Cover: 2D Functional Nanomaterials, 1 by Ganesh S Kamble

2D Functional Nanomaterials

Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications


Edited by Ganesh S. Kamble





Logo: Wiley


Nanoscale materials or nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the last few decades. Zero‐dimensional (0D) fullerenes, semiconducting quantum dots, and metal nanoparticles, as well as one‐dimensional (1D) nanowires and carbon nanotubes started the nanomaterials revolution at the end of the last century. In the past decade, we observed a shift from traditional bulk materials production and device manufacturing by subtractive processes to additive manufacturing and self‐assembly from nanoparticles. I expect the twenty‐first century to become a century of nanomaterials, when nanoparticles will be assembled in multiple controlled ways (guided by artificial intelligence, AI) to create materials with the required combinations of properties. And a large role in shaping the future material technology belongs to two‐dimensional (2D) materials. Separation of graphene layers and discovery of attractive physical properties in single‐ and few‐layer graphene in 2004 attracted interest to other 2D materials. Boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and oxides/hydroxides were produced in 2D state from widely available precursors with weak van der Waals bonding between the layers. Moreover, new materials that don't have weakly bonded layered precursors, such as 2D silicon, germanium, tin, phosphorus, boron, and others, were synthesized. Even metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have been produced in 2D state. Transition metal dichalcogenides, and more recently discovered carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, form very large families of 2D materials with dozens of well‐defined stoichiometric structures, but also a virtually infinite number of solid solutions. Fine tuning of properties is possible by forming those “2D alloys.” Ultrathin 2D materials offer:

  • Electronic properties ranging from metallic to semiconducting to insulating;
  • Subnanometer thickness leading to mechanical flexibility and optical transparency;
  • High surface area available for adsorption, catalysis, and reversible surface redox reactions used in energy storage.

However, the most valuable feature of 2D materials compared to all other nanoparticles is their ability to be assembled into dense and strong heterostructures by using flat layers as building blocks – think of building a house using a variety of bricks or assembling toys using Lego blocks. While graphene attracted much attention in the past 15 years, the world is moving from exploiting a single “wonder material” to utilization of dozens and hundreds of 2D building blocks with rich chemistry to assemble materials and devices for future advanced technologies. This approach allows:

  • Assembly of hybrid materials with combinations of properties that no conventional (single) material can provide;
  • Building hybrid and composite materials by self‐assembly or additive manufacturing techniques and device assembly without waste;
  • Creating extremely anisotropic materials;
  • Complex shapes and integration with 0D and 1D materials into three‐dimensional (3D) materials and structures;
  • Building entire devices, e.g. by combining materials with semiconducting, metallic, and insulating properties.

Nanomaterials made of precise 2D structures can have remarkable properties, but to create functional devices one also needs diverse and tunable properties. For example, matching work functions of materials allows control of junctions in electronics and solar cells. Many applications require materials that offer combinations of properties, such as:

  • Conductivity + redox ability = energy storage;
  • Conductivity + catalytic ability = electrocatalysts;
  • Conductivity + transparency + color = optical devices;
  • Plasmon resonance in near‐IR range + biocompatibility = photothermal therapy.

Efforts of material chemists are currently directed toward synthesis of new 2D materials with the required structure and properties. Also, chemical functionalization of surfaces allows further tuning of 2D nanosheets. Material scientists and engineers assemble them into films, fibers, complex shapes, and devices that can perform certain functions. The 2D materials already find applications in energy conversion and storage, electronics, medicine (including drug delivery and theranostics), environment clean‐up, catalysis (including electrocatalysis and photocatalysis), sensing, and many other fields.

This book includes more than 20 chapters covering the synthesis, modification, characterization, and applications of 2D and related nanomaterials. Graphene and its derivatives, such as graphene oxide, metal oxides, double hydroxides, dichalcogenides, MOFs, as well as their hybrids and nanocomposites, have dedicated chapters. Some other materials are described in chapters dealing with biomedical, photonic, photocatalytic, energy storage, and electronic applications of 2D materials. Since 2D materials and structures expand to a great length into chemistry, physics, medicine, and many engineering disciplines, no single book can provide a complete coverage. Still, this book covers many representative materials and important topics, with a focus on chemistry and chemical applications of 2D materials. It will be of interest to students and researchers not only in chemistry but also in other adjacent fields, as the importance of 2D materials in physics, medicine, environmental science, and engineering is steadily increasing and their applications are quickly expanding.

Philadelphia, April 3, 2021

An illustration of a signature.

Charles T. and Ruth M. Bach

Distinguished University Professor

Director, A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute

Drexel University

Philadelphia, PA, USA


In the twenty‐first century, two‐dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are widely considered to constitute the basis of the next technological revolution which holds a great potential in advancing science and technology. The 2D nanomaterial has made an insightful impact on the society; it is closely associated to the well‐being of human kind. The rate of advancements in 2D nanomaterial is so high that prospectus developers continuously look for strategies to hack it with these advancements. More recently, the 2D crystalline allotrope of carbon, i.e. graphene, has brought a new cheering into carbon nanomaterials which greatly progress practical applications. Therefore, the worldwide researchers can be motivated to be the future leaders who would make fundamental contributions. The present book is a sincere attempt in this direction.

The emerging development in the field of 2D nanomaterials and its devices are playing a vital role in motivating the growth of a nation's economy because of its impending contribution to manufacturing processes and inventive products. Thus, the aims of developing 2D functionalized nanomaterial is to extend broad applications toward energy storage devices, cancer cell applications, photocatalysts, and photoelectrocatalyst, etc., in growing harmony with the principles of Green Chemistry, and more broadly Green Engineering and Technology.

The Book “2D Functional Nanomaterials” summarizes the scientific contributions of the advancement in fabrications and applications of 2D nanomaterials, reported from different veins of chemistry and the other related technologies over the last decade. The contributions have been made by different researchers and distinguished scientists from all over the world. The book included the various 2D nanomaterials and their unique properties with their wide range of applications. The chapters include various most up‐to‐date and noteworthy topics such as synthesis and properties of graphene; graphene oxide‐based LDH nanocomposite; graphene‐latex nanocomposites; novel 2D nanomaterials; 2D dichalcogenides; 2D metal–organic frameworks and its various applications such as cancer therapy; energy storage devices; photocatalysis–photoelectrocatalysis and electronic devices and a lots more. In response to the increased demands for the various applications, this book is designed to update the latest advancements in the research and development of nanomaterials with focus on the technologies for the synthesis and characterization of 2D materials. This book is contributed by a group of leading scientists, researchers, and professors who are directly working on the subjected areas. All chapters include fundamentals of the 2D nanomaterials investigated that will offer students, researchers, and academicians the opportunity to evaluate and select the technologies that lead to benefit related to the application of nanotechnologies for clean energy and environment conservation.

We believe that this book is extremely useful for the researchers who work in the 2D nanomaterial applications and also serves an excellent textbook and reference for the research scholars, college/university undergraduates, and graduates who are interested in the areas of materials, energy, and cancer therapy applications.

I am indebted to my Ph.D. Research Guide Dr. Mansing A. Anuse, Ex. Professor, and Head of Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, for his constant encouragement and support. I am thankful to my Summer Research Fellowship mentor Professor, Srinivasan Kannan, Director, Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchCentral Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIRCSMCRI), Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India, for encouragement. I am grateful to my Post Doctoral Research Advisor Professor, Yong‐Chien Ling, Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, for his ongoing support and encouragement.

I am also highly grateful and I dedicate this book to Prof. C.N.R. Rao, Director, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore, India, by whom I really inspired of his distinguished contribution in Chemistry.

I am also grateful to Prof. Yury Gogotsi, Director, A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, for giving a valuable “Foreword” for this book.

I would like to express my gratitude to all chapter authors for their enthusiastic and collaborative contributions. It could not be possible to undertake this challenging work and enabling me to accomplish it without their support and timely response. All the contributors have justified their involvement in this book by presenting the work on latest areas of 2D nanomaterials and their applications.

I am very much thankful to the Wiley‐VCH for accepting our book proposal and I also wish to sincerely thank Dr. Lifen Yang, Program Manager, and Ms. Katherine Wong, Senior Managing Editor of the Wiley‐VCH, for their kind support, valuable suggestions, motivation, and co‐operation during the preparation of this book, without which it would have been extremely difficult to complete this task on time. I admire their distinguished helping nature.

It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge Shivaji University, Kolhapur, and Kolhapur Institute of Technology's, College of Engineering (Autonomous), Kolhapur, for their encouragement.

Most of all, I could not possibly finish without thanking my family for their persistent love, continuous support, and forbearance during the writing of this book. They have been a constant source of inspiration. I also thank my wonderful son “Takshil” for always making me happy and for cooperating me with the understanding when I was working for this book instead of playing games with him. I hope that in future he will read this book and realize why I used to spare so much time in front of my computer.

As an editor, I would like to receive suggestions and opinion for the book at

14 April, 2021

Dr. Ganesh S. Kamble

Department of Engineering Chemistry

Kolhapur Institute of Technology

College of Engineering

Kolhapur 416 234, India