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The Handbook of Media and Mass Communication Theory

Volume I

Edited by

Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

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Handbooks in Communication and Media

This series aims to provide theoretically ambitious but accessible volumes devoted to the major fields and subfields within communication and media studies. Each volume sets out to ground and orientate the student through a broad range of specially commissioned chapters, while also providing the more experienced scholar and teacher with a convenient and comprehensive overview of the latest trends and critical directions.

The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development, edited by Sandra L. Calvert and Barbara J. Wilson
The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay
The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo and Charles Ess
The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address, edited by Shawn J. Parry-Giles and J. Michael Hogan
The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, edited by Thomas K. Nakayama and Rona Tamiko Halualani
The Handbook of Global Communication and Media Ethics, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler
The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, edited by Øyvind Ihlen, Jennifer Bartlett and Steve May
The Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Media, edited by Karen Ross
The Handbook of Global Health Communication, edited by Rafael Obregon and Silvio Waisbord
The Handbook of Global Media Research, edited by Ingrid Volkmer
The Handbook of Global Online Journalism, edited by Eugenia Siapera and Andreas Veglis
The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation, edited by Craig E. Carroll
The Handbook of International Advertising Research, edited by Hong Cheng

Notes on Contributors

Daniel A. Berkowitz is Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication and associate dean in the Graduate College at the University of Iowa. His research includes social and cultural approaches to the study of news and news production, with an emphasis on mythical narrative and collective memory. He has published in journals such as Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journalism Studies, Memory Studies, and the International Communication Gazette. He has also published two edited volumes, Social Meanings of News and Cultural Meanings of News.

Amy Bleakley is a senior research scientist in the Health Communication Group at the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on investigating media effects on health risk behaviors and on using theory to create evidence-based health interventions.

Brett A. Borton is an Assistant Professor of Communication Studies at the University of South Carolina, Beaufort. A former print journalist and integrated communications specialist, his research interests are in sustainability of journalism, communication and culture, and media law.

Catherine Cassara is Associate Professor of Journalism, Bowling Green State University, and the author of articles and book chapters on international news coverage and human rights in American newspapers, media use, protest, and the impact of Al Jazeera in Tunisia. She worked for six years with colleagues at universities in Tunisia and Algeria.

Guo-Ming Chen is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Rhode Island. His research interests are in intercultural/organizational/global communication. Chen has published numerous articles and books. Those books include Foundations of Intercultural Communication; Communication and Global Society; Chinese Conflict Management and Resolution; and Theories and Principles of Chinese Communication.

Clifford G. Christians is Research Professor of Communications, Professor of Journalism, and Professor of Media Studies Emeritus, University of Illinois-Urbana. He co-auhored Normative Theories of the Media (2009), and is editor (with Kaarle Nordenstreng) of Communication Theories in a Multicultural World (forthcoming).

Yoel Cohen is Associate Professor, School of Communication, Ariel University, Israel. His research interests include media and religion in Israel and in Judaism; religion and news; foreign news reporting; defence and the media. His book publications include God, Jews & the Media: Religion & Israel’s Media (2012); Whistleblowers and the Bomb: Vanunu, Israel and Nuclear Secrecy (2005); The Whistleblower of Dimona: Vanunu, Israel & the Bomb (2003); Media Diplomacy: The Foreign Office in the Mass Communications Age (1986). His research has appeared in the Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, Gazette, the Journal of Media & Religion, Israel Affairs, the Review of International Affairs, and the Encyclopaedia of Religion, Communication & Media. He was Israel Media editor of Encyclopaedia Judaica.

Jeffrey Crouch is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the American University in Washington, DC. He is the author of The Presidential Pardon Power (2009).

Kevin Cummings is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at Mercer University and is an affiliated faculty member in the Department of Women and Gender Studies. His research examines the rhetoric surrounding domestic terrorism. More recently, his work has explored the figure of the terrorist and the figure of the citizen.

Xiaodong Dai is Associate Professor of Foreign Languages at Shanghai Normal University, China. His major research interests are cultural identity, identity negotiation, and intercultural communication theory. Dai has published numerous articles. His most recent books are Identity and Intercultural Communication: Theoretical and Contextual Construction and Intercultural Communication Theories.

Norman K. Denzin is Distinguished Professor of Communications, College of Communications Scholar, and Research Professor of Communications, Sociology, and Humanities at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. One of the world’s foremost authorities on qualitative research and cultural criticism, Denzin is the author or editor of more than two dozen books, including The Qualitative Manifesto; Qualitative Inquiry Under Fire; Searching for Yellowstone; Reading Race; Interpretive Ethnography; The Cinematic Society; The Voyeur’s Gaze; and The Alcoholic Self. He is former editor of The Sociological Quarterly, co-editor (with Yvonna S. Lincoln) of four editions of the landmark Handbook of Qualitative Research, co-editor (with Michael D. Giardina) of five plenary volumes from the annual Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, co-editor (with Lincoln) of the methods journal Qualitative Inquiry, founding editor of Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies and International Review of Qualitative Research, and editor of three book series.

Wimal Dissanayake teaches at the Academy for Creative Media, University of Hawai’i and is a Senior Fellow at the East–West Center Hawai’i. He was formerly director of international cultural studies at the East West Center. Dissanayake is the author and editor of a large number of books on cinema and culture published by prestigious presses. He is the founding editor of the East–West Film Journal.

P. Mark Fackler is Professor of Communication Arts and Sciences at Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan. He holds a PhD from the University of Illinois. His recent books include Ethics and Evil in the Public Sphere (edited with his present co-editor, Robert Fortner) and Ethics for Public Communication (co-edited with Clifford Christians and John Ferre). He teaches and does media research in East Africa.

Robert S. Fortner is Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication at the American University in Bulgaria. His research interests include media theory, international communication, media ethics, philosophy of technology, media cultural history, and political economy of the media. He has written and edited nine books and published essays in several others, along with publications in communication and media journals. He has conducted field research in twenty-two countries examining the application of new technologies and the credibility of the media, mostly in the developing world. His last work was a co-edited (with P. Mark Fackler) Blackwell International Handbook of Journalism and Mass Communication Ethics.

Ana Cristina Correia Gil teaches Portuguese culture, culture and identity, journalism, and media and mass culture at the University of the Azores. She is currently the director of the mass media communication and culture degree. Her research interests are identity issues and their relation to theory of culture, national culture and mass culture. She frequently participates in conferences and she is the coordinator of the newspaper (S)Em Rede, produced by students and teachers of the mass media and culture degree and published in Açoriano Oriental, Portugal’s most ancient newspaper. In Açoriano Oriental she publishes a weekly opinion column.

Ellen W. Gorsevski researches contemporary peacebuilding rhetoric (persuasive advocacy) in social and environmental justice movements. Her recent articles appeared in the Quarterly Journal of Speech, the Western Journal of Communication, and Environmental Communication. Her books are Peaceful Persuasion: The Geopolitics of Nonviolent Rhetoric (2004) and Dangerous Women: The Rhetoric of the Women Nobel Peace Laureates (2013).

Cynthia Gottshall is the Davenport Professor of Journalism and Media Studies at Mercer University and is an affiliated faculty member in the Department of Women and Gender Studies. Her teaching and research interests are in representations of sex, gender, and sexuality in the American media.

Shelton A. Gunaratne is Professor of Mass Communications Emeritus at Minnesota State University Moorhead. He earned a doctorate from the University of Minnesota in 1972. Thereafter he taught journalism for 35 years in Malaysia, Australia, and the United States. He started his career as a journalist in Sri Lanka (1962–1967). After retirement he published an autobiographic trilogy in 2012, one titled Village Life in the Forties: Memories of a Lankan Expatriate, the other two titled From Village Boy to Global Citizen. The first bears the subtitle The Life Journey of a Journalist; the second and third, The Travels of a Journalist.

Lei Guo, a doctoral student at the University of Texas at Austin, has, together with Maxwell McCombs, initiated a new line of research, explicating the third level of agenda setting.

Kai Hafez is Professor of International and Comparative Media and Communication Studies at the University of Erfurt, Germany. He was a senior associate fellow at the University of Oxford and a visiting scholar at the American University in Cairo. Hafez is on the editorial boards of several academic journals, such as the Journal of International Communication and the Global Media Journal and Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism. One of his books is The Myth of Media Globlization (2007).

Cees J. Hamelink is Emeritus Professor of International Communication at the University of Amsterdam and Professor of Human Rights and Public Health at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. He is editor-in-chief of the International Communication Gazette and honorary president of the International Association for Media and Communication Research. He published 18 books on human rights, culture, and technology.

Jarice Hanson is Professor of Communication at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Her research focuses on the social impact of digital technologies and telecommunications policy. Author and editor of over 25 books, she is currently developing a research project on creative economy and information literacy.

Kathleen Hall Jamieson is Elizabeth Ware Packard Professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania and director of its Annenberg Public Policy Center. Her work focuses on understanding the structure and effects of messages.

Patrick Jamieson directs the Annenberg Public Policy Center’s Coding of Health and Media Project, a cross-time content analysis of filmic, televised, and Internet portrayal of risk behaviors including violence, tobacco, suicide and gun use. His interests also include designing and analyzing theoretically informed survey research on adolescent risk behavior.

Wenshan Jia is Professor in the Department of Communication Studies, Chapman University, California and Guest Professor, School of Journalism, Renmin University, China. He is a prolific author on intercultural communication, Chinese communication, and global communication. He is the recipient of an Early Career Award for his significant contributions to intercultural relations, granted biannually by the International Academy for Intercultural Research; and of a Wang-Fradkin Endowed Professorship, the highest research award granted to a faculty member with a distinguished research record by Chapman University. Jia is consulting editor of the International Journal for Intercultural Relations and serves on the editorial board of the Asian Journal of Communication.

Igor E. Klyukanov is Professor of Communication at Eastern Washington University, Washington. His works have been published in the USA, Russia, England, Spain, Costa Rica, Serbia, Bulgaria, India, and Morocco. He is the founding editor of the Russian Journal of Communication.

Shanti Kumar is Associate Professor in the Department of Radio–TV–Film at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the author of Gandhi Meets Primetime: Globalization and Nationalism in Indian Television (2006), and co-editor of Planet TV: A Global Television Reader (2003). He has also authored chapters in multi-contributor volumes and articles in journals such as Bioscope, Popular Communication, Television and New Media, Jump Cut, South Asian Popular Culture, The Quarterly Review of Film and Video, and South Asian History and Culture. His research and teaching interests include global media studies, cultural studies, Indian cinema and television, and postcolonial theory and criticism.

Mingsheng Li is Senior Lecturer at the College of Business, Massey University, New Zealand. He was awarded a doctoral degree in education from La Trobe University, Australia, in 1999. His research interests include intercultural communication, media studies, and international education.

Zheng Li is a PhD researcher in the Department of Political Science at Leiden University. She received a MSc in media and communications from the London School of Economics and Political Science. Her current research focuses on Chinese media and politics. Her study tries to examine the social and political impact of television mediation programs.

Carolyn A. Lin researches the content, uses, and effects of digital media, international communication, advertising, social marketing, and health communication. She is the founder of the Communication Technology Division at the Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication and a recipient of a University Distinguished Research Faculty Award.

Hailong Liu is Associate Professor and associate director at the School of Journalism and Communication, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China, of the Institute of Communication Studies. He is the author of Engineering the Consent: The Idea of Propaganda and Its Legitimacy in the 20th Century (2012), Mass Communication Theory: Paradigms and Schools (2008), and co-author of An Introduction to the Media Today (2005) – all in Chinese. He has translated into Chinese books on communication and journalism such as Milestones in Mass Communication Research; News That Matters; and Television and American Opinion. His current research interests include political communication, the history of Chinese communication studies, and the history of communication ideas and media performance in China.

Xinchuan Liu is a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Public Policy and Management at Tsinghua University, China. He has published 31 papers in leading academic journals, including the Journal of Journalism and Communication. He is the author of works such as his Introduction to Communication Studies.

Zhengjia Liu (MS, Iowa State University) is a doctoral candidate in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Iowa. Her current research focuses on social media and consumerist culture. She has published in the Journal of Magazine & New Media Research.

Casey Man Kong Lum is Professor of Communication and founding director of the MA in professional communication program at William Paterson University. He is one of the five co-founders of the Media Ecology Association and currently on the board of directors of the Urban Communication Foundation. His research and teaching interests include media ecology, urban communication, food culture as communication, media and globalization, Asian and Asian Pacific American studies, international education, and teaching and learning. Among his publications are In Search of a Voice: Karaoke and the Construction of Identity in Chinese America (1996) and Perspectives on Culture, Technology and Communication: The Media Ecology Tradition (2006).

Randal Marlin teaches philosophy at Carleton University, Ottawa. A second edition of his Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion (2002) is due in August, 2013. Currently vice-president of the International Jacques Ellul Society, he has published numerous articles, reviews, and encyclopedia entries relating to Ellul and the study of propaganda.

Bronwen Martin is Honorary Research Fellow at Birkbeck College, University of London, England. She is a specialist in semiotic theory and in its application to a wide range of discourses with a particular focus on the media. Her publications include Semiotics and Storytelling: An Introduction to Semiotic Analysis (1997); The Search for Gold: Space and Meaning in J. M. G. Le Clézio (1995); Dictionary of Semiotics (2000) (with Felizitas Ringham); and Key Terms in Semiotics (2006) (with Felizitas Ringham). Her latest book is The Fiction of J. M. G. Le Clézio: A Postcolonial Reading (2012).

Maxwell E. McCombs is the Jesse H. Jones Centennial Chair in Communication Emeritus in the School of Journalism at the University of Texas at Austin. He is a co-founder of the agenda-setting theory, together with Lei Guo.

Michael Morgan is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He has conducted many national and international studies on the effects of television on audience conceptions of violence, sex roles, aging, health, science, the family, political orientations, and other issues.

Vincent Mosco is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada, where he held the Canada Research Chair in Communication and Society. He is the author of numerous books on media and information technology, notably The Digital Sublime and The Political Economy of Communication. He is currently writing a book on cloud computing.

Levi Obonyo is dean of the College of Communications at Daystar University, Nairobi, Kenya. He earned the PhD degree from Temple University in Philadelphia. A former journalist, Dr. Obonyo was recently chair of the Media Council of Kenya and host to the first presidential debate ever televised in Kenya. He consults widely on communications education in Africa.

Christine Ogan is Professor Emerita from the School of Journalism and the School of Informatics and Computing at Indiana University. Recently she has been Visiting Professor at Bahcesehir University in Istanbul and at the Baptist University in Honk Kong. She is the author of numerous articles related to communications technology, especially on international topics.

John J. Pauly is provost and Professor of Journalism at Marquette University. From 2006 to 2008 he served as dean of the Diederich College of Communication there. His research focuses on the history and sociology of the media, with special attention to the history of journalism as literary, institutional, and professional culture.

W. James Potter is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California at Santa Barbara and a former editor of the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. He is the creator of lineation theory and has published over 20 books as well as more than 100 scholarly articles about media effects.

Anabel Quan-Haase is Associate Professor of Sociology and Information and Media Studies at Western University. Her interests lie in social media, social networks, social capital, inequality, and serendipity. She maintains a web site at

Babak Rahimi is Associate Professor of Communication, Culture and Religion at the Department of Literature, University of California, San Diego. He earned his PhD from the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, in October 2004. Rahimi has also studied at the University of Nottingham, where he obtained an MA in ancient and medieval philosophy (1997), and at the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he was a visiting fellow in the Department of Anthropology, 2000–2001. He is the author of Theater-State and Formation of the Early Modern Public Sphere in Iran: Studies on Safavid Muharram Rituals, 1590–1641 C.E.

Daniel Romer is the director of the Adolescent and Health Communication Institutes at the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on social influences on the mental and behavioral health of adolescents.

Mark J. Rozell is Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University in Arlington, Virginia. He is the author of four books on media and US politics and most recently co-author (with Mitchel A. Sollenberger) of The President’s Czars: Undermining Congress and the Constitution (2012).

Haydar Badawi Sadig is Associate Professor at the Department of Mass Communication of Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Previously he taught in Sudan, the US, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia. He is author and co-author of “Profaning the Sacred: A Prophetic Critique of Consumerism in the Heart of the Muslim World”; “Peace Communication in Sudan: Toward a New Islamic Perspective”; “Communication Technologies in the Arsenal of Al Qaeda and Taliban: Why the West Is Not Winning the War on Terror”; and “Ustadh Mahmoud Mohamed Taha: Embodying and Communicating Absolute Individual Freedom” – among other titles.

James Shanahan is Professor at the College of Communication at Boston University. His research interests focus on cultural indicators, cultivation theory, media effects, and public opinion. Special areas of interest are communication in relation to science and the environment.

Nancy Signorielli is Professor of Communication and Director of the MA program in communication at the University of Delaware. Her research interests include images of sex roles, violence, aging, and minorities on television and how these images are related to conceptions of the social reality.

Galina V. Sinekopova is Associate Professor of Communication at Eastern Washington University, Washington. Her research interests include media studies and political communication. Her work has appeared in such journals as the Journal of Communication, the International Journal of Communication, the American Journal of Semiotics, and the Journal of Language and Social Psychology.

Ann Snesareva is an undergraduate student at the American University in Bulgaria majoring in journalism and mass communication. She is from Belarus.

Linda Steiner is Professor at the College of Journalism at the University of Maryland. Previously she was Professor and department chair at Rutgers University. Steiner was an editor of Critical Studies in Media Communication. Her coauthored or co-edited books include Women and Journalism and Key Concepts in Critical Cultural Studies. She was president of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication 2011–2012, and in 2012 she was named Outstanding Woman of the Year in Journalism and Mass Communication Education.

Ksenia Tsitovich is an undergraduate student at the American University in Bulgaria majoring in journalism and mass communication. She is from Belarus.

Kasun Ubayasiri is Sir Samuel Griffith Lecturer in Journalism at Griffith University, Australia. His research interests include the role of media in terrorism and counter-terrorism; and nationalism and identity politics in insurgent terrorism.

Mel van Elteren is Associate Professor of Social Sciences at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. His research areas concern sociology, social history, and cultural studies, with special interest in the political economy and cultural complexities of globalization. His latest book is Labor and the American Left: An Analytical History (2011).

Runze Wang is Professor of School of Journalism, Renmin University of China. She is editor-in-chief of Journalism Times. She was named Minde Scholar by Renmin University of China in 2009 and New Century Scholar of Excellence by the ministry of education in 2010. She has been associate director of the History of Journalism Institute, School of Journalism, since 2006. Wang was Yenching-Harvard visiting scholar at Harvard University in 2006–2007.

Stephen J. A. Ward is Professor and director of the George S. Turnbull Center in Portland, Oregon. The center is the Portland base of the University of Oregon’s School of Journalism and Communication. Previously he was Burgess Chair of Journalism Ethics and founding director of the Center for Journalism Ethics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is the author of the award-winning The Invention of Journalism Ethics, Global Journalism Ethics, Ethics and the Media: An Introduction and, most recently, the editor of Global Media Ethics: Problems and Perspectives.

Herman Wasserman is Professor and deputy head of the School of Journalism and Media Studies, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. Recent books include Tabloid Journalism in South Africa: True Story!; Popular Media, Democracy and Development in Africa (editor); and Media Ethics beyond Borders (co-editor, with Stephen Ward). He edits the journal Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies.

Ran Wei is the Gonzales Brothers Professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of South Carolina and Chang Jiang Chair Professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. A former TV journalist and the incoming editor-in-chief of Mass Communication & Society, he has published extensively on media effects and communication technology.

Darya V. Yanitskaya is an undergraduate student at the American University in Bulgaria majoring in journalism and mass communication. She is from Belarus.

Alyson L. Young is a PhD student in human centered computing in the Department of Information Systems at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). Her research interests include social computing, social networks, and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW).

Cristina Zurutuza-Muñoz is vice-dean of the School of Communication at San Jorge University, Spain. She has been visiting research scholar at George Washington University, Washington and visiting fellow at Vilnius University, Lithuania. Her research interests include crisis and terrorism communication, political and electoral communication, and public institutions communication. Her lecturing is also related to these fields. She has contributed to the edition of several books on political communication, co-authoring some of them, and has published articles and book chapters nationally and internationally.