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Industrial Catalysis

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Wiley Logo

Preface to the Third Edition

Since the second edition of this book the field of industrial catalysis has made significant progress. New techniques in catalyst development have become relevant and many new processes were introduced in industry. The focus of this textbook is still to cover the fundamentals of homogeneous, heterogeneous catalysis, and biocatalysis, and to describe the industrial practice of catalysis and some special topics of applied catalysis.

The third edition has been extensively revised and updated. From the wealth of catalytical processes, a selection had to be made. Knowledge of some key processes is essential for the understanding of catalysis.

Entirely new are the chapters and sections.

In some other sections, additional examples of catalytical processes are addressed, for instance, alkene metathesis, telomerization of butadiene, adipodinitrile, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride, propylene oxide, pharmaceuticals, and fine chemicals. Many new exercises including solutions were added, they should help users develop a better understanding of the material.

The book is largely the result of courses for chemical engineers I have given at the Mannheim University of Applied Sciences, some universities abroad, and several vocational training seminars for chemists and engineers in industry. I hope that this edition will still be useful to students and to engineers, chemists, and professionals who work in the chemical industry and related industries. The book is particularly well suited for the self-study of people who have a basic knowledge of chemistry and chemical reaction engineering.

My great appreciation is given to the following companies and institutions, which provided new pictures for this edition: BASF SE, Ludwigshafen; Johnson Matthey Plc, London, UK; Sasol Ltd., South Africa; Fonds der Chemischen Industrie, Frankfurt am Main; Chemieanlagenbau Chemnitz GmbH, Evonik Services GmbH, Hanau-Wolfgang; Fraunhofer ICT-IMM, Mainz.

I would like to thank the production team at Wiley-VCH, particularly Dr. Elke Maase and the editors Dr. Claudia Ley and Stefanie Volk for their kind assistance and support.

Furthermore, I am grateful for the many helpful comments by the coworkers of SPi Global during typesetting. Finally, I thank my wife Julia again for her pacience and understanding during realization of this project.

I hope that the reader will see that catalysis is one of the most exciting areas in chemistry.

Jens Hagen


April 2015


Aarea (m2)
A*adsorbed (activated) molecules of component A
acatalyst activity
asarea per mass (m2 kg−1)
Aelectron acceptor
Acacetyl CH3CO-
AASatomic absorption spectroscopy
ADHalcohol dehydrogenase enzyme
ADMETacyclic diene metathesis
6-APA6-aminopenicillanic acid
adsadsorbed (subscript)
AESAuger electron spectroscopy
aqaqueous solution (subscript)
bccbody-centered cubic
Bubutyl C4H9-
BETBrunauer, Emmet, and Teller (adsorption process)
ciconcentration of component i (mol l−1)
CBconduction band
C.I.constraint index
CMRcatalytical membrane reactor
Cpcyclopentadienyl C5H5-
CSTRcontinuous stirred tank reactor
Ddiffusion coefficient (m2 s−1)
ddeactivation (subscript)
Delectron donor
DMFCdirect methanol fuel cell
DMSOdimethyl sulfoxide
EE factor, rate of waste (kg) per product unit (kg)
Eaactivation energy (J mol−1)
EF,0Fermi level
eeenantiomeric excess (%)
effeffective (subscript)
Eiionization energy
Erredox potential (V)
Etethyl C2H5-
ESCAelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESRelectron spin resonance spectroscopy
ETBEethyl tert-butyl ether
FFaraday constant (96 485 C mol−1)
fccface-centered cubic
FCCfluid catalytic cracking
ΔGGibb's free energy (J mol−1)
Ggas (subscript, too)
GDPgross domestic product
GHSVgas hourly space velocity (h−1)
GTLgas to liquids
HHenry's law constant
Hexexternal holdup
ΔHadsadsorption enthalpy (J mol−1)
ΔHfenthalpy change of formation (J mol−1)
Hmmodified Henry's law constant
ΔHRreaction enthalpy (J mol−1)
HDPEhigh-density polyethylene
HPPOhydrogen peroxide to propylene oxide
hcphexagonal close packing
ICPinductively coupled plasma
ILionic liquid
ISSion-scattering spectroscopy
Kequilibrium constant
Kiadsorption equilibrium constant of component i
Kiinhibition constant
KMMichaelis constant
kreaction rate constant
k0pre-exponential factor
kL aLgas–liquid mass transfer coefficient
kS aSliquid–solid mass transfer coefficient
ktotglobal mass transfer coefficient
Lliquid (subscript)
LCFlignocellulose feedstock
LDPElow-density polyethylene
l-DOPA2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid
LEEDlow-energy electron diffraction
LHSVliquid hourly space velocity (h−1)
LLDPElinear low-density polyethylene
LPGliquefied petrol gas
LSRlight straight run (naphtha)
LFliquid feed (l min−1)
mmass (kg)
mcat.mass of catalyst (kg)
MAmaleic anhydride
MCM-41mesoporous material
MSRmicrostructured reactor
MTGmethanol to gasoline
MTOmethanol to olefins
MTBEmethyl tert-butyl ether
MTPmethanol to propylene
MWDmolecular weight distribution
Memethyl CH3-
nnumber of moles (mol)
norder of reaction
ndegree of polymerization
flast-math-0001flow rate (mol s−1)
flast-math-0002feed flow rate of starting material A (mol s−1)
NADnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor
NSRNOx storage reduction
OCSoxygen storage component
ODEordinary differential equation
ONoctane number
Oxadoxidative addition
Ptotal pressure (bar)
PAphthalic anhydride
PEGpolyethylene glycol
PEMFCproton exchange membrane fuel cell
PFRplug flow reactor
PVIpore volume impregnation
Phphenyl C6H5-
PTCphase-transfer catalysis
ppressure (bar)
pipartial pressure of component i (bar)
Rideal gas law constant (J mol−1 K−1)
Rrecycle ratio
RCMring-closing metathesis
ROMPring-opening metathesis polymerization
RONresearch octane number
RTDresidence time distribution
rreaction rate (mol l−1 h−1)
reffeffective reaction rate per unit mass of catalyst (mol kg−1 h−1)
relrelative (subscript)
rddeactivation rate
Ssurface area (m2 kg−1)
ΔSentropy change (J mol−1 K−1)
Spselectivity (mol mol−1) or (%)
Ssolid (subscript, too)
SCRselective catalytic reduction
SIMSsecondary-ion mass spectroscopy
SLPCsupported liquid-phase catalysts
SMSIstrong metal-support interaction
SSPCsupported solid-phase catalysts
STEMscanning transmission electron microscopy
S−1mass index, ratio of all the materials (kg) to the product (kg)
STYspace time yield (mol l−1 h−1, kg l−1 h−1)
Ttemperature (K)
TAMEtert-amyl methyl ether
TBGEtert-butylglycerol ether
TEMtransmission electron microscopy
TFtime factor flast-math-0003
TOFturnover frequency (s−1)
TONturnover number (mol mol−1 s−1)
ttime (s, h)
TPDtemperature-programmed desorption
TPPMStriphenylphosphine monosulfonate
TPPTStriphenylphosphine trisulfonate
TPRtemperature-programmed reduction
TS 1titanium(IV) silicalite zeolite catalyst
TWCthree-way catalyst
Ucell voltage (V)
Vvolume (m3)
flast-math-0004volumetric flow rate
VRreaction volume (m3)
VBvalence band
VGOvacuum gas oil
VOCvolatile organic compound
VPOvanadium–phosphorous oxide
WGSwater gas shift (reaction)
WHSVweight hourly space velocity (kg kgcat−1 h−1 or h−1)
Xconversion (mol mol−1) or (%)
XPSX-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XRDX-ray diffraction
ztube length (m)
flast-math-0005void fraction of particle
λair/fuel intake ratio for gasoline engines
ηcatalyst effectiveness factor
ηoverpotential (V)
θidegree of coverage of the surface of component i
vstretching frequencies (IR) (cm−1)
vistoichiometric coefficient
ρdensity (g ml−1)
ρcat.pellet density of the catalyst (g ml−1)
σinterfacial tension
φ0work function (eV)
*active centers on the catalyst surface