Cover: The Wiley Handbook on What Works for Offenders with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Edited by William R. Lindsay, Leam A. Craig and Dorothy Griffiths

The Wiley Handbook on What Works for Offenders with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

An Evidence‐Based Approach to Theory, Assessment, and Treatment


Edited by William R. Lindsay, Leam A. Craig, and Dorothy Griffiths











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In memory of the late William (Bill) Lindsay, his contribution to the field of intellectual disability research was immeasurable.


We are grateful to the contributors of this volume for sharing their experience and expertise and who have worked tirelessly on this project alongside their hectic schedules.

We would like to thank all those at Wiley‐Blackwell for their patience and guidance in bringing this project together.

About the Editors

The Late William R. Lindsay, PhD, FBPS, FIASSID, FAcSS, was Consultant Forensic Clinical Psychologist and Head of Research for Danshell. He was previously Head of Psychology (LD) in NHS Tayside and Consultant Psychologist with the State Hospital. He was Professor of Learning Disabilities and Forensic Psychology at the University of Abertay, Dundee and Honorary Professor at Deakin University Melbourne. Professor Lindsay had published over 350 research articles and book chapters, published 5 books, held around 2 million pounds in research grants and given many presentations and workshops on cognitive therapy and the assessment and treatment of offenders with intellectual disability. His recent publications included a workbook entitled The Treatment of Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities: A Practice Workbook (2009), and co‐edited books entitled Offenders with Developmental Disabilities (2004), Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders with Developmental Disabilities (2010), and Offenders with Developmental Disabilities: Second Edition (2018) published by Wiley‐Blackwell.

Leam A. Craig, CPsychol, CSci, MAE, FBPsS, FAcSS, EuroPsy, PhD, is a Consultant Forensic and Clinical Psychologist and Partner at Forensic Psychology Practice Ltd. He is Hon. Professor of Forensic Psychology at the Centre of Applied Psychology, University of Birmingham, Visiting Professor of Forensic Clinical Psychology at the School of Social Sciences, Birmingham City University, UK and Hon. Associate Professor of Forensic Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK. He is a Chartered and dual Registered (Forensic and Clinical) Psychologist, a Chartered Scientist, holder of the European Certificate in Psychology and a Full Member of the Academy of Experts. He was awarded Fellowship of the British Psychological Society and the Academy of Social Sciences for distinguished contributions to psychology and the social sciences. He has previously worked in forensic psychiatric secure services, learning disability hospitals, and consultancy to prison and probation services throughout England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, specializing in high‐risk, complex cases. He was previously Consultant Lead to three community forensic psychiatric hospitals for people with personality disorders, learning disabilities, and challenging behaviour. He is currently a Consultant to the National Probation Service on working with offenders with personality disorders. He acts as an expert witness to civil and criminal courts in the assessment of sexual and violent offenders and in matters of child protection. He has previously been instructed by the Salvation Army, Catholic and Church of England Dioceses, South African Police Service, and currently receives instruction from the United States Air Force European Defence Counsel. He has over 100 publications including 11 books. In 2013 he received the Senior Academic Award by the Division of Forensic Psychology for distinguished contributions to academic knowledge in forensic psychology and in 2018 won the Emerald Literati Award for a Highly Commended paper. In 2015 he co‐authored a Ministry of Justice research funded report into the use of expert witnesses in family law and in 2016 he was appointed as Chair of the British Psychological Society, Expert Witness Advisory Group. His research interests include sexual and violent offenders, personality disorder and forensic risk assessment, and the use of expert witnesses in civil and criminal courts.

Dorothy Griffiths, CM, OOnt, PhD, is Professor Emerita at Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. Formerly Professor in the Department of Child and Youth Studies and Centre for Applied Disability Studies, Co‐Director of the International Dual Diagnosis Certificate Programme, and Associate Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dr Griffiths has extensive experience in working on clinical issues regarding dual diagnosis (persons who are developmentally disabled and have mental health issues). Her expertise more specifically is in the area of sexual abuse and offence, aggression and self‐injury, and social skills training with persons with developmental disabilities. Her recent research interests have included Human Rights and Deinstitutionalization. She has written and speaks extensively on these topics. She is notably recognized for five books that she co‐authored/co‐edited called Changing Sexually Inappropriate Behaviour, Dual Diagnosis, Demystifying Syndromes, Ethical Dilemmas of Sexuality and Developmental Disabilities, and The Human Rights Agenda. Her most recent coauthored book is Sex Offending Behavior of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Multi‐Component Applied Behavior Analytic Approach. She is a recipient of numerous teaching, research, and advocacy awards, including the Order of Ontario and the Order of Canada.