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The subject of this book is the presentation of detailed information on turbulence characteristics, theories, special techniques, and application issues for drag-reducing flows by surfactant additives, mainly based on state-of-the-art research results by the authors through experimental studies, numerical simulations, and theoretical analyses.

The phenomenon of turbulent drag reduction by additives has attracted the interest of researchers in the fields of chemical engineering, turbulence, fluid dynamics, rheology, petroleum, municipal and environmental engineering, and so on, for more than half a century. Turbulent drag reducing flows are especially complex due to the twofold effects of the turbulence itself and the drag reduction phenomenon induced by viscoelacticity. This complexity, combined with the great potential for drag reduction in industrial applications, has driven researchers to continuously approach the problem in an interdisciplinary fashion. Researchers are working to clarify the mechanism of drag reduction by additives, developing particular research approaches for this unique phenomenon, and exploring the characteristics of drag-reduced turbulent flows. Throughout this process, they have established increasingly exhaustive theoretical descriptions for the rheological properties of the fluid and drag reduction phenomenon of the flow, promoting the applications of this phenomenon in practical systems. This book provides important information on turbulent drag reduction by surfactant additives, particularly information covering introductions to experimental studies using laser techniques (laser Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry), direct numerical simulations with special treatment of constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluid and numerical simulation algorithms, Brownian dynamic simulations of the rheological properties of surfactant solution with consideration of microstructures in the fluid, field tests and other issues associated with practical applications, and elucidations and summarizations of state-of-the-art results obtained from those studies. The contents of this book are the central concerns of the interdisciplinary community related to turbulent drag reduction by additives.

The authors do not claim that they have addressed in this book all the relevant issues of turbulent drag reduction by additives. Particularly unbounded flows with drag-reducing effects, drag-reducing polymer solution flows, the chemistry of drag-reducing additives, and so on were not mentioned or elaborated in detail in this book.

F.-C. Li composed Sections 1.1–1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, Chapter 3, Section 6.1 and the index. He also coordinated all procedures involved in the publication of this book. He would like to acknowledge the support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC; Grant No. 10872060 and 51076036) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. HIT. BRET1.2010008). For Chapter 4, he acknowledges the support from NSFC (Grant No. 50506017, 50876114 and 51134006). J.-J. Wei composed Sections 1.4, 2.3, Chapter 5 and Sections 6.2–6.4. He acknowledges the support from NSFC (Grant No. 51076124 and 50821064). Y. Kawaguchi contributed to modifying the organizations of the book and correcting the contents; he is also one of the key contributors of most of the studies involved in this book.

F.-C. Li
B. Yu
J.-J. Wei
Y. Kawaguchi