Paediatric Handbook, Tenth Edition by Nigel Curtis and Mike Starr

Paediatric Handbook

TENTH EDITION

Edited by

Kate Harding

The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne
Victoria, Australia

Daniel S. Mason

The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne
Victoria, Australia

Daryl Efron

Associate Professor
The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne
Victoria, Australia




No alt text required.

List of Contributors

RCH is The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne
UoM is The University of Melbourne
MON is Monash University
MCRI is Murdoch Children’s Research Institute

Giuliana Antolovich BSc (Hons) PhD MBBS FRACP
Paediatrician
Stream Leader Physical Disability, Department of Neurodevelopment and Disability, RCH
Senior Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Peter Archer MBBS FACEM
Emergency Physician
Emergency Department, RCH

Ruth Armstrong BSc MBChB MRCPCH FRACP
Neonatologist
Department of Neonatal Medicine, RCH

Gordon Baikie MD MBBS BMedSci Grd Dip Hlth Econ FRACP FRCP
Paediatrician
Department of Neurodevelopment and Disability, RCH
Honorary Clinical Senior lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Liz Bannister MBBS FRACP PHD
Paediatric Gastroenterologist
Department of Gastroenterology & Clinical Nutrition, RCH

Julie E. Bines MBBS FRACP MD
Paediatric Gastroenterologist
Head of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Gastroenterology & Clinical Nutrition, RCH
Victor & Loti Smorgon Professor of Paediatrics, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Leader, RV3 Vaccine Program, Intestinal Failure & Clinical Nutrition Group, MCRI

Antun Bogovic BPharm MSHP
Deputy Director
Pharmacy Department, RCH

Aurore Bouty MD
Paediatric Urologist
Department of Urology, RCH
Reproductive Biology, MCRI

Natasha J. Brown MBBS FRACP PhD
Clinical Geneticist
Victorian Clinical Genetics Service, RCH
Honorary Fellow, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Fergus Cameron BMedSci MBBS DipRACOG FRACP MD
Paediatric Endocrinologist
Director, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, RCH
Honorary Professorial Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Head, Diabetes Research Group, MCRI

Sally Campbell MBBS FRACP FRCPA
Paediatric Haematologist
Department of Clinical Haematology, RCH

George Chalkiadis MBBS DA (Lon) F ANZCA FFPMANZCA
Paediatric Anaesthetist and Pain Management Specialist
Head, Children’s Pain Management Service, Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia and Pain Management, RCH
Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Daryl Cheng MBBS MPH FRACP AFAIDH CHIA
Paediatrician
Department of General Medicine, RCH
Honorary Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Clinical Research Fellow, SAEFVIC, MCRI

Michael Cheung Bsc (Hons) MBChB MRCP MD FRACP
Paediatric Cardiologist
Director, Department of Cardiology, RCH
Principal Fellow, UoM
Heart Research Group Leader, MCRI

Sharon Choo MBBS FRACP FRCPA
Paediatric Allergist, Immunologist and Immunopathologist
Immunology Laboratory, Laboratory Services
Department of Allergy & Immunology, RCH

Michael Clifford MBBS (Hons) FCICM FANZCA
Paediatric Intensivist & Anaesthetist
Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, RCH

Luisa Clucas MBBS (HONS) BMEDSCI DCH
Haematology Fellow
Department of Clinical Haematology, RCH

Rachel Conyers MBBS (Hons) FRACP PhD
Consultant Oncologist
Clinical Lead, Bone Marrow transplant, Children’s Cancer Centre, RCH
Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Clinician Scientist Fellow, Cardiac Regeneration Laboratory, MCRI

Noel Cranswick MBBS BMEDSC LLB FRACP
Paediatrician
Director, Clinical Pharmacology, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Director, Australian Paediatric Pharmacology Research Unit, RCH
Associate Professor, UoM
Associate Director Melbourne Children’s Trials Centre, MCRI

Nigel Crawford MBBS MPH PHD FRACP
Paediatrician
Medical Head Immunisation Services, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Director and Group leader, SAEFVIC, MCRI

Gemma Crighton MBCHB FRACP FRCPA
Paediatric Haematologist
Department of Clinical Haematology, RCH

Nigel Curtis MA MBBS DTM&H FRCPCH PhD
Paediatric Infectious Diseases Physician
Head of Infectious Diseases, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Professor of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Leader of Infectious Diseases Group, Infectious diseases, MCRI​

Clare Delany PhD M Hlth&Med Law M Physio BAppSci (Physio)
Clinical Ethicist
Children’s Bioethics Centre, RCH
Professor of Health Professions Education, Department of Medical Education, UoM

Leo Donnan MBBS FRACS
Orthopaedic Surgeon
Department of Orthopaedics, RCH
Associate Professor, UoM

Trevor Duke MD FRACP FJFICM
Paediatric Intensivist
Clinical Director, General Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, RCH
Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM

Daryl Efron MBBS FRACP MD
Paediatrician
Department of General Medicine, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Senior Research Fellow, MCRI

Charlotte V. Elder MBBS BMEDSCI FRANZCOG IFEPAG
Paediatric Gynaecologist
Department of Gynaecology, RCH
Honorary Clinical Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM

Victoria Evans BSC (HONS)
Clinical Nutrition Nurse Consultant
Department of Gastroenterology & Clinical Nutrition, RCH

Mike Forrester MBBS FRACP
Paediatrician
University Hospital Geelong
Senior Clinical Lecturer, Deakin University

Tali Gadish MD FCICM
Paediatric Intensivist
Department of Paediatric Intensive Care, RCH
Honorary Clinical Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Susan Gibb MBBS FRACP
Paediatrician,
Medical Lead Complex Care Hub, Department of Neurodevelopmental and Disability &
Department of General Medicine, RCH
Honorary Fellow, Infection and Immunity Theme, MCRI

Lynn Gillam BA (Hons) MA PhD
Clinical Ethicist
Academic Director, Children’s Bioethics Centre, RCH
Professor, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, UoM

Anthea Greenway MBBS (HONS) FRACP FRCPA
Paediatric Haematologist
Director of Clinical Haematology, Clinical Lead Apheresis, Sickle Cell Anaemia, Department of Clinical Haematology and Laboratory services, RCH
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Amanda Griffiths MBBS BMEDSC FRACP
Respiratory and Sleep Physician
Head of Sleep Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine, RCH
Senior Clinical Fellow, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Joanne Grindlay MBBS FACEM FRACGP FARGP DA (UK) Grad Dip (Rural GP) EMDM HOSM
Paediatric Emergency physician
Deputy Director, Emergency Department, RCH
Clinical Associate Professor, UoM
Research Associate, MCRI

Sonia R. Grover MBBS FRANZCOG MD FFPMANZCA
Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecologist, Pain Medicine Specialist
Department of Gynaecology, RCH
Clinical Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Kerrod Hallett MDSc MPH FRACDS FICD
Paediatric Dentist
Director, Department of Dentistry, RCH
Clinical Associate Professor, UoM
Research Fellow, Clinical Sciences, MCRI

Diane Hanna MBBS (Hon) FRACP
Paediatric Oncologist (Leukaemia and Bone Marrow Transplantation)
Children's Cancer Centre, RCH

Winita Hardikar MBBS FRACP PHD AM
Paediatric Gastroenterologist
Head of Liver and Intestinal Transplantation
Director, Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, RCH

Lynne Harrison BAppSc (Sp.Path) MBA (UWA)
Speech Pathologist
Speech Pathology Department, Allied Health, RCH

Ric Haslam MSc AKC FRACP CertChildPsych
Child Psychiatrist
Director, Department of Mental Health, RCH
Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer, UoM

Leah Hickey MB BCh BAO (Hons) MRCPI FRACP MD
Neonatologist
Department of Neonatal Medicine, RCH
Clinical Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, Neonatal Research Group, MCRI

Harriet Hiscock MBBS FRACP MD
Paediatrician
Director, Health Services Research Unit, RCH
Professorial Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Group Leader, Health Services, Centre for Community Child Health, MCRI

Jenny Hynson MBBS FRACP FACHPM PHD
Consultant Paediatrician
Head, Victorian Paediatric Palliative Care Program, RCH
Clinical Associate Professor, UoM

Michael B. Johnson MBBS FRACS FAOA
Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon,
Head, Department of Orthopaedics, RCH

Bryn Jones MBBS FRACP FCSANZ
Paediatric Cardiologist
Deputy Director, Department of Cardiology, RCH
Clinical Senior Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Jeff Kao MBChB FRACP DMedSc
Paediatric Endocrinologist
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, RCH
Diabetes Research Associate, MCRI

Joshua Kausman MBBS FRACP PHD
Paediatric Nephrologist
Director, Department of Nephrology, RCH
Honorary Senior Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Andrew Kornberg MBBS (Hons) DipTA (ATTA) ACCAM FRACP
Senior Paediatric Neurologist
Department of Neurology, RCH
Associate professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Associate professor, Neuromuscular disorders, MCRI

Remi Kowalski MBBS (HONS) FRACP FCSANZ PHD
Paediatric Cardiologist
Department of Cardiology, RCH
Clinical Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, Heart Research Group, MCRI

Joy Lee MD FRACP
Metabolic Consultant
Department of Metabolic Medicine, RCH
Clinical Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Mark Mackay MBBS PhD FRACP
Paediatric Neurologist
Department of Neurology, RCH
Associate Professor & Principal Fellow, UoM
Clinician Scientist, Fellow & Paediatric Stroke Research Team Leader, MCRI

Deborah Marks MBBS BMedSci FRACP CertChildPsych
Paediatrician (Specialist Autism Team)
Department of Mental Health, RCH

Catherine Marraffa MBBS FRACP FRCPCH
Paediatrician
Deputy Director & Stream Leader Intellectual Disability and Autism, Department of Neurodevelopment and Disability, RCH
Clinical Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

John Massie MBBS FRACP PhD
Paediatric Respiratory Physician
Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Clinical lead of The Children’s Bioethics Centre, RCH
Professorial Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow MCRI

Anu Mathew MBCHB MD FRANZCO
Ophthalmologist
Department of Ophthalmology, RCH

Zoe McCallum MBBS FRACP
Paediatrician
Department of Neurodevelopment and Disability, Department of Gastroentrology and Clinical Nutrition, RCH
Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM

Ian McKenzie MBBS DipRACOG FANZCA
Anaesthetist
Director, Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, RCH

Sarah McNab MBBS (Hon) FRACP PhD
General Paediatrician
Director, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Honorary Senior Fellow (Clinical), Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

David Metz MBBS FRACP
Paediatric Nephrologist & Clinical Pharmacologist
Department of Nephrology, RCH

Paul Monagle MBBS MSC MD FRACP FRCPA FCCP
Paediatric Haematologist
Department of Clinical Haematology, RCH
Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Group Leader, Haematology Research, MCRI

Jane Munro MBBS FRACP MPH MHMS
Paediatric Rheumatologist
Head of Rheumatology Unit, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Group Leader, Arthritis and Rheumatology, MCRI

Michael Nightingale FRACS
Paediatric Surgeon
Department of Paediatric Surgery, RCH
Honorary senior lecturer, UoM
Research Associate, MCRI

Michele O’Connell MRCPI FRACP MD
Paediatric Endocrinologist
Department of Endocrinology & Diabetes and Adolescent Gender service, RCH
Honorary fellow, Centre for Hormone Research, MCRI

David Orchard MBBS FACD
Paediatric Dermatologist
Director of Dermatology, RCH
Associate Professor (Clinical), UoM

Josh Osowicki MBBS BMedSci FRACP
Paediatric Infectious Diseases physician
Infectious Diseases unit, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Tropical Diseases Research Group, MCRI

Greta Palmer MBBS FANZCA FFPMANZCA
Paediatric Anaesthetist and Specialist Pain Medicine Physician
Deputy Head, Children’s Pain Management Service, Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, RCH
Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Research Associate, MCRI

Ken Pang MBBS (Hons) BMedSc FRACP PhD
Paediatrician
Department of Adolescent Medicine, RCH
Honorary Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Team Leader and Clinician Scientist Fellow, MCRI

Georgia Paxton MBBS (Hons) BMedSci MPH FRACP OAM
Paediatrician
Head of Immigrant Health, Department of General Medicine, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, RCH
Research Fellow, Infection and Immunity, MCRI

Heidi Peters MBBS FRACP PhD HGSA MClinMed (L&Mgt)
Metabolic Consultant
Department of Metabolic Medicine, RCH
Senior lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Rod Phillips BSc MBBS PhD FRACP AOM
Paediatric Dermatologist
Department of General Medicine, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, MON
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Chidambaram Prakash MBBS FRANZCP Cert Child Psychiatry (RANZCP)
Authorised Psychiatrist
Principal Hospital Pyschiatrist, Department of Mental Health, RCH

Lochana Ramalingam BDS DIP CLIN DENT MDSC FRACDS (GEN) FRACDS (PAED)
Dentist
Director of Clinical Services, Department of Dentistry, RCH
Research Associate, Facial Sciences, MCRI

Sarath Ranganathan MBCHB MRCPCH MRCP FRACP PhD ATSF
Paediatric Respiratory Physician
Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, RCH
Stevenson Chair & Head, Department of Paediatrics, UoM

Colette Reveley MBCHB BSC FRACP AYAM
Paediatrician
Department of Adolescent Medicine, RCH

Gehan Roberts MB BS MPH PhD FRACP
Developmental‐Behavioural Paediatrician
Associate Director, Centre for Community Child Health, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, Population Health, MCRI

Liz Rogers BAPPSCI MND
Clinical Specialist Dietitian
Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, RCH

Elizabeth Rose MBBS FRACS
Otolaryngologist
Department Otolaryngology, RCH
Senior Lecturer, Department of Otolaryngology, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Kathy Rowe MBBS MD FRACP MPH Dip Ed (Lond) Grad Dip Int Health
Paediatrician
Department of General Medicine, RCH
Research Fellow, MCRI

Bronwyn Sacks MBBS FRACP FACHPM MBIOETHICS
Paediatric Palliative Care Physician
Victorian Paediatric Palliative Care Program, RCH

Helen Savoia MBBS FRCPA
Haematologist
Director, Laboratory services, RCH

Susan Sawyer MBBS MD FRACP
Paediatrician
Centre for Adolescent Health, RCH
Geoff and Helen Handbury Chair of Adolescent Health, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Group Leader, Adolescent Health, MCRI

Adam Scheinberg MBBS DCH FRACP FAFRM MMED
Consultant in Paediatric Rehabilitation
Director, Victorian Paediatric Rehabilitation Service
Clinical Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, UoM
Honorary Fellow, Manager, MCRI

Peter Simm MBBS (Hons) MD FRACP
Paediatric Endocrinologist
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, RCH
Honorary Senior Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Joanne Smart Bsc MBBS PhD FRACP
Paediatric Allergist and Immunologist
Director, Department of Allergy and Immunology, RCH

Anne Smith MBBS FRACP MForensMed FFCFM (RCPA)
Forensic Paediatrician
Director, Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service, RCH
Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Senior Lecturer, MON

Jane Standish MBBS FRACP
Paediatrician
Department of General Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, RCH
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Mike Starr MBBS FRACP
Paediatrician, Infectious Diseases Physician, Consultant in Emergency Medicine
Director of Paediatric Education
Departments of General Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Emergency Medicine, RCH
Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, UoM

Valerie Sung MBBS (HONS) FRACP MPH PHD
Paediatrician
Department of General Medicine
Centre for Community Child Health, RCH
Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Team Leader and Senior Research Officer, Prevention Innovation Group, Population Health, MCRI

Christos Symeonides Bsc MBCHB MRCPCH FRACP
General and Developmental Paediatrician
Centre for Community Child Health, RCH
Postgraduate Research Scholar, MCRI

Daniella Tassoni
Clinical Specialist Dietitian
Weight Management Service, RCH

Warwick Teague MBBS DPhil (Oxford) FRACS
Paediatric Surgeon
Department of Paediatric Surgery, RCH
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Co‐group Leader, MCRI

Michelle Telfer MBBS (Hons) FRACP
Paediatrician and Adolescent Physician
Director, Department of Adolescent Medicine, RCH
Honorary Associate Professor, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Dean Tey MBBS FRACP
Paediatric Allergist & Immunologist
Department of Allergy & Immunology, RCH
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

James Tibballs BMedSc (Hon) MBBS Med MBA MD MHlth&MedLaw PGDipArts (Fr) DALF FANZCA FICICM FACLM
Paediatric Intensivist
Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, RCH
Associate Professor, Principal Fellow, Departments of Pharmacology and Paediatrics, UoM

Georgina Tiller MBBS BSc FRACP
Paediatric Rheumatologist, General Paediatrician
Rheumatology Unit, Department of General Medicine, RCH

Joanna Tully BSc MBBS MD FRACP
Forensic Paediatrician
Deputy Director, Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service, RCH

Sidharth Vemuri MBBS FRACP FACHPM
Paediatrician and Palliative Care Physician
Victorian Paediatric Palliative Care Program, RCH

Evelyn Volders ADVAPD
Dietitian
Department Nutrition and Food Services, RCH

Mary White MB BAO BCH MRCP FRACP MD
Paediatric Endocrinologist
Department of Endocrinology & Diabetes, RCH
Honorary Senior Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Research Officer, Health Services Research Unit, MCRI

Molly Williams MBBS FRACP FACHPM
Paediatric Palliative Care Physician and Oncologist
Victorian Paediatric Palliative Care Program
Children’s Cancer Centre, RCH

Neil Wimalasundera MBBS MRCPCH MSc FRACP FAFRM
Consultant in Paediatric Rehabilitation
Victorian Paediatric Rehabilitation Service, RCH

Alison Wray MBChB FRACS
Paediatric Neurosurgeon
Director, Department of Neurosurgery, RCH
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Danielle Wurzel MBBS (Hons) PhD FRACP
Paediatric Respiratory Physician
Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, RCH
Honorary Senior Fellow, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Research Clinician, MCRI

Margaret Zacharin MBBS D Med Sci FRACP
Paediatric Endocrinologist
Department of Endocrinology, RCH
Professor, Department of Paediatrics, UoM
Honorary Fellow, MCRI

Acknowledgements

We greatly appreciate and acknowledge the contributions of the following people:

Editorial team of the tenth edition: Mike Forrester, Susan Gibb, Amy Gray, Amanda Gwee, Sebastian King, Jane Munro, Romi Rimer, Mike Starr.

The Royal Children’s Hospital Foundation for funding support.

Kirsten Noakes, Department of General Medicine, for project planning and management support.

The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne Creative Services; James Watson, Tom Marriott, Anne Hunt, Bhavya Boopathi and Mary Malin (Copyeditor) at Wiley for their assistance with handbook design.

Previous edition authors:

George Alex

Roger Allen

David Amor

Peter Barnett

Tom Clarnette

Tom Connell

Margot Davey

James Elder

Ralf Heine

Yves Heloury

Rod Hunt

John Hutson

Julian Kelly

Lionel Lubitz

Wirginia Maixner

Francoise Mechinaud

Michele Meehan

Ed Oakley

Mike O’Brien

Dinah Reddihough

Sheena Reilly

Matthew Sabin

Russell Taylor

Amanda Walker

George Werther