Cover Page

Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention

Milton J. Dehn



Title Page

Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series

Series Editors, Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Essentials of 16 PF® Assessment by Heather E.-P. Cattell and James M. Schuerger

Essentials of ADHD Assessment for Children and Adolescents by Elizabeth P. Sparrow and Drew Erhardt

Essentials of Assessment Report Writing by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Nancy Mather, Nadeen L. Kaufman, and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of Assessment with Brief Intelligence Tests by Susan R. Homack and Cecil R. Reynolds

Essentials of Autism Spectrum Disorders Evaluation and Assessment by Celine A. Saulnier and Pamela E. Ventola

Essentials of Bayley Scales of Infant Development\endash II Assessment by Maureen M. Black and Kathleen Matula

Essentials of Behavioral Assessment by Michael C. Ramsay, Cecil R. Reynolds, and R. W. Kamphaus

Essentials of Career Interest Assessment by Jeffrey P. Prince and Lisa J. Heiser

Essentials of CAS Assessment by Jack A. Naglieri

Essentials of Cognitive Assessment with KAIT and Other Kaufman Measures by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Debra Broadbooks, and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of Conners Behavior Assessments™ by Elizabeth P. Sparrow

Essentials of Creativity Assessment by James C. Kaufman, Jonathan A. Plucker, and John Baer

Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, Third Edition by Dawn P. Flanagan, Samuel O. Ortiz, and Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of DAS-II® Assessment by Ron Dumont, John O. Willis, and Colin D. Elliot

Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Essentials of Evidence-Based Academic Interventions by Barbara J. Wendling and Nancy Mather

Essentials of Executive Functions Assessment by George McCloskey and Lisa A. Perkins

Essentials of Forensic Psychological Assessment, Second Edition by Marc J. Ackerman

Essentials of IDEA for Assessment Professionals by Guy McBride, Ron Dumont, and John O. Willis

Essentials of Individual Achievement Assessment by Douglas K. Smith

Essentials of KABC-II Assessment by Alan S. Kaufman, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Essentials of Millon™ Inventories Assessment, Third Edition by Stephen Strack

Essentials of MMPI-A™ Assessment by Robert P. Archer and Radhika Krishnamurthy

Essentials of MMPI-2® Assessment, Second Edition by David S. Nichols

Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Assessment, Second Edition by Naomi Quenk

Essentials of NEPSY®,-II Assessment by Sally L. Kemp and Marit Korkman

Essentials of Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition by Nancy Hebben and William Milberg

Essentials of Nonverbal Assessment by Steve McCallum, Bruce Bracken, and John Wasserman

Essentials of PAI® Assessment by Leslie C. Morey

Essentials of Planning, Selecting, and Tailoring Interventions for Unique Learners edited by Jennifer T. Mascolo, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Dawn P. Flanagan

Essentials of Processing Assessment, Second Edition by Milton J. Dehn

Essentials of Response to Intervention by Amanda M. VanDerHeyden and Matthew K. Burns

Essentials of Rorschach® Assessment by Tara Rose, Nancy Kaser-Boyd, and Michael P. Maloney

Essentials of School Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition by Daniel C. Miller

Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification by Dawn Flanagan and Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5) Assessment by Gale H. Roid and R. Andrew Barram

Essentials of TAT and Other Storytelling Assessments, Second Edition by Hedwig Teglasi

Essentials of Temperament Assessment by Diana Joyce

Essentials of WAIS®,-IV Assessment, Second Edition by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of WIAT®,-III and KTEA-II Assessment by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger and Kristina C. Breaux

Essentials of WISC®,-IV Assessment, Second Edition by Dawn P. Flanagan and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of WJ III™ Cognitive Abilities Assessment, Second Edition by Fredrick A. Schrank, Daniel C. Miller, Barbara J. Wendling, and Richard W. Woodcock

Essentials of WJ IV™ Tests of Achievement Assessment by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Essentials of WMS®,-IV Assessment by Lisa Whipple Drozdick, James A. Holdnack, and Robin C. Hilsabeck

Essentials of WNV™ Assessment by Kimberly A. Brunnert, Jack A. Naglieri, and Steven T. Hardy-Braz

Essentials of WPPSI™-IV Assessment by Susan Engi Raiford and Diane Coalson

Essentials of WRAML2 and TOMAL-2 Assessment by Wayne Adams and Cecil R. Reynolds

For Paula, my soulmate.

Series Preface

In the Essentials of Psychological Assessment series, we have attempted to provide the reader with books that will deliver key practical information in the most efficient and accessible style. Many books in the series feature specific instruments in a variety of domains, such as cognition, personality, education, and neuropsychology. Other books focus on crucial topics for professionals who are involved in any way with assessment—topics such as specific reading disabilities, evidence-based interventions, or ADHD assessment. For the experienced professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of a test instrument or a specific area of expertise, including numerous tips for best practices. Students can turn to series books for a clear and concise overview of the important assessment tools and key topics, in which they must become proficient to practice skillfully, efficiently, and ethically in their chosen fields.

Wherever feasible, visual cues highlighting key points are utilized alongside systematic, step-by-step guidelines. Chapters are focused and succinct. Topics are organized for an easy understanding of the essential material related to a particular test or topic. Theory and research are continually woven into the fabric of each book, but always to enhance the practical application of the material, rather than to sidetrack or overwhelm readers. With this series, we aim to challenge and assist readers interested in psychological assessment to aspire to the highest level of competency by arming them with the tools they need for knowledgeable, informed practice. We have long been advocates of “intelligent” testing—the notion that numbers are meaningless unless they are brought to life by the clinical acumen and expertise of examiners. Assessment must be used to make a difference in the child's or adult's life, or why bother to test? All books in the series—whether devoted to specific tests or general topics—are consistent with this credo. We want this series to help our readers, novice and veteran alike, to benefit from the intelligent assessment approaches of the authors of each book.

This volume provides practitioners with a framework for planning, conducting, and interpreting an assessment of working memory, as well as a review of evidence-based interventions for working memory. The selective, multi-battery assessment approach elucidates a challenging type of evaluation that requires the compilation of an assessment battery from different tests. Dr. Dehn, an expert in the areas of processing and memory assessment, sets the stage by proposing an integrated model of working memory for assessment and intervention purposes. Next, the relations between working memory and specific types of academic learning are reviewed. Through step-by-step guidelines and worksheets, Dehn walks the reader through planning an assessment and interpreting test results, including how to determine intra-individual strengths and weaknesses among working memory components. He then offers detailed information on subtests from cognitive and memory scales that can be used to measure working memory. Finally, Dehn provides details on working memory exercises, strategies, and accommodations that can be used during intervention. Additional assessment and intervention resources—such as checklists, forms, and detailed directions—are available in the online resources that accompany this book. It is our hope that the knowledge, insights, and practices gained from this volume will lead to more accurate diagnoses and more effective treatment for individuals who struggle with learning and memory.

Alan S. Kaufman, PhD, and Nadeen L. Kaufman, EdD, Series Editors
Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine


I wish to express my gratitude to three individuals who reviewed the manuscript and provided very helpful feedback from a practitioner's viewpoint. They are:

Kim Charnofsky, MS, who works as a school psychologist and mental health facilitator in California.

Janice Barron, EdD, who works as an educational diagnostician and speech therapist in Texas.

Silvia De La Riva, EdD, who works as a bilingual school psychologist in California.