Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons by ARnault

Nanocarbon Chemistry and Interfaces

Series Editor

  NianjunYang, Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Germany

Titles in the Series

Nanocarbons for Electroanalysis

  Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Alison Downard, Jun‐Jie Zhu

Carbon Nanomaterials for Bioimaging, Bioanalysis, and Therapy

  Huan‐Cheng Chang, Yuen Yung Hui, Haifeng Dong, Xueji Zhang

Novel Carbon Materials and Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

  Xin Jiang, Zhenhui Kang, Xiaoning Guo, Hao Zhuang

Nanocarbon Electrochemistry

  Nianjun Yang, Guohua Zhao, John S. Foord

Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons

  Jean‐Charles Arnault, Dominik Eder

Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons

Edited by


Jean‐Charles Arnault
Diamond Sensors Laboratory
CEA LIST
Gif‐sur‐Yvette
France

Dominik Eder
Institute of Materials Chemistry
Vienna University of Technology
Vienna
Austria

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List of Contributors

  • Jean‐Charles Arnault
  • Diamond Sensors Laboratory
  • CEA LIST
  • Gif‐sur‐Yvette
  • France
  • Hubert Beisch
  • Institute of Polymer and Composites
  • Hamburg University of Technology
  • Hamburg
  • Germany
  • Diana M. Bobrowska
  • Faculty of Chemistry
  • University of Bialystok
  • Bialystok
  • Poland
  • Dominik Eder
  • Institute of Materials Chemistry
  • Vienna University of Technology
  • Vienna
  • Austria
  • Bodo Fiedler
  • Institute of Polymer and Composites
  • Hamburg University of Technology
  • Hamburg
  • Germany
  • Ken Haenen
  • Institute for Materials Research (IMO)
  • Hasselt University & IMOMEC
  • IMEC vzw
  • Diepenbeek
  • Belgium
  • Marianna V. Kharlamova
  • Institute of Materials Chemistry
  • Vienna University of Technology
  • Vienna
  • Austria
  • Naoki Komatsu
  • Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies
  • Kyoto University
  • Kyoto
  • Japan
  • Alfonso Monreal‐Bernal
  • IMDEA Materials Institute
  • Madrid
  • Spain
  • Marta E. Plonska‐Brzezinska
  • Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine
  • Medical University of Bialystok
  • Bialystok
  • Poland
  • Moumita Rana
  • IMDEA Materials Institute
  • Madrid
  • Spain
  • Kamatchi Jothiramalingam Sankaran
  • Institute for Materials Research (IMO)
  • Hasselt University & IMOMEC
  • IMEC vzw
  • Diepenbeek
  • Belgium
  • Cleis Santos
  • IMDEA Materials Institute
  • Madrid
  • Spain
  • Joseph G. Shapter
  • Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
  • The University of Queensland
  • St Lucia
  • Brisbane
  • Queensland
  • Australia
  • Cameron J. Shearer
  • Department of Chemistry
  • School of Physical Sciences
  • The University of Adelaide
  • Adelaide
  • South Australia
  • Australia
  • Juan J. Vilatela
  • IMDEA Materials Institute
  • Madrid
  • Spain
  • LePing Yu
  • Institute of Automotive Technology
  • Wuxi Vocational Institute of Commerce
  • Wuxi
  • Jiangsu
  • PR China

Series Preface

Carbon, the 6th element in the periodic table, is extraordinary. It forms a variety of materials because of its ability to covalently bond with different orbital hybridizations. For millennia, there were only two known substances of pure carbon atoms: graphite and diamond. In the mid‐1980s, a soccer‐ball‐shaped buckminsterfullerene, namely a new carbon allotrope C60, was discovered. Together with fullerene structures (C70, C84) found later, the nanocarbon researcher was spawned. In the early 1990s, carbon nanotubes were discovered. They are direct descendants of fullerenes and capped structures composed of 5‐ and 6‐membered rings. This was the next major advance in nanocarbon research. Due to their groundbreaking work on these fullerene materials, Curl, Kroto, and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In the beginning of the 2000s, graphene was prepared using Scotch tape. It is a single sheet of carbon atoms packed into a hexagonal lattice with a bond distance of 0.142 nm. For their seminal work with this new nanocarbon material, Geim and Novoselov were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. As new members, carbon nanoparticles, such as diamond nanoparticles, carbon dots, and graphene (quantum) dots, have emerged in the family of nanocarbon materials. Although all these materials only consist of the same carbon atoms, their physical, chemical, and engineering features are different, which are fully dependent on their structures.

The purpose of this series is to bring together up‐to‐date accounts of recent developments and new findings in the field of nanocarbon chemistry and interfaces, one of the most important aspects of nanocarbon research. The carbon materials covered in this series include diamond, diamond nanoparticles, graphene, graphene‐oxide, graphene (quantum) dots, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, fullerenes, carbon dots, carbon composites, and their hybrids. The formation, structure, properties, and applications of these carbon materials are summarized. The irrelevant applications in the fields of electroanalysis, biosensing, catalysis, electrosynthesis, energy storage and conversion, environment sensing and protection, biology, and medicine are highlighted in different books.

I certainly want to express my sincere thanks to Miss Sarah Higginbotham, Jenny Cossham, Emma Strickland, and Lesley Jebaraj from Wiley's Oxford office. Without their efficient help or valuable suggestions during this book project, the publication of this book series would not be possible.

Last, but not least, I want to thank my family, especially my wife, Dr. Xiaoxia Wang, and my children Zimo and Chuqian Luisa, for their constant and strong support as well as for their patience in letting me finalize such a book series.

Nianjun Yang

Siegen, Germany

Preface

Carbon is the most versatile chemical element for designing molecules and materials. It introduces a broad range of functional characteristics simply by varying the assembly of only one type of atom interacting with each other in essentially only two binding modes, known as sp2/sp3 hybridization.

Rational combination of these two basic bonding motives has yielded a variety of well‐defined molecular and supra‐molecular structures, including fullerenes (0D), carbon nanotubes (1D), graphene (2D), as well as purposely engineered carbonaceous nanomaterials, including nanodiamonds, carbon dots, fibers, and aerogels. These nanocarbons have evolved as key components in functional materials and devices capable of advancing such socioeconomic fields as energy conversion and storage, catalysis, sensors, nanomedicine, and photonics.

Heteroatomic additions to the carbon backbone and hybridizations with other functional compounds (e.g. metals, oxides, polymers, other nanocarbons) offer additional chemical and structural diversity that needs exploitation in defects‐guided and interface‐controlled material science applications. The interplay between structural characteristics of nanocarbons/nanocarbons‐based materials and their desired functional properties (e.g. electrical, magnetic, optic, radioactive, and biologic) thus forms the basis of a knowledge‐based carbon materials science.

This book is dedicated to this exciting world of nanocarbons. Our intention was to cover the full range of currently known nanocarbons, ranging from fullerenes and nanodiamonds all the way to CNT fibers and porous aerographite to emphasize their full potential for state‐of‐the‐art and future applications. We thus provide both introductory material on synthesis and characterizations, fundamental principles, as well as reviews of the current research.

The book begins with the synthesis, characterizations, and properties of graphite and diamond bulk materials that are sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon edifices, respectively (Chapter 1). The synthesis and properties of fullerenes, onion like carbon, and carbon nanotubes are described in dedicated chapters (Chapters 2–4). The book focuses then on the fabrication of advanced materials like carbon nanotube fibers (Chapter 5), hybrids from nanodiamonds (Chapters 6), and aerogels and aerographite (Chapter 8). The versatile and rich carbon chemistry of nanocarbons is illustrated through the functionalization routes of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications (Chapter 7). Then, optical and optoelectronics applications of nanocarbons are detailed (Chapter 9).

This book should be helpful for master's and PhD students wishing to become familiar with a modern field of knowledge‐driven material science as well as for senior researchers and industrial staff scientists who explore the frontiers of knowledge.

We express our deepest thanks to our colleagues who spent considerable time and effort in writing the chapters in this book. We believe that their contributions will provide an enjoyable and comprehensive overview of the state‐of‐the‐art, stimulate further interest in future research, and contribute to the development of next‐generation applications made by nanocarbons. Finally, we are thankful to everyone from Wiley Publishing, in particular Elsie Merlin, Sarah Higginbotham, Emma Strickland, Lesley Jebaraj, and Sabeen Aziz for their tireless support and guidance.

Jean‐Charles Arnault
Gif‐sur‐Yvette
France

Dominik Eder
Vienna
Austria