Patty?s Industrial Hygiene by : Barbara Cohrssen

Patty's Industrial Hygiene

Seventh Edition

 

Volume 3

Physical and Biological Agents

 

 

Edited by

BARBARA COHRSSEN MS, CIH, FAIHA, MLS
San Francisco, CA, USA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Logo: Wiley

Contributors

Amit Bhattacharya, Ph.D., CPE, Department of Environmental and Public Health Science, Kettering Laboratory, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Nancy C. Burton, Ph.D., MPH, MS, CIH, Guest Lecturer, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Allene H. Butler, MA, CIH, CSP, CHMM, Butler Health and Safety, San Pedro, CA, USA

David C. Byrne, Ph.D., CCC‐A, Division of Field Studies and Engineering, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Herman Cember, Ph.D., PE, CHP, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Augusto Dulanto Chiang, MD, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Antimicrobial Resistance Unit, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Jesse Cooper, MSc, Vancouver Coastal Health Authority, Vancouver, Canada

Kermit Davis, Ph.D., CPE, Department of Environmental and Public Health Science, Kettering Laboratory, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Kenneth R. Foster, Ph.D., PE, Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Frank J. Hearl, Office of the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC, USA

Ingvar Holmér, Ph.D., Lunds Universitet, Faculty of Engineering, Lund, Sweden

John Howard, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC, USA

Hongwei Hsiao, Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA

Tiina M. Ikäheimo, Ph.D., University of Oulu, Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health, Oulu, Finland

Jouni J.K. Jaakkola, MD, Ph.D., University of Oulu, Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health, Oulu, Finland

Thomas E. Johnson, Ph.D., CHP, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Susan Kotowski, Ph.D., CPE, Department of Rehabilitation, Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University of Cincinnati College of Allied Health Sciences, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Kalev Kuklane, Ph.D., Lund University, Department of Design Sciences, Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund, Sweden

Michael D. Larrañaga, Ph.D., PE, CIH, FAIHA, R.E.M. Risk Consultants, LLC

Brian Lowe, Division of Field Studies and Engineering, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA

George Luxbacher, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, GA, USA

Kevin L. Michael, Ph.D., Michael & Associates, Inc, State College, PA, USA

Vladimir Murashov, Office of the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC, USA

Christopher M. Nelson, BSc (Hons), Ph.D., MIOA, Finch Consulting Ltd., Leicestershire, UK

Tara N. Palmore, MD, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Margaret L. Phillips, Ph.D., CIH, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA

Claude A. Piantadosi, MD, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

Tiina Reponen, Ph.D., Department of Environmental and Public Health Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

John Sammarco, Pittsburgh Mining Research Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Mona Shum, MSc, CIH, Aura Health and Safety Corporation, Burnaby, Canada

David H. Sliney, Ph.D., Laser/Optical Radiation Program, US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA; Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Richard A. Tell, MSc, Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Madison, AL, USA

PREFACE

Industrial hygiene is an applied science and a profession. Like other applied sciences such as medicine and engineering, it is founded on basic sciences such as biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. In a sense it is a hybrid profession because within its ranks are members of other professions – chemists, engineers, biologists, physicists, physicians, nurses, and lawyers. In their professional practice all are dedicated in one way or another to the purposes of industrial hygiene: the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of work‐related health hazards. The contributors to these volumes come from these professions.

Although the term “industrial hygiene” used to describe our profession is probably of twentieth century origin, we must go further back in history for the origin of its words. The word “industry,” which has a dictionary meaning, “systematic labor for some useful purpose or the creation of something of value,” has its English origin in the fifteenth century. For “hygiene,” we must look even earlier. Hygieia, a daughter of Asclepius who is god of medicine in Greek mythology, was responsible for the preservation of health and prevention of disease. Thus, Hygieia, when she was dealing with people who were engaged in systematic labor for some useful purpose, was practicing our profession, industrial hygiene.

Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology was originated by Frank A. Patty with publication of the first single volume in 1948. In 1958, an updated and expanded second edition was published with his guidance. A second volume, Toxicology, was published in 1963. Frank Patty was a pioneer in industrial hygiene; he was a teacher, practitioner, and manager. In 1946, he served as the eighth president of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. To cap his professional career, he served as director of the Division of Industrial Hygiene for the General Motors Corporation.

At the request of Frank Patty, George and Florence Clayton took over editorship of the ever‐expanding Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology series for the Third Edition of Volume I, General Principles, published in 1978, and Volume II, Toxicology, published in 1981–1982. The First Edition of Volume III, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice, edited by Lewis and Lester Cralley, was published in 1979, with its second edition published in 1984. The ten‐book, Fourth Edition of Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, edited by George and Florence Clayton, was published in 1991–1994, and the Third Edition of Volume III, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice, edited by Robert Harris, Lewis Cralley, and Lester Cralley, was published in 1994. With the agreement and support of George and Florence Clayton, and Lewis and Lester Cralley, Robert Harris edited the fifth edition of Patty's Industrial Hygiene. Vernon Rose and I edited the sixth edition of Patty's Industrial Hygiene with the permission of Robert Harris.

It is now my privilege and honor to follow them and Frank A. Patty as the editor of the seventh edition of the Industrial Hygiene volumes of Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Each of the four volumes and the chapters in the seventh edition are a “stand alone.” Volume 1 covers Chemical Hazard Recognition, Volume 2 addresses Evaluation and Control of Chemical Hazards, Volume 3 considers aspects of Physical and Biological Agents, and Volume 4 considers Management and Specialty Areas of Practice. In addition, Volume 4 contains a complete index covering all four volumes.

Industrial hygiene has been dealt with very broadly in the past editions of Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Chapters have been offered on sampling and analysis, exposure measurement and interpretation, absorption and elimination of toxic materials, instrument calibration, industrial noise, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, heat and cold stress, pressure, lighting, control of exposures, ergonomics, hazardous wastes, and other vital areas of practice. These traditional areas continue to be covered in this edition. Consistent with the past history of Patty's, new areas of industrial hygiene concerns and practices have been addressed: robotics, sensors, social media, nanomaterials, infectious diseases, dermal effects of chemical exposures, mathematical modeling, control banding, product stewardship, construction health and safety issues, cannabis, new energy production, health care work settings, emergency and disaster response, sustainability, and fire safety.

Although industrial hygiene has been practiced in one guise or another for centuries, the most systematic approaches and the most esoteric accomplishments have been made in the past 50 or 60 years – generally in the years since Frank Patty published his first book. This accelerated progress is due primarily to increased public awareness of occupational health and safety issues and need for environmental control as is evidenced by Occupational Safety and Health, Clean Air, and Clean Water legislation at both federal and state levels.

Industrial hygienists know that variability is the key to the measurement and interpretation of workers' exposures. If exposures did not vary, exposure assessment could be limited to a single measurement, the results of which could be acted upon, and the matter filed away as something of no further concern. We know, however, that exposures change, and change is characteristic of the science and practice of our profession as well. We must be alert to recognize new hazards, we must continue to evaluate new and changing stresses, and we must evaluate performance of exposure controls and from time to time upgrade them. These volumes represent the theory and practice of industrial hygiene as they are understood by their chapter authors at the time of their writing. But, as observed by the Greek philosopher Heracleitus about 2500 years ago, “There is nothing permanent except change.” Improvements and changes in theory and practice of industrial hygiene take place continuously and are generally reported in the professional literature. Industrial hygienists, the practitioners, the teachers, and the managers must stay abreast of the professional literature. Furthermore, when an industrial hygienist develops new knowledge, he/she has what almost amounts to an ethical obligation to share it with others in the profession.

One cannot ponder the rapid changes and advancements made in recent decades in science and technology, and in our own profession as well, without wondering at what the next two or three decades will bring. Developments in computer technology, information processing, and exchange and communications have greatly influenced workplaces and the general conduct of commerce and business in the past one or two decades. It has also changed the way we now practice the purposes of industrial hygiene. These changes have accelerated. The possibility for continuously monitoring and computer storage of exposures of individual workers is a reality. World population continues to increase geometrically and is expected to be about eight billion in the year 2025; with improvements in preventive health care, there will be an increasingly older population. Genetic engineering and highly effective pesticides are already improving yields of agricultural commodities; if all goes well in this area, feeding the expanding human population may not be a limiting factor. Globalization of manufacturing and commerce has reduced manufacturing employment in the United States and in Europe, and expanded opportunities for populations in some developing nations. The United States and other developed nations are on their way to becoming world centers of information and innovation.

How will all of this affect the future practice of industrial hygiene? In the Preface to the fourth edition of Patty's, George and Florence Clayton suggested that the future of industrial hygiene is limited only by the narrowness of vision of its practitioners.

I have relied extensively on the well‐written Preface by Robert Harris, Editor of the fifth edition of Patty's Industrial Hygiene. In it I saw a sweeping, but still succinct, review not only of Patty's publications but also of the practice of industrial hygiene itself. His writing is as timely in 2021 as it was 20 years ago.

Occupational and environmental hygiene professionals must be aware of the changes likely to take place, and to develop strategies to assure the profession's full participation in protecting the health and safety of workers and the environment of both today and tomorrow. Our participation, locally, nationally, and globally, will continue to be greatly needed in the coming years.

Barbara Cohrssen

San Francisco, California

USEFUL EQUIVALENTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

1 kilometer = 0.6214 mile

1 meter = 3.281 feet

1 centimeter = 0.3937 inch

1 micrometer = 1/25,4000 inch = 40 micro inches = 10,000 Angstrom units

1 foot = 30.48 centimeters

1 inch = 25.40 millimeters

1 square kilometer = 0.3861 square mile (U.S.)

1 square foot = 0.0929 square meter

1 square inch = 6.452 square centimeters

1 square mile (U.S.) = 2,589,998 square meters = 640 acres

1 acre = 43,560 square feet = 4047 square meters

1 cubic meter = 35.315 cubic feet

1 cubic centimeter = 0.0610 cubic inch

1 cubic foot = 28.32 liters = 0.0283 cubic meter = 7.481 gallons (U.S.)

1 cubic inch = 16.39 cubic centimeters

1 U.S. gallon = 3,7853 liters = 231 cubic inches = 0.13368 cubic foot

1 liter = 0.9081 quart (dry), 1.057 quarts (U.S., liquid)

1 cubic foot of water = 62.43 pounds (4°C)

1 U.S. gallon of water = 8.345 pounds (4°C)

1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds

1 gram = 15.43 grains

1 pound = 453.59 grams

1 ounce (avoir.) = 28.35 grams

1 gram mole of a perfect gas 24.45 liters (at 25°C and 760 mm Hg barometric pressure)

1 atmosphere = 14.7 pounds per square inch

1 foot of water pressure = 0.4335 pound per square inch

1 inch of mercury pressure = 0.4912 pound per square inch

1 dyne per square centimeter = 0.0021 pound per square foot

1 gram‐calorie = 0.00397 Btu

1 Btu = 778 foot‐pounds

1 Btu per minute = 12.96 foot‐pounds per second

1 hp = 0.707 Btu per second = 550 foot‐pounds per second

1 centimeter per second = 1.97 feet per minute = 0.0224 mile per hour

1 footcandle = 1 lumen incident per square foot = 10.764 lumens incident per square meter

1 grain per cubic foot = 2.29 grams per cubic meter

1 milligram per cubic meter = 0.000437 grain per cubic foot

To convert degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit: °C (9/5) + 32 = °F

To convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius: (5/9) (°F − 32) = °C

For solutes in water: 1 mg/liter 1 ppm (by weight)

Atmospheric contamination: 1 mg/liter 1 oz/1000 cu ft (approx)

For gases or vapors in air at 25°C and 760 mm Hg pressure:

To convert mg/liter to ppm (by volume): mg/liter (24,450/mol. wt.) = ppm

To convert ppm to mg/liter: ppm (mol. wt./24,450) = mg/liter

Factors for conversion of some units

Mg/L × 28.32 = Mg/cubic foot

Mg/L × 1000 = Mg /cubic meter

Mg/cubic foot × 35.314 = Mg/cubic meter

Mg/cubic meter × 0.2832 = Mg/cubic foot

CONVERSION TABLE FOR GASES AND VAPORSa (Milligrams per liter to parts per million, and vice versa; 25°C and 760 mm Hg barometric pressure)

Molecular
Weight
1 mg/liter
ppm
1 ppm
mg/liter
Molecular
Weight
1 mg/liter
ppm
1 ppm
mg/liter
Molecular
Weight
1 mg/liter
ppm
1 ppm
mg/liter
1 24,450 0.0000409 39 627 0.001595  77 318 0.00315
 2 12,230 0.0000818 40 611 0.001636  78 313 0.00319
 3 8,150 0.0001227 41 596 0.001677  79 309 0.00323
 4 6,113 0.0001636 42 582 0.001718  80 306 0.00327
 5 4,890 0.0002045 43 569 0.001759  81 302 0.00331
 6 4,075 0.0002454 44 556 0.001800  82 298 0.00335
 7 3,493 0.0002863 45 543 0.001840  83 295 0.00339
 8 3,056 0.000327  46 532 0.001881  84 291 0.00344
 9 2,717 0.000368  47 520 0.001922  85 288 0.00348
10 2,445 0.000409  48 509 0.001963  86 284 0.00352
11 2,223 0.000450  49 499 0.002004  87 281 0.00356
12 2,038 0.000491  50 489 0.002045  88 278 0.00360
13 1,881 0.000532  51 479 0.002086  89 275 0.00364
14 1,746 0.000573  52 470 0.002127  90 272 0.00368
15 1,630 0.000614  53 461 0.002168  91 269 0.00372
16 1,528 0.000654  54 453 0.002209  92 266 0.00376
17 1,438 0.000695  55 445 0.002250  93 263 0.00380
18 1,358 0.000736  56 437 0.002290  94 260 0.00384
19 1,287 0.000777  57 429 0.002331  95 257 0.00389
20 1,223 0.000818  58 422 0.002372  96 255 0.00393
21 1,164 0.000859  59 414 0.002413  97 252 0.00397
22 1,111 0.000900  60 408 0.002554  98 249.5 0.00401
23 1,063 0.000941  61 401 0.002495  99 247.0 0.00405
24 1,019 0.000982  62 394 0.00254  100 244.5 0.00409
25 978 0.001022  63 388 0.00258  101 242.1 0.00413
26 940 0.001063  64 382 0.00262  102 239.7 0.00417
27 906 0.001104  65 376 0.00266  103 237.4 0.00421
28 873 0.001145  66 370 0.00270  104 235.1 0.00425
29 843 0.001186  67 365 0.00274  105 232.9 0.00429
30 815 0.001227  68 360 0.00278  106 230.7 0.00434
31 789 0.001268  69 354 0.00282  107 228.5 0.00438
32 764 0.001309  70 349 0.00286  108 226.4 0.00442
33 741 0.001350  71 344 0.00290  109 224.3 0.00446
34 719 0.001391  72 340 0.00294  110 222.3 0.00450
35 699 0.001432  73 335 0.00299  111 220.3 0.00454
36 679 0.001472  74 330 0.00303  112 218.3 0.00458
37 661 0.001513  75 326 0.00307 113 216.4 0.00462
 38 643 0.001554  76 322 0.00311 114 214.5 0.00466
115 212.6 0.00470  153 159.8 0.00626 191 128.0 0.00781
116 210.8 0.00474  154 158.8 0.00630 192 127.3 0.00785
117 209.0 0.00479  155 157.7 0.00634 193 126.7 0.00789
118 207.2 0.00483  156 156.7 0.00638 194 126.0 0.00793
119 205.5 0.00487  157 155.7 0.00642 195 125.4 0.00798
120 203.8 0.00491  158 154.7 0.00646 196 124.7 0.00802
121 202.1 0.00495  159 153.7 0.00650 197 124.1 0.00806
122 200.4 0.00499  160 152.8 0.00654 198 123.5 0.00810
123 198.8 0.00503  161 151.9 0.00658 199 122.9 0.00814
124 197.2 0.00507  162 150.9 0.00663 200 122.3 0.00818
125 195.6 0.00511  163 150.0 0.00667 201 121.6 0.00822
126 194.0 0.00515  164 149.1 0.00671 202 121.0 0.00826
127 192.5 0.00519  165 148.2 0.00675 203 120.4 0.00830
128 191.0 0.00524  166 147.3 0.00679 204 119.9 0.00834
129 189.5 0.00528  167 146.4 0.00683 205 119.3 0.00838
130 188.1 0.00532  168 145.5 0.00687 206 118.7 0.00843
131 186.6 0.00536  169 144.7 0.00691 207 118.1 0.00847
132 185.2 0.00540  170 143.8 0.00695 208 117.5 0.00851
133 183.8 0.00544  171 143.0 0.00699 209 117.0 0.00855
134 182.5 0.00548  172 142.2 0.00703 210 116.4 0.00859
135 181.1 0.00552  173 141.3 0.00708 211 115.9 0.00863
136 179.8 0.00556  174 140.5 0.00712 212 115.3 0.00867
137 178.5 0.00560  175 139.7 0.00716 213 114.8 0.00871
138 177.2 0.00564  176 138.9 0.00720 214 114.3 0.00875
139 175.9 0.00569  177 138.1 0.00724 215 113.7 0.00879
140 174.6 0.00573  178 137.4 0.00728 216 113.2 0.00883
141 173.4 0.00577  179 136.6 0.00732 217 112.7 0.00888
142 172.2 0.00581  180 135.8 0.00736 218 112.2 0.00892
143 171.0 0.00585  181 135.1 0.00740 219 111.6 0.00896
144 169.8 0.00589  182 134.3 0.00744 220 111.1 0.00900
145 168.6 0.00593  183 133.6 0.00748 221 110.6 0.00904
146 167.5 0.00597  184 132.9 0.00753 222 110.1 0.00908
147 166.3 0.00601  185 132.2 0.00757 223 109.6 0.00912
148 165.2 0.00605  186 131.5 0.00761 224 109.2 0.00916
149 164.1 0.00609  187 130.7 0.00765 225 108.7 0.00920
150 163.0 0.00613  188 130.1 0.00769 226 108.2 0.00924
151 161.9 0.00618  189 129.4 0.00773 227 107.7 0.00928
152 160.9 0.00622 190 128.7 0.00777 228 107.2 0.00933
229 106.8 0.00937 253  96.6 0.01035 277  88.3 0.01133
230 106.3 0.00941 254  96.3 0.01039 278  87.9 0.01137
231 105.8 0.00945 255  95.9 0.01043 279  87.6 0.01141
232 105.4 0.00949 256  95.5 0.01047 280  87.3 0.01145
233 104.9 0.00953 257  95.1 0.01051 281  87.0 0.01149
234 104.5 0.00957 258  94.8 0.01055 282  86.7 0.01153
235 104.0 0.00961 259  94.4 0.01059 283  86.4 0.01157
236 103.6 0.00965 260  94.0 0.01063 284  86.1 0.01162
237 103.2 0.00969 261  93.7 0.01067 285  85.8 0.01166
238 102.7 0.00973 262  93.3 0.01072 286  85.5 0.01170
239 102.3 0.00978 263  93.0 0.01076 287  85.2 0.01174
240 101.9 0.00982 264  92.6 0.01080 288  84.9 0.01178
241 101.5 0.00986 265  92.3 0.01084 289  84.6 0.01182
242 101.0 0.00990 266  91.9 0.01088 290  84.3 0.01186
243 100.6 0.00994 267  91.6 0.01092 291  84.0 0.01190
244 100.2 0.00998 268  91.2 0.01096 292  83.7 0.01194
245  99.8 0.01002 269  90.9 0.01100 293  83.4 0.01198
246  99.4 0.01006 270  90.6 0.01104 294  83.2 0.01202
247  99.0 0.01010 271  90.2 0.01108 295  82.9 0.01207
248  98.6 0.01014 272  89.9 0.01112 296  82.6 0.01211
249  98.2 0.01018 273  89.6 0.01117 297  82.3 0.01215
250  97.8 0.01022 274  89.2 0.01121 298  82.0 0.01219
251  97.4 0.01027 275  88.9 0.01125 299  81.8 0.01223
252  97.0 0.01031 276  88.6 0.01129 300  81.5 0.01227

a A. C. Fieldner, S. H. Katz, and S. P. Kinney, “Gas Masks for Gases Met in Fighting Fires,” U.S.

Bureau of Mines, Technical Paper No. 248, 1921.

Part V
Physical Agents