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of Trauma-Informed Assessment and Intervention in School and Community Settings


Kirby L Wycoff

Bettina Franzese









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Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series

Series Editors, Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman


Essentials of 16PF   ® Assessment by Heather E. P. Cattell and James M. Schuerger

Essentials of Adaptive Behavior Assessment of Neurodevelopmental Disorders by Celine A. Saulnier and Cheryl Klaiman

Essentials of ADHD Assessment for Children and Adolescents by Elizabeth P. Sparrow and Drew Erhardt

Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties by David A. Kilpatrick

Essentials of Assessment Report Writing, Second Edition by W. Joel Schneider, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Nancy Mather, Nadeen L. Kaufman, and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of Assessment with Brief Intelligence Tests by Susan R. Homack and Cecil R. Reynolds

Essentials of Autism Spectrum Disorders Evaluation and Assessment by Celine A. Saulnier and Pamela E. Ventola

Essentials of Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II Assessment by Maureen M. Black and Kathleen Matula

Essentials of Behavioral Assessment by Michael C. Ramsay, Cecil R. Reynolds, and R. W. Kamphaus

Essentials of Career Interest Assessment by Jeffrey P. Prince and Lisa J. Heiser

Essentials of CAS2 Assessment by Jack A. Naglieri and Tulio M. Otero

Essentials of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, Second Edition by Linda Wilmshurst

Essentials of Cognitive Assessment with KAIT and Other Kaufman Measures by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Debra Y. Broadbooks, and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of Conners Behavior Assessments by Elizabeth P. Sparrow

Essentials of Creativity Assessment by James C. Kaufman, Jonathan A. Plucker, and John Baer

Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, Third Edition by Dawn P. Flanagan, Samuel O. Ortiz, and Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of DAS-II® Assessment by Ron Dumont, John O. Willis, and Colin D. Elliott

Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Essentials of Evidence-Based Academic Interventions by Barbara J. Wendling and Nancy Mather

Essentials of Executive Functions Assessment by George McCloskey and Lisa A. Perkins

Essentials of Forensic Psychological Assessment, Second Edition by Marc J. Ackerman

Essentials of Gifted Assessment by Steven I. Pfeiffer

Essentials of IDEA for Assessment Professionals by Guy McBride, Ron Dumont, and John O. Willis

Essentials of Individual Achievement Assessment by Douglas K. Smith

Essentials of Intellectual Disability Assessment and Identification Alan W. Brue and Linda Wilmshurst

Essentials of KABC-II Assessment by Alan S. Kaufman, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT ®-III Assessment by Kristina C. Breaux and Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger

Essentials of MCMI®-IV Assessment by Seth D. Grossman and Blaise Amendolace

Essentials of Millon Inventories Assessment, Third Edition by Stephen Strack

Essentials of MMPI-A Assessment by Robert P. Archer and Radhika Krishnamurthy

Essentials of MMPI-2® Assessment, Second Edition by David S. Nichols

Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Assessment, Second Edition by Naomi L. Quenk

Essentials of NEPSY®-II Assessment by Sally L. Kemp and Marit Korkman

Essentials of Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition by Nancy Hebben and William Milberg

Essentials of Nonverbal Assessment by Steve McCallum, Bruce Bracken, and John Wasserman

Essentials of PAI ® Assessment by Leslie C. Morey

Essentials of Planning, Selecting, and Tailoring Interventions for Unique Learners by Jennifer T. Mascolo, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Dawn P. Flanagan

Essentials of Processing Assessment, Second Edition by Milton J. Dehn

Essentials of Psychological Testing, Second Edition by Susana Urbina

Essentials of Response to Intervention by Amanda M. VanDerHeyden and Matthew K. Burns

Essentials of Rorschach® Assessment by Tara Rose, Michael P. Maloney, and Nancy Kaser-Boyd

Essentials of Rorschach Assessment: Comprehensive System and R-PAS by Jessica R. Gurley

Essentials of School Neuropsychological Assessment, Third Edition by Daniel C. Miller and Denise E. Maricle

Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification, Second Edition by Vincent C. Alfonso and Dawn P. Flanagan

Essentials of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5) Assessment by Gale H. Roid and R. Andrew Barram

Essentials of TAT and Other Storytelling Assessments, Second Edition by Hedwig Teglasi

Essentials of Temperament Assessment by Diana Joyce

Essentials of Trauma-Informed Assessment and Interventions in School and Community Settings by Kirby L. Wycoff and Bettina Franzese

Essentials of Treatment Planning, Second Edition by Mark E. Maruish

Essentials of WAIS®-IV Assessment, Second Edition by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of WISC®-IV Assessment, Second Edition by Dawn P. Flanagan and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of WISC-V® Assessment by Dawn P. Flanagan and Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of WISC-V Integrated Assessment by Susan Engi Raiford

Essentials of WJ IV® Cognitive Abilities Assessment by Fredrick A. Schrank, Scott L. Decker, and John M. Garruto

Essentials of WJ IV® Tests of Achievement by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Essentials of WMS®-IV Assessment by Lisa Whipple Drozdick, James A. Holdnack, and Robin C. Hilsabeck

Essentials of WNV Assessment by Kimberly A. Brunnert, Jack A. Naglieri, and Steven T. Hardy-Braz

Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention by Milton J. Dehn

Essentials of WPPSI-IV Assessment by Susan Engi Raiford and Diane L. Coalson

Essentials of WRAML2 and TOMAL-2 Assessment by Wayne Adams and Cecil R. Reynolds


Kirby L. Wycoff, Psy.D., NCSP, is a Nationally Certified School Psychologist and Associate Professor and Co-Director of the School Psychology Program at Eastern University. Her research and clinical interests are centered around the needs of high-risk youth and their families. Dr. Wycoff is currently pursuing her Masters of Publlic Health from The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice to continue to build her understanding of the impact of trauma and adversity on communities. She is also serving a two-year fellowship in Leadership and Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) through the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and PolicyLab. The LEAH Fellowship is a national fellowship funded through the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Service Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. LEAH Fellowship Training programs have been awarded to the leading children's hospitals across the country, where its mission is to prepare professionals from a variety of health care disciplines to be leaders in clinical care, research, public health policy, and advocacy as it relates to adolescent health.

Bettina Franzese, Psy.D., ABSNP, is a Pennsylvania Licensed Psychologist and Certified School Psychologist. She holds a Diplomate in School Neuropsychology from the American Board of School Neuropsychology. She recently retired from the Milton Hershey School, a residential school in Hershey, PA for income-eligible children.


In the Essentials of Psychological Assessment series, we have attempted to provide the reader with books that will deliver key practical information in the most efficient and accessible style. Many books in the series feature specific instruments in a variety of domains, such as cognition, personality, education, and neuropsychology. Other books, like Essentials of Trauma-Informed Assessment and Intervention in School and Community Settings, focus on crucial topics for professionals who are involved in any with assessment—topics such as specific reading disabilities, evidence-based interventions, or ADHD assessment. For the experienced professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of a test instrument or a specific area of expertise, including numerous tips for best practices. Students can turn to series books for a clear and concise overview of the important assessment tools, and key topics, in which they must become proficient to practice skillfully, efficiently, and ethically in their chosen fields.

Wherever feasible, visual cues highlighting key points are utilized alongside systematic, step-by-step guidelines. Chapters are focused and succinct. Topics are organized for an easy understanding of the essential material related to a particular test or topic. Theory and research are continually woven into the fabric of each book, but always to enhance the practical application of the material, rather than to sidetrack or overwhelm readers. With this series, we aim to challenge and assist readers interested in psychological assessment to aspire to the highest level of competency by arming them with the tools they need for knowledgeable, informed practice. We have long been advocates of “intelligent” testing—the notion that numbers are meaningless unless they are brought to life by the clinical acumen and expertise of examiners. Assessment must be used to make a difference in the child's or adult's life, or why bother to test? All books in the series—whether devoted to specific tests or general topics—are consistent with this credo. We want this series to help our readers, novice and veteran alike, to benefit from the intelligent assessment approaches of the authors of each book.

Essentials of Trauma-Informed Assessment and Intervention in School and Community Settings is a book about how to help young people do and be the best versions of themselves. While the superb authors talk a great deal in this book about the impact of adversity and trauma, it is critically important that they also call readers' attention to the fact that risks do not have to be realities. It is critically important to acknowledge that youth exposed to adversity hold within themselves an incredible capacity for growth and resiliency. Helping young people find their own stories of strength, and supporting their ability to grow in the face of adversity is not only possible, but necessary. As the authors emphasize, trauma-awareness must be followed by a focus on resilience if we are to truly empower and support all young people.

Alan S. Kaufman, PhD, and Nadeen L. Kaufman, EdD, Series Editors

Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine


I would like to thank all of my friends and family for supporting me on this incredible journey of bringing this book to fruition. I could not have done it without your help and support. To my husband Patrick, thank you for your endless encouragement and faith in my ability to actually write a book. You never doubted that I could do this, even on the days that I wasn’t sure I could. Thank you for being you. To my parents, thank you for your endless commitment to my education and desire to learn. Every time I tell you I want to learn more and grow, I am met with love and support. Thank you. To my grandmother, Elizabeth, who taught me that education was the key to a future and writing was the way we shared with others, I did it. I told you I would write a book one day – and here it is. I know you would be proud of me! To my former supervisor and colleague, Dr. Franzese, thank you for all that you have taught me. Your contributions to my professional and personal growth will not be soon forgotten! It has been quite the journey. To my sweet Sophia Rose, who for the last twelve years, has been my faithful companion through every single phase of my professional education. Snuggles on the couch during dissertation writing, reminders for fresh air and walks during graduate school and book writing and everything in between. For showing me, through your work as a therapy dog, how to connect deeply with young people who had been terribly victimized and hurt. I miss you deeply. Your impact will not be soon forgotten. Cricket, Shady and Bodhi – thank you for being part of my self-care plan and keeping me active with hikes, tennis ball sessions and rides through the country side! And finally, to my students and clients – thank you for all that you have taught me and continue to teach me every single day. You have my humble gratitude.

Kirby L. Wycoff

I dedicate this book to my dear mother, Vera, who was always encouraging of my endeavors. And to my loving husband, Steven, and talented son, Evan, who continue to make me a very proud partner and mother to their own achievements and many accomplishments.

Bettina Franzese

Section One