulatives for Your Classroom

3.60 Tips for Reading and Solving Math Word Problems

3.61 Math Problem-Solving Strategies

3.62 Math and Literature

3.63 Checklist for a Successful Math Program

Section 4: Science

4.1 Characteristics of Living Things

4.2 The Kingdoms of Life

4.3 What Animals Need to Survive

4.4 Traits of Common Types of Animals

4.5 Animal Names

4.6 Migratory Animals

4.7 Hibernating Animals

4.8 Nocturnal Animals

4.9 Animal Superstars

4.10 Some Incredible Animal Facts

4.11 Metamorphosis

4.12 What Plants Need to Live

4.13 Photosynthesis

4.14 The Food Chain

4.15 Biomes of the World

4.16 Rain Forests

4.17 Why Rain Forests Are Important

4.18 How to Save the Rain Forests

4.19 Facts About Endangered Species

4.20 Examples of Endangered Animals

4.21 Some Extinct Animals

4.22 Examples of Endangered Plants

4.23 Dinosaur Facts

4.24 Dinosaur Superstars

4.25 Major Systems of the Human Body

4.26 Some Amazing Facts About the Human Body

4.27 The Five Senses and Beyond

4.28 Healthy Habits

4.29 Food Groups and MyPyramid

4.30 Facts About Matter

4.31 Elements and Atoms

4.32 Magnetism and Magnets

4.33 Electricity

4.34 Facts About Energy

4.35 Renewable and Nonrenewable Sources of Energy

4.36 Simple Machines

4.37 Facts About Earth: Our Home in Space

4.38 Kinds of Rock

4.39 Facts About Earthquakes

4.40 Facts About Volcanoes

4.41 The Water Cycle

4.42 The Carbon Oxygen Cycle

4.43 Weather Words

4.44 Types of Storms

4.45 Types of Clouds

4.46 The Highs and the Lows of Weather

4.47 Our Solar System

4.48 Beyond Our Solar System

4.49 Inventions and Inventors

4.50 Checklist for a Successful Science Program

Section 5: Social Studies

5.1 Continents of the Earth

5.2 Oceans of the Earth

5.3 The Highest Mountains on Earth

5.4 The Highest Mountains in North America

5.5 The Earth's Largest Seas

5.6 The Earth's Largest Lakes

5.7 The Earth's Longest Rivers

5.8 Geographic Regions of the United States

5.9 Your Place in the World

5.10 Pilgrim Facts

5.11 The Thirteen Colonies

5.12 Colonial Firsts

5.13 Famous Men and Women of Colonial America

5.14 Causes of the Revolutionary War

5.15 Events Leading up to the American Revolution

5.16 Common Colonial and Revolutionary War Words

5.17 Great Events of the American Revolution

5.18 Facts About the Declaration of Independence

5.19 Facts About the Constitution

5.20 Facts About the Bill of Rights

5.21 The Branches of the United States Government

5.22 Famous Native Americans

5.23 Famous Figures of American Folklore

5.24 Causes of the Civil War

5.25 Great Events of the Civil War

5.26 The Presidents

5.27 Presidential Trivia

5.28 Federal Holidays

5.29 Other Days to Celebrate

5.30 Major Religions Around the World

5.31 Major Religious Holidays

5.32 Famous Human-Made Structures Around the World

5.33 U.S. Landmarks

5.34 Calendar Words and Facts

5.35 Checklist for a Successful Social Studies Program

Section 6: General Reference for Elementary Teachers

6.1 The Elementary Teacher's Responsibilities

6.2 Basic Materials and Supplies Your Classroom Should Have

6.3 How to Create a Positive Classroom Atmosphere

6.4 Creating an Effective Learning Environment in an Inclusive Classroom

6.5 Basic Special Education Terminology

6.6 Basic Learning Styles

6.7 Assessment Terms

6.8 Alternative Assessments

6.9 How to Use Portfolios in Your Class

6.10 Tips for Managing Your Classroom

6.11 Tips for Organizing Your Classroom

6.12 Tips for Managing Time

6.13 Reward Options for Students

6.14 Conducting Effective Conferences with Students

6.15 Conducting Effective Conferences with Parents and Guardians

6.16 Tips for Communicating with Parents and Guardians

6.17 Suggestions for a Successful Back-to-School Night

6.18 Maintaining Positive Relationships with Your Students' Parents and Guardians

6.19 Helping Parents and Guardians Help Their Children

6.20 Bulletin Board Planning Tips

6.21 Tips for Planning Field Trips

6.22 How to Become an Expert in All the Subjects You Teach

6.23 Suggestions for Managing Discipline

6.24 Useful Web Sites for Teachers

6.25 Questions for Self-Appraisal

Titles in the Jossey-Bass Education Book of Lists Series


Dorothy J. Blum and Tamara E. Davis • ISBN 978-0-4704-5065-9


Edward B. Fry and Jacqueline E. Kress • ISBN 978-0-7879-8257-7


Jacqueline E. Kress • ISBN 978-0-4702-2267-6


Judith A. Muschla and Gary Robert Muschla • ISBN 978-0-7879-7398-X


Sandra Rief • ISBN 978-0-7879-6591-4


Helen Hume • ISBN 978-0-4704-8208-7


Joanna Sullivan • ISBN 978-0-7879-6595-2


Ronald L. Partin • ISBN 978-0-7879-6590-7


Edward B. Fry • ISBN 978-0-7879-7101-4


Gary Robert Muschla • ISBN 0-7879-7080-8

Jossey-Bass Teacher

Jossey-Bass Teacher provides educators with practical knowledge and tools to create a positive and lifelong impact on student learning. We offer classroom-tested and research-based teaching resources for a variety of grade levels and subject areas. Whether you are an aspiring, new, or veteran teacher, we want to help you make every teaching day your best.

From ready-to-use classroom activities to the latest teaching framework, our value-packed books provide insightful, practical, and comprehensive materials on the topics that matter most to K–12 teachers. We hope to become your trusted source for the best ideas from the most experienced and respected experts in the field.

Title Page

About This Book

Although teaching any grade or subject is demanding, teaching in the elementary grades is particularly challenging. If you are like most elementary teachers, you are responsible for teaching more than one subject, you teach students whose abilities and personalities vary widely, and you are held accountable for student performance on several standardized tests. Add to this your daily routines of effectively managing a classroom of energetic children as well as interacting with colleagues, administrators, and parents and guardians, and your day is full.

Written for classroom teachers of grades K–5, The Elementary Teacher's Book of Lists is designed to provide you with information on a wide range of topics that you can use to enhance your lessons, manage your classroom responsibilities, and create an environment in which learning flourishes. The book contains 273 lists, divided into six sections:

The lists serve a variety of purposes. You may find many suitable to use as reproducibles to support your instruction, and you may use others for background information on specific topics or to generate supplementary materials for your students. Each list is written in clear, easy-to-read language, and may be used with students of various grades and abilities, enabling you to utilize the materials in a manner that best satisfies your students' needs. Every list concludes with a “Did you know?” that offers one last fact or observation about the information presented in the list. Finally, where applicable, the lists are cross-referenced so that you can refer to related lists to expand topics and provide additional information.

We trust the lists that follow will provide you with useful information, support you in planning and instruction, and help you to manage your school day more effectively. Our best wishes to you for a wonderful year.

Gary Robert Muschla

Judith A. Muschla

Erin Muschla

About the Authors

Gary Robert Muschla received his BA and MAT from Trenton State College and taught in Spotswood, New Jersey, for more than twenty-five years at the elementary school level. He is a successful author and a member of the Authors Guild and the National Writers Association.

In addition to math resources, Gary has written several resources for English and writing teachers, among them Writing Workshop Survival Kit (1993; second edition, 2005); The Writing Teacher's Book of Lists (1991; second edition, 2004); Ready-to Use Reading Proficiency Lessons and Activities, 10th Grade Level (2003); Ready-to-Use Reading Proficiency Lessons and Activities, 8th Grade Level (2002); Ready-to-Use Reading Proficiency Lessons and Activities, 4th Grade Level (2002); Reading Workshop Survival Kit (1997); and English Teacher's Great Books Activities Kit (1994), all published by Jossey-Bass.

Judith A. Muschla received her BA in mathematics from Douglass College at Rutgers University and is certified to teach K–12. She taught mathematics in South River, New Jersey, for more than twenty-five years at various levels at both South River High School and South River Middle School. As a team leader at the middle school, she wrote several math curricula, coordinated interdisciplinary units, and conducted mathematics workshops for teachers and parents. She has also served as a member of the state Review Panel for New Jersey's Mathematics Core Curriculum Content Standards.

Together, Judith and Gary Muschla have coauthored several math books published by Jossey-Bass: Hands-on Math Projects with Real-Life Applications, Grades 3–5 (2009); The Math Teacher's Problem-a-Day, Grades 4–8 (2008); Hands-on Math Projects with Real-Life Applications, Grades 6–12 (1996; second edition, 2006); The Math Teacher's Book of Lists (1995; second edition, 2005); Math Games: 180 Reproducible Activities to Motivate, Excite, and Challenge Students, Grades 6–12 (2004); Algebra Teacher's Activities Kit (2003); Math Smart! Over 220 Ready-to-Use Activities to Motivate and Challenge Students, Grades 6–12 (2002); Geometry Teacher's Activities Kit (2000); and Math Starters! 5- to 10-Minute Activities to Make Kids Think, Grades 6–12 (1999).

Erin Muschla received her BS and MEd from The College of New Jersey. She is certified to teach grades K–8 with mathematics specialization in grades 5–8 and also social studies K–12. She currently teaches math at Applegarth Middle School in Monroe, New Jersey. She coauthored, with Judith and Gary Muschla, the Math Teacher's Survival Guide, Grades 5–12 (2010), published by Jossey-Bass.


We thank Jeff Gorman, Assistant Superintendent of Monroe Township Public Schools, for his support of this project.

We also thank Chari Chanley, Principal of Applegarth Middle School in Monroe, for her encouragement.

Thanks to Dr. Brenda Leake, Professor of Elementary Education at The College of New Jersey, for her dedication to continuing education and the inspiration she imparts to her students.

We especially thank Kate Bradford, our editor at Jossey-Bass, for her guidance and suggestions from the initial concept of this book through its writing and publication.

Thanks also to Diane Turso for proofreading and making the final corrections to this book.

And finally, we thank the many colleagues who have supported and encouraged us over the years, and the many students whom we have had the pleasure of teaching.