Autodesk 3ds Max 2014 Bible®

Table of Contents


Part I: Getting Started with Autodesk 3ds Max 2014

Quick Start: Adding a Crowd to the City Center

Planning the Production

Setting Up the Scene

Tutorial: Loading the Clock Tower

Tutorial: Adding a ground plane and some trees

Adding Materials and Lights

Tutorial: Adding materials

Tutorial: Adding a Sun & Sky system

Tutorial: Rendering a test preview

Adding the Crowds

Tutorial: Adding people

Tutorial: Rendering the final animation


Chapter 1: Exploring the Interface

Learning the Interface Elements

Using the Menus

Using the Toolbars

Docking and floating toolbars

Using tooltips and flyouts

Using the Quick Access toolbar

Learning the main toolbar

Using the Modeling Ribbon

Using the Viewports

Using the Command Panel

Working with rollouts

Increasing the Command Panel's width

Tutorial: Rearranging the interface for lefties

Using the Lower Interface Bar Controls

Interacting with the Interface

Gaining quick access with the right-click quad menus

Using Caddy controls

Understanding the button color cues

Using drag-and-drop features

Controlling spinners

Understanding modeless and persistent dialog boxes

Using Workspaces

Getting Help

Using the Search Command feature

Using the InfoCenter toolbar

Viewing the Essential Skills Movies

Using the online reference guides

Using the rest of the Help menu


Chapter 2: Controlling and Configuring the Viewports

Understanding 3D Space

Learning Axonometric versus Perspective

Learning orthographic and isometric views

Discovering the viewports in 3ds Max

Using the Navigation Gizmos

Working with the ViewCube

Using the SteeringWheels

Tutorial: Navigating the active viewport

Controlling Viewports with a Scroll Wheel Mouse

Using the Viewport Navigation Controls

Zooming a view

Panning a view

Walking through a view

Rotating a view

Maximizing the active viewport

Controlling camera and spotlight views

Setting the navigation controls to match Maya

Changing the Viewport Display

Undoing and saving viewport changes

Disabling and refreshing viewports

Setting the viewport visual style

Viewing stylized scenes

Enhancing the Viewport

Changing the viewport layout

Displaying Safe Frames

Using clipping planes

Tutorial: Viewing the interior of a tooth with clipping planes

Locating mesh problems with xView

Displaying Materials, Lighting, and Shadows in the Viewport

Viewing materials in the viewports

Displaying lighting and shadows in the viewports

Working with Viewport Backgrounds

Changing the viewport background

Loading viewport background images

Loading viewport background animations

Tutorial: Loading reference images for modeling

Setting Viewport Visual Style and Appearance

Using the Rendering levels

Viewing transparency

Other rendering options

Setting the Field of View

Grabbing a viewport image

Configuring viewport lighting and shadows

Configuring the Viewport Background

Altering the Viewport Layout

Using Safe Frames

Setting Display Performance

Defining Regions

Viewing Statistics

Configuring the ViewCube and SteeringWheels


Chapter 3: Working with Files, Importing, and Exporting

Working with 3ds Max Scene Files

Using the Application Button

Using the Welcome Screen

Starting new

Saving files

Archiving files

Opening files

Setting a Project Folder

Merging and replacing objects

Using Mesh Inspector

Getting out

Importing and Exporting

Importing supported formats

Import preference

Exporting supported formats

Moving files to other Suite packages

Manually moving files to and from Maya with FBX

Using the OBJ format

Exporting to the DWF format

Exporting utilities

Tutorial: Importing vector drawings from Illustrator

Using the File Utilities

Using the Asset Browser utility

Finding files with the Max File Finder utility

Collecting files with the Resource Collector utility

Accessing File Information

Displaying scene information

Viewing file properties

Viewing files


Chapter 4: Setting Preferences

Setting General Preferences

Undo Levels and the Reference Coordinate System

Loading Plug-Ins and Sub-Material settings

Scene Selection settings

Spinner, Rollout, and Vertex Normal settings

User Interface Display settings

Layer settings

Real-World Texture Coordinates setting

Setting File Preferences

Handling files

Backing up files

Tutorial: Setting up Auto Backup

Maintaining log files

Configuring Paths

Configuring user paths

Configuring system paths

Setting viewport preferences

Viewport parameter options

Enabling ghosting

Choosing and configuring display drivers

Setting Interaction Mode

Setting Gamma and Look-Up Table (LUT) Preferences

Setting screen gamma

Propagating gamma settings

Setting bitmap gamma

Setting Rendering and Radiosity Preferences

Changing rendering quality

Using Local and Global Advanced Lighting Settings

Setting Animation Preferences

Setting Inverse Kinematics Preferences

Setting Gizmo Preferences

Accessing mental ray Preferences

Setting Global Container Preferences

Setting Help Preferences


Part II: Manipulating Objects

Chapter 5: Creating and Editing Primitive Objects

Selecting System Units

Using Custom and Generic units

Handling mismatched units

Rescaling world units

Creating Primitive Objects

Using the Objects menu

Using the Create panel

Naming and renaming objects

Assigning colors

Using the Color Clipboard

Using different creation methods

Using the Keyboard Entry rollout for precise dimensions

Altering object parameters

Recovering from mistakes and deleting objects

Tutorial: Exploring the Platonic solids

Exploring the Primitive Object Types

Starting with the Standard Primitives

Extended Primitives

Modifying object parameters

Tutorial: Filling a treasure chest with gems

Using Architecture Primitives

Using AEC Objects

Tutorial: Adding stairs to a clock tower building

Using Modeling Helpers

Using Dummy and Point objects

Measuring coordinate distances

Tutorial: Testing the Pythagorean Theorem


Chapter 6: Selecting Objects and Using Layers

Selecting Objects

Selection filters

Select buttons

Selecting with the Edit menu

Selecting multiple objects

Using the Paint Selection Region tool

Tutorial: Selecting objects

Using named selection sets

Editing named selection sets

Locking selection sets

Isolating the current selection

Selecting objects in other interfaces

Setting Object Properties

Hiding and Freezing Objects

Using the Display Floater dialog box

Using the Display panel

Tutorial: Hidden toothbrushes

Using Layers

Using the Layer Manager

Using the layer list

Tutorial: Dividing a scene into layers

Using the Scene Explorer

Selecting and filtering objects

Finding objects

Editing in the Scene Explorer

Setting Object Properties

Viewing object information

Hiding and freezing objects

Setting Display Properties

Setting rendering controls

Enabling Motion Blur

Using the Advanced Lighting and mental ray panels

Using the User-Defined panel


Chapter 7: Transforming Objects, Pivoting, Aligning, and Snapping

Translating, Rotating, and Scaling Objects

Translating objects

Rotating objects

Scaling objects

Using the transform buttons

Working with the Transformation Tools

Working with the Transform Gizmos

Using the interactive gizmos

Using the Transform Toolbox

Using the Transform Type-In dialog box

Using the Status Bar Type-In fields

Understanding the Transform Managers

Tutorial: Landing a spaceship in port

Using Pivot Points

Positioning pivot points

Aligning pivot points

Using the Working Pivot

Transform adjustments

Using the Reset XForm utility

Tutorial: A bee buzzing about a flower

Using the Align Commands

Aligning objects

Using the Quick Align tool

Aligning normals

Tutorial: Aligning a kissing couple

Aligning to a view

Using Grids

The Home Grid

Creating and activating new grids

Using AutoGrid

Tutorial: Creating a spyglass

Using Snap Options

Tutorial: Creating a 2D outline of an object

Setting snap points

Setting snap options

Using the Snaps toolbar

Tutorial: Creating a lattice for a methane molecule


Chapter 8: Cloning Objects and Creating Object Arrays

Cloning Objects

Using the Clone command

Using the Shift-clone method

Tutorial: Cloning ducks

Using Quick Clone

Understanding Cloning Options

Working with copies, instances, and references

Tutorial: Creating instanced doughnuts

Tutorial: Working with referenced apples

Mirroring Objects

Using the Mirror command

Tutorial: Mirroring a robot's leg

Cloning over Time

Using the Snapshot command

Tutorial: Creating a path through a maze

Spacing Cloned Objects

Using the Spacing tool

Tutorial: Stacking a row of dominoes

Using the Clone and Align Tool

Aligning source objects to destination objects

Tutorial: Cloning and aligning trees on a beach

Creating Arrays of Objects

Linear arrays

Tutorial: Building a white picket fence

Circular arrays

Tutorial: Building a Ferris wheel

Working with a Ring Array

Tutorial: Using Ring Array to create a carousel


Chapter 9: Grouping, Linking, and Parenting Objects

Working with Groups

Creating groups

Ungrouping objects

Opening and closing groups

Attaching and detaching objects

Tutorial: Grouping a plane's parts together

Alternatives to grouping

Understanding Parent, Child, and Root Relationships

Building Links between Objects

Linking objects

Unlinking objects

Tutorial: Linking a family of ducks

Displaying Links and Hierarchies

Displaying links in the viewport

Viewing hierarchies

Working with Linked Objects

Locking inheriting transformations

Using the Link Inheritance utility

Selecting hierarchies

Linking to dummies

Tutorial: Circling the globe


Chapter 10: Organizing Scenes with Containers, XRefs, and the Schematic View

Working with Containers

Creating and filling containers

Closing and saving containers

Updating and reloading containers

Setting container rules

Using container proxies

Using the Container Explorer

Referencing External Objects

Using XRef scenes

Using XRef objects

Using Material XRefs

Merging modifiers

Using proxies

Controller XRefs

Configuring XRef paths

Tutorial: Using an XRef proxy

Using the File Link Manager

Using i-drop

Using the Schematic View Window

The Schematic View menu options

The Schematic View interface

Working with Schematic View nodes

Working with Hierarchies

Using the Display floater

Connecting nodes

Copying modifiers and materials between nodes

Assigning controllers and wiring parameters

Tutorial: Linking a character with the Schematic View

Setting Schematic View Preferences

Limiting nodes

Working with grids and backgrounds

Display preferences

Tutorial: Adding a background image to the Schematic View

Using List Views


Part III: Modeling 3D Assets

Chapter 11: Accessing Subobjects and Modifiers and Using the Modifier Stack

Exploring the Model Types

Parametric objects versus editable objects

Converting to editable objects

Understanding Normals

Viewing normals

Tutorial: Cleaning up imported meshes

Working with Subobjects

Using Soft Selection

Tutorial: Soft selecting a heart shape from a plane

Introducing Modifiers

Exploring the Modifier Stack

Understanding Base Objects

Applying modifiers

Tutorial: Bending a tree

Other Modifier Stack entities

Using the Modifier Stack

Reordering the Stack

Tutorial: Creating a molecular chain

Holding and fetching a scene

Collapsing the Stack

Using the Collapse utility

Using gizmo subobjects

Tutorial: Squeezing a plastic bottle

Applying modifiers to subobject selections

Tutorial: Applying damage to a plane wing

Topology dependency


Chapter 12: Drawing and Editing 2D Splines and Shapes

Drawing in 2D

Working with shape primitives

Tutorial: Drawing a company logo

Tutorial: Viewing the interior of a tooth

Editing Splines

Editable Splines versus the Edit Spline modifier

Making splines renderable

Selecting spline subobjects

Controlling spline geometry

Editing vertices

Editing segments

Editing Spline subobjects


Chapter 13: Modeling with Polygons

Understanding Poly Objects

Creating Editable Poly Objects

Converting objects

Collapsing to a mesh object

Applying the Edit Poly modifier

Editing Poly Objects

Editable Poly Subobject modes

Subobject selection

Tutorial: Modeling a clown head

Editing geometry

Editing Vertex subobjects

Editing Edge subobjects

Editing Border subobjects

Editing Polygon and Element subobjects

Surface properties

Tutorial: Modeling a tooth


Chapter 14: Using the Graphite Modeling Tools and Painting with Objects

Working with the Graphite Modeling Tools

Using the Polygon Modeling panel

Using the Modify Selection panel

Editing geometry

Editing Vertex subobjects

Editing Edge and Border subobjects

Editing Polygon and Element subobjects

Surface properties

Using the Freeform Tools

Using the Paint Deform tools

Using the Selection Tools

Selecting Tops, Open, and Non-Quads

Copying and pasting selections

Selecting by criteria

Using the Object Paint Tools

Selecting an object to paint with

Painting with objects

Painting with multiple objects

Painting on objects

Using the Paint Fill mode

Painting with animated objects

Tutorial: Painting a scar


Chapter 15: Working with Compound Objects

Understanding Compound Object Types

Morphing Objects

Creating Morph keys

Morph objects versus the Morpher modifier

Tutorial: Morphing an octopus

Creating a Terrain Object

Coloring elevations

Tutorial: Creating an island with the Terrain compound object

Working with BlobMesh Objects

Setting BlobMesh parameters

Tutorial: Creating icy geometry with BlobMesh

Working with ProBoolean and ProCutter Objects

Using ProBoolean

Tutorial: Creating a keyhole

Using ProCutter

Tutorial: Creating a jigsaw puzzle


Chapter 16: Deforming Surfaces and Using the Mesh Modifiers

Using Selection Modifiers

Object-Space versus World-Space modifiers

Volume Select modifier

Using Primitive Maintenance Modifiers

Edit Mesh modifier

Edit Poly modifier

Using Spline Modifiers

Spline-specific modifiers

Moving splines to 3D

Using Edit Geometry Modifiers

Cap Holes modifier

Delete Mesh modifier

Extrude modifier

Face Extrude modifier

Tutorial: Extruding a bullet

ProOptimizer modifier

Tutorial: Creating a low-res mug

Quadify Mesh modifier

Smooth modifier

Symmetry modifier

Tutorial: Creating symmetrical antlers

Tessellate modifier

Vertex Weld modifier

Using Parametric Deformer Modifiers

Affect Region modifier

Bend modifier

Displace modifier

Lattice modifier

Mirror modifier

Noise modifier

Push modifier

Preserve modifier

Relax modifier

Ripple modifier

Shell modifier

Tutorial: Making a character from a sphere

Slice modifier

Skew modifier

Stretch modifier

Spherify modifier

Tutorial: Making a fat crocodile

Squeeze modifier

Twist modifier

Taper modifier

Tutorial: Creating a yo-yo

Substitute modifier

XForm modifier

Wave modifier

Tutorial: Waving a flag

Using Free Form Deformer Modifiers

FFD (Free Form Deformation) modifier

FFD (Box/Cyl) modifiers

Tutorial: Modeling a tire striking a curb

Miscellaneous Modifiers

Edit Normals

Normal modifier

STL Check modifier

Subdivision Surface Modifiers

MeshSmooth modifier

TurboSmooth modifier

Tutorial: Smoothing a birdbath

HSDS modifier

The Basics of Deformation Painting

Painting deformations

Accessing brush presets

Using the Deformation Brushes

Controlling the deformation direction

Limiting the deformation

Committing any changes

Using the Relax and Revert brushes

Tutorial: Adding veins to a forearm

Setting Painter Options


Part IV: Applying Materials
and Textures

Chapter 17: Creating and Applying Standard Materials with the Slate Material Editor

Understanding Material Properties


Opacity and transparency

Reflection and refraction

Shininess and specular highlights

Other properties

Working with the Slate Material Editor

Using the Slate Material Editor controls

Loading the Material Node View panel

Navigating the Material Node View panel

Selecting and applying materials

Changing the material preview

Selecting objects by material

Setting Slate Material Editor preferences

Removing materials and maps

Using utilities

Using the Fix Ambient utility

Tutorial: Coloring Easter eggs

Using the Standard Material

Using Shading Types

Blinn shader

Phong shader

Anisotropic shader

Multi-Layer shader

Oren-Nayar-Blinn shader

Metal shader

Strauss shader

Translucent shader

Tutorial: Making curtains translucent

Accessing Other Parameters

Extended Parameters rollout

SuperSampling rollout

Maps rollout

mental ray Connection rollout

Tutorial: Coloring a dolphin

Using the Material/Map Browser

Working with libraries

Tutorial: Loading a custom material library

Using the Material Explorer


Chapter 18: Adding Material Details with Maps

Understanding Maps

Different map types

Enabling the global viewport rendering setting

Using Real-World maps

Working with Maps

Connecting maps to materials

Using the Maps rollout

Tutorial: Aging objects for realism

Accessing Map parameters

Exploring the Various Map Types

2D maps

3D maps

Compositor maps

Color Modifier maps

Miscellaneous maps

Creating Textures with External Tools

Creating material textures using Photoshop

Capturing digital images

Scanning images

Tutorial: Creating a fishing net


Chapter 19: Using Specialized Material Types

Using the Ink 'n Paint Material

Controlling paint and ink

Tutorial: Cartooning a chicken

Using Architectural Materials

Using the DirectX and MetaSL Shader Material

DirectX Shader

Accessing mental ray materials and shaders

Combining bump and displacement maps

Selecting and Applying Substance Textures

Loading Substance textures

Linking Substance maps

Randomizing Substance Textures

Tutorial: Applying Substance Textures to a Scene


Chapter 20: Creating Compound Materials and Using Material Modifiers

Using Compound Materials



Double Sided


Tutorial: Creating a patchwork quilt




Tutorial: Surfing the waves

Applying Multiple Materials

Using material IDs

Tutorial: Mapping die faces

Using the Clean MultiMaterial utility

Using the Matte/Shadow Material

Matte/Shadow Basic Parameters rollout

Tutorial: Adding 3D objects to a scene

Material Modifiers

Material modifier

MaterialByElement modifier

Tutorial: Creating random marquee lights with the MaterialByElement modifier

Comparing Displacement maps and Displace modifiers

Tutorial: Displacing geometry with a bitmap


Chapter 21: Unwrapping UVs and Mapping Textures

Mapping Modifiers

UVW Map modifier

Tutorial: Using the UVW Map modifier to apply decals

UVW Mapping Add and Clear modifiers

UVW XForm modifier

Map Scaler modifier

Camera Map modifier

Using the Unwrap UVW Modifier

Selecting UVW subobjects

Accessing the Edit UVWs interface

Tweaking vertices in the viewport

Using the Quick Planar Map

Saving and loading mapping coordinates

Using the Edit UVWs Interface

Selecting subobjects within the dialog box

Navigating the main view

Using the Quick Transform buttons

Straightening and Relaxing UV clusters

Stitching and welding

Separating into clusters using flattening methods

Arranging and grouping clusters

Accessing the Unwrap Options

Tutorial: Controlling the mapping of a covered wagon

Rendering UV templates

Mapping multiple objects

Tutorial: Creating a mapping for a prop plane


Chapter 22: Painting in the Viewport Canvas and Rendering Surface Maps

Using the Viewport Canvas

Setting up an object for painting

Using the Canvas brushes

Painting with images

Using paint layers

Painting in 2D

Using the paint options

Tutorial: Face painting

Using Vertex Colors

Assigning vertex colors

Painting vertices with the Vertex Paint modifier

Tutorial: Marking an octopus

The Assign Vertex Color utility

Rendering Surface Maps

Using Surface Maps

Tutorial: Generating and Applying Surface Maps


Chapter 23: Creating Baked Textures and Normal Maps

Using Channels

Using the Map Channel Info dialog box

Select by Channel modifier

Rendering to a Texture

General Settings

Selecting objects to bake

Output settings

Baked Material and Automatic Mapping settings

Tutorial: Baking the textures for a dog model

Creating Normal Maps

Using the Projection modifier

Setting Projection Mapping options

Tutorial: Creating a normal map for a Spikey sphere


Part V: Working with Backgrounds, Cameras, and Lighting

Chapter 24: Configuring and Aiming Cameras

Learning to Work with Cameras

Creating a camera object

Creating a camera view

Tutorial: Setting up an opponent's view

Controlling a camera

Aiming a camera

Tutorial: Watching a rocket

Aligning cameras

Tutorial: Seeing the dragon's good side

Setting Camera Parameters

Lens settings and field of view

Camera type and display options

Environment ranges and clipping planes

Camera Correction modifier

Creating multi-pass camera effects

Using the Depth of Field effect

Tutorial: Applying a Depth of Field effect to a row of windmills

Using the Motion Blur effect

Tutorial: Using a Motion Blur multi-pass camera effect


Chapter 25: Matching Perspective to Background Images

Loading a Background Image and Camera

Perspective Matching the Background Image

Tutorial: Perspective Matching a Background


Chapter 26: Using Lights and Basic Lighting Techniques

Understanding the Basics of Lighting

Natural and artificial light

A standard lighting method


Getting to Know the Light Types

Default lighting

Ambient light

Standard lights

Photometric lights

Creating and Positioning Light Objects

Transforming lights

Viewing lights and shadows in the viewport

Listing lights

Placing highlights

Tutorial: Lighting the snowman's face

Viewing a Scene from a Light

Light viewport controls

Manipulating Hotspot/Beam and Falloff/Field cones

Tutorial: Lighting a lamp

Altering Light Parameters

General parameters

The Intensity/Color/Attenuation rollout

Spotlight and directional light parameters

Advanced Effects

Shadow parameters

Optimizing lights

Photometric light parameters


Chapter 27: Using the Sunlight and Daylight Systems

Using the Sunlight and Daylight Systems

Using the Compass helper

Understanding Azimuth and Altitude

Specifying date and time

Specifying location

Loading Weather Data

Configuring Sunlight and Skylight

Tutorial: Animating a day in 20 seconds


Chapter 28: Working with Advanced Lighting, Light Tracing, and Radiosity

Selecting Advanced Lighting

How light tracing works

Enabling light tracing

Tutorial: Viewing color bleeding

Using Local Advanced Lighting Settings

Tutorial: Excluding Objects from Light Tracing

Understanding Radiosity

Lighting for radiosity

Tutorial: Lighting a house interior with radiosity

Working with Advanced Lighting Materials

Using Lighting Analysis


Part VI: Rendering a Scene

Chapter 29: Rendering a Scene and Enabling Quicksilver

Working with Render Parameters

Initiating a render job

Common parameters

E-mail notifications

Adding pre-render and post-render scripts

Assigning renderers

Default Scanline Renderer

Quicksilver Hardware Renderer

Rendering stylized scenes

Using the Rendered Frame Window

Using the Render Types

Previewing with ActiveShade


Chapter 30: Managing Render States

Using State Sets

Recording states

Using templates and nesting states

Rendering states

Tutorial: Presenting several stylized rendered options

Accessing Compositor View

Changing node parameters

Adding new nodes

Exporting to Photoshop

Linking data to After Effects


Chapter 31: Batch and Network Rendering

Batch Rendering Scenes

Using the Batch Render tool

Creating a stand-alone executable

Understanding Network Rendering

Setting Up a Network Rendering System

Setting up the network

Tutorial: Locating TCP/IP and gathering IP addresses

Tutorial: Installing and configuring TCP/IP

Tutorial: Setting up 3ds Max on the networked computers

Configuring shared directories

Tutorial: Sharing directories

Tutorial: Choosing shared directories

Starting the Network Rendering System

Tutorial: Initializing the network rendering system

Tutorial: Completing your first network rendering job

Job assignment options

Configuring the Network Manager and Servers

The network manager settings

The network servers settings

Logging Errors

Using the Monitor




Chapter 32: Rendering with mental ray and iray

Enabling mental ray and iray

Working with iray

Tutorial: Starting iray

Working with mental ray

Using mental ray Lights and Shadows

Understanding Caustics and Photons

Controlling Indirect Illumination

Using mental ray materials


Chapter 33: Compositing with Render Elements and the Video Post Interface

Using External Compositing Packages

Compositing with Photoshop

Video editing with Premiere Pro

Video compositing with After Effects

Tutorial: Adding animation effects using After Effects

Using Render Elements

Completing Post-Production with the Video Post Interface

The Video Post toolbar

The Video Post Queue and Range panes

The Video Post status bar

Working with Sequences

Adding and Editing Events

Adding an image input event

Adding scene events

Adding image filter events

Adding image layer events

Adding external events

Using loop events

Adding an image output event

Working with Ranges

Adding backgrounds and filters using Video Post


Part VII: Animating Objects and Scenes

Chapter 34: Understanding Animation and Keyframes

Using the Time Controls

Setting frame rate

Setting speed and direction

Using Time Tags

Working with Keys

Auto Key mode

Set Key mode

Tutorial: Rotating a windmill's blades

Copying parameter animation keys

Deleting all object animation keys

Using the Track Bar

Viewing and Editing Key Values

Using the Motion Panel

Setting parameters

Using trajectories

Tutorial: Making an airplane follow a looping path

Using the Follow/Bank utility

Using Ghosting

Animating Objects

Animating cameras

Tutorial: Animating darts hitting a dartboard

Animating lights

Animating materials

Tutorial: Dimming lights

Working with Previews

Creating previews

Viewing previews

Renaming previews

Using the RAM Player

Tutorial: Using the RAM Player to Combine Rendered Images into a Video File


Chapter 35: Animating with Constraints and Simple Controllers

Restricting Movement with Constraints

Using constraints

Working with the constraints

Understanding Controller Types

Assigning Controllers

Automatically assigned controllers

Assigning controllers with the Animation menu

Assigning controllers in the Motion panel

Assigning controllers in the Track View

Setting default controllers

Examining Some Simple Controllers

Bézier controller

Linear controller

Noise controller

Spring controller

Tutorial: Wagging a tail with the Spring controller

Position XYZ controller

Scale XYZ controller


Chapter 36: Exploring the Complex Controllers

Examining Complex Controllers

Transform controllers

Position track controllers

Rotation and Scale track controllers

Parameter controllers

Tutorial: Animating a hazard light

Tutorial: Animating a checkers move

Working with Expressions in Spinners

Understanding the Expression Controller Interface

Defining variables

Building expressions

Debugging and evaluating expressions

Managing expressions

Tutorial: Creating following eyes

Using Expression Controllers

Animating transforms with the Expression controller

Animating parameters with the Float Expression controller

Tutorial: Inflating a balloon

Animating materials with the Expression controller


Chapter 37: Using Animation Layers and Animation Modifiers

Using the Animation Layers Toolbar

Working with Animation Layers

Enabling animation layers

Setting animation layers properties

Collapsing animation layers

Tutorial: Using animation layers for a plane takeoff

Saving and Loading Animation Files

Saving general animations

Mapping animated objects

Using the Map Animation dialog box

Retargeting animations

Using the Animation Modifiers

Baking Animation Keys with the Point Cache Modifier

Tutorial: Trees in a hurricane

Morpher modifier

Tutorial: Morphing facial expressions

Using More Animation Modifiers

Using the Flex modifier

Melt modifier

PatchDeform and SurfDeform modifiers

Tutorial: Deforming a plane going over a hill

PathDeform modifier

Linked XForm modifier

SplineIK Control modifier


Chapter 38: Wiring Parameters

Wiring Parameters

Using the Parameter Wiring dialog box

Manipulator helpers

Tutorial: Controlling a dragon's bite

Collecting Parameters

Adding Custom Parameters


Chapter 39: Editing Animation Curves in the Track View

Learning the Track View Interface

The Track View layouts

Track View menus and toolbars

Controller and Key panes

Working with Keys

Selecting keys

Using soft selection

Adding and deleting keys

Moving, sliding, and scaling keys

Using the Region tool

Using the Retime tool

Editing keys

Using the Randomize Keys utility

Using the Euler Filter utility

Displaying keyable icons

Editing Time

Selecting time and the Select Keys by Time utility

Deleting, cutting, copying, and pasting time

Reversing, inserting, and scaling time

Setting ranges

Editing Curves

Inserting new keys and moving keys

Tutorial: Animating a monorail

Drawing curves

Reducing keys

Working with tangents

Tutorial: Animating a flowing river

Applying out-of-range, ease, and multiplier curves

Tutorial: Animating a wind-up teapot

Filtering Tracks and Creating Track Sets

Using the Filters dialog box

Creating a track set

Working with Controllers

Using visibility tracks

Adding note tracks

Using the ProSound Plug-in

Tutorial: Adding sound to an animation


Part VIII: Working with Characters

Chapter 40: Understanding Rigging, Kinematics, and Working with Bones

Understanding Rigging

A typical rigging workflow

Building a Bones System

Assigning an IK Solver

Setting bone parameters

Defining joint constraints

Naming bones

Tutorial: Creating a bones system for an alligator

Using the Bone Tools

Reordering bones

Refining and mirroring bones

Coloring bones

Adjusting fins

Making objects into bones

Forward Kinematics versus Inverse Kinematics

Creating an Inverse Kinematics System

History Independent (HI) IK solver

History Dependent (HD) IK solver

Tutorial: Animating a spyglass with the HD IK solver

IK Limb solver

Tutorial: Animating a spider's leg with the IK Limb solver

Spline IK solver

Tutorial: Building an IK Spline alligator


Chapter 41: Skinning Characters

Understanding Your Character

The curse and blessing of symmetry

Dealing with details

Animated Skin Modifiers

Understanding the skinning process

Binding to a skeleton

Using the Skin Wrap modifiers

Tutorial: Making a simple squirt bottle walk

Using the Skin Morph modifier

Tutorial: Bulging arm muscles

Using Character Animation Techniques


Chapter 42: Animating Characters with CAT

Character Creation Workflow

Creating a CAT Rig

Using prebuilt CAT rigs

Modifying prebuilt CAT rigs

Using custom meshes

Tutorial: Editing the head bone

Building a custom CAT rig

Naming CAT bones

Tutorial: Building a custom CAT rig to match a skin mesh

Animating a CAT Rig

Blending absolute animation layers

Using adjustment animation layers

Creating a walk cycle with a CAT Motion layer

Tutorial: Animating a character walking along a path


Chapter 43: Creating Crowds and Using Populate

Creating Crowds

Using Crowd and Delegate helpers

Scattering delegates

Setting delegate parameters

Assigning behaviors

Solving the simulation

Tutorial: Rabbits in the forest

Creating a Crowd of Bipeds

Associating delegates with objects

Associating delegates with objects

Using Populate

Creating Flow and Idle Areas

Adding People to the Flow areas


Part IX: Adding Special Effects

Chapter 44: Creating Particles and Particle Flow

Understanding the Various Particle Systems

Creating a Particle System

Using the Spray and Snow Particle Systems

Tutorial: Creating rain showers

Tutorial: Creating a snowstorm

Using the Super Spray Particle System

Super Spray Basic Parameters rollout

Particle Generation rollout

Particle Type rollout

Rotation and Collision rollout

Tutorial: Basketball shooting practice

Object Motion Inheritance rollout

Bubble Motion rollout

Particle Spawn rollout

Load/Save Presets rollout

Using the Blizzard Particle System

Using the PArray Particle System

Splitting an object into fragments

Tutorial: Creating rising steam

Using the PCloud Particle System

Using Particle System Maps

Using the Particle Age map

Using the Particle MBlur map

Tutorial: Creating jet engine flames

Controlling Particles with Particle Flow

The Particle View window

The Standard Flow

Working with Actions

Combining Particle Flow with MassFX

Tutorial: Creating an avalanche

Using Particle Flow Helpers

Wiring events

Tutorial: Moths chasing a light

Debugging Test Actions

Tutorial: Firing at a fleeing spaceship

Tutorial: Creating a black hole using Particle Flow


Chapter 45: Using Space Warps

Creating and Binding Space Warps

Creating a Space Warp

Binding a Space Warp to an object

Understanding Space Warp Types

Force Space Warps

Deflector Space Warps

Geometric/Deformable Space Warps

Modifier-Based Space Warps

Combining Particle Systems with Space Warps

Tutorial: Shattering glass

Tutorial: Making water flow down a trough


Chapter 46: Using Atmospheric and Render Effects

Adding an Environment Background

Defining the rendered environment

Using Exposure Controls

Automatic, Linear, and Logarithmic Exposure Control

Pseudo Color Exposure Control

Photographic Exposure Control

Tutorial: Using the Logarithmic Exposure Control

Creating Atmospheric Effects

Working with the Atmospheric Apparatus

Adding effects to a scene

Using the Fire Effect

Tutorial: Creating the sun

Tutorial: Creating clouds

Using the Fog Effect

Using the Volume Fog effect

Tutorial: Creating a swamp scene

Using the Volume Light effect

Adding Render Effects

Using Render Effects

Blur render effect

Brightness and Contrast render effect

Color Balance render effect

File Output render effect

Film Grain render effect

Motion Blur render effect

Depth of Field render effect


Chapter 47: Creating Volume Light Effects

Using Volume Lights

Volume light parameters

Tutorial: Showing lights on a spaceship

Tutorial: Creating laser beams

Using projector maps and raytraced shadows

Tutorial: Creating a stained-glass window


Chapter 48: Adding Lens Effects

Creating Lens Effects

Global Lens Effects Parameters


Tutorial: Creating shocking electricity from a plug outlet

Tutorial: Creating neon





Auto Secondary

Manual Secondary

Tutorial: Making an apple sparkle

Working with Lens Effects Filters

Adding flares

Adding focus

Adding glow

Adding highlights

Tutorial: Making a halo shine


Part X: Using Dynamic Animation Systems

Chapter 49: Simulating Physics-Based Motion with MassFX

Understanding Dynamics

Using MassFX

The MassFX process

Establishing the simulation properties

Starting and stopping the simulation

Tutorial: Filling a glass bowl

Setting Object Properties

Setting the object type

Density, mass, friction, and elasticity

Creating presets

Defining collision boundaries

Setting initial motion

Displaying interactions

Tutorial: Knocking over milk cans

Using Constraints and Baking Keys

Tutorial: Opening a door

Capturing the Simulation Motion as Keys

Tutorial: Dropping a plate of donuts

Working with mCloth and Ragdolls

Using mCloth

Tutorial: Hanging a flag on a flagpole

Creating a Ragdoll

Tutorial: Playing dodge ball


Chapter 50: Working with Hair and Cloth

Understanding Hair

Working with Hair

Growing hair

Setting hair properties

Tutorial: Adding a spline fringe to a quilt

Styling Hair

Using the Style interface

Tutorial: Creating a set of fuzzy dice

Using hair presets

Using hair instances

Rendering Hair

Using Hair Dynamics

Making hair live

Setting properties

Enabling collisions

Enabling forces

Running a simulation

Tutorial: Simulating hair dynamics

Understanding Cloth

Creating Cloth

Using Garment Maker to define cloth

Creating cloth from geometry objects

Tutorial: Clothing a 3D model

Simulating Cloth Dynamics

Defining cloth properties and forces

Creating a cloth simulation

Viewing cloth tension

Tutorial: Draping cloth over a jet


Appendix A: What's New with Autodesk 3ds Max 2014

Enhanced Menus and Command Search


Perspective Match


Isolate improvements

Mesh Inspector

Vector map support

Unified sampling in mental ray

Better map support for iray

Appendix B: Automating with MAXScript

The MAXScript menu

The MAXScript Utility rollout

Tutorial: Using the SphereArray script

The MAXScript Listener window

Tutorial: Talking to the MAXScript interpreter

MAXScript Editor windows

The Macro Recorder

Tutorial: Recording a simple script

The MAXScript Debugger

Macro scripts

Scripted utilities

Scripted right-click menus

Scripted mouse tools

Scripted plug-ins

Appendix C: What's on the Website


Acquisitions Editor

Carol Kessel

Project Editor

Martin V. Minner

Technical Editor

Steven D. Papke, AIA

Copy Editor

Gwenette Gaddis

Editorial Director

Robyn Siesky

Business Manager

Amy Knies

Senior Marketing Manager

Sandy Smith

Vice President and Executive Group Publisher

Richard Swadley

Vice President and Executive Publisher

Barry Pruett

Project Coordinators

Katie Crocker
Patrick Redmond

Graphics and Production Specialists

Carrie A. Cesavice
Jennifer Goldsmith
Amy Hassos
Jennifer Mayberry

Proofreading and Indexing

The Well-Chosen Word
BIM Indexing & Proofreading Services

Vertical Websites Project Manager

Laura Moss-Hollister

Vertical Websites Associate Producers

Josh Frank
Shawn Patrick
Doug Kuhn
Marilyn Hummel

About the Author

Kelly Murdock has been authoring computer books for many years now and still gets immense enjoyment from the completed work. His book credits include various 3D, graphics, multimedia, and Web titles, including 13 previous editions of this book, 3ds Max Bible. Other major accomplishments include Google SketchUp Bible, Edgeloop Character Modeling for 3D Professionals Only, Maya 6 and 7 Revealed, LightWave 3D 8 Revealed, The Official Guide to Anime Studio, Poser 6, 7, and 8 Revealed, 3D Game Animation For Dummies, gmax Bible, Adobe Atmosphere Bible, Master VISUALLY HTML and XHTML, JavaScript Visual Blueprint, and co-authoring duties on two editions of the Illustrator Bible (for versions 9 and 10) and five editions of the Adobe Creative Suite Bible.

With a background in engineering and computer graphics, Kelly has been all over the 3D industry and still finds it fascinating. He's used high-level CAD workstations for product design and analysis, completed several large-scale visualization projects, created 3D models for feature films and games, worked as a freelance 3D artist, and even did some 3D programming. Kelly's been using 3D Studio since version 3 for DOS. Kelly has also branched into training others in 3D technologies. He currently works as a freelance graphic artist and video game producer.

In his spare time, Kelly enjoys playing basketball and collecting video games.

There are bookshelves in my bedroom,
and bookshelves in the hall,
Bookshelves in the front room
and all of them quite tall

I have bookshelves full of fiction,
and software guides to spare,
Bookshelves full of old books
all handled with great care.

I've got all the classics,
mystery, self help, and travel too.
and though I read all day and night
I know I'll never be through.

There are bookshelves full of kids' books
and some for the older crowd,
and some books that I've written
of which I am quite proud.

Bookshelves hold my papers
and a place to sort the mail,
but I just bought a tablet
so all my bookshelves are for sale.

To all the avid readers out there whether reading online or on paper


I have a host of people to thank for their involvement in this major work. The order in which they are mentioned doesn't necessarily represent the amount of work they did.

Thanks as always to my dear wife, Angela, and my sons, Eric and Thomas, without whose support I wouldn't get very far. They are my QA team and my brainstorming team who always provide honest feedback on my latest example. We have had many family sessions to think of good tutorial examples, and I'm always amazed with what they come up with. One of my favorites that hasn't been implemented yet is a tutorial of a group of bicycles chasing an ice cream truck.

In the first edition, the task at hand was too big for just me, so I shared the pain with two co-authors—Dave Brueck and Sanford Kennedy (both of whom have gone on to write books of their own). I still thank them for their work, which, although overhauled, retains their spirits. In a later edition, I again asked for help, a request that was answered by Sue Blackman. Sue provided several excellent examples that show off the power of the Track View interface. Thanks for your help, Sue.

Major thanks to the editors and personnel at Wiley. I'd like to specifically thank Stephanie McComb and Carol Kessel, who have managed the whole project and as always done a great job. Their encouragement, dedication, and positive attitude have made a big difference as I've faced some tough deadlines. Huge thanks to Marty Minner (the double M), who has once again managed the entire editing process, and to Gwenette Gaddis for her excellent copyediting input. Marty's comments during the review cycle always crack me up.

I'd also like to thank Steven Papke for taking on the technical editing. Additional thanks go out to the Vertical Websites department for compiling the website, and finally, to the entire staff at Wiley who helped me on this journey. Of particular note are the cover designers who have been delightfully stuck on reptiles and amphibians for the covers to the last several editions. I'm starting to refer to the titles by their cover creature; that is, “hand me the frog book next to the lizard book.”

The various people who work in the graphics industry are amazing in their willingness to help and support. I'd like to thank first of all Rob Hoffman, Brittany Bonhomme, and the entire Autodesk team for their timely support and help. I'd also like to thank the talented people at Curious Labs for many of their models, which make the examples much more interesting. (You can only do so much with the teapot, after all.) Additional thanks go out to David Mathis, Sue Blackman, and Chris Murdock for completing models used in some of the tutorials.