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The Wiley Handbook of Christianity and Education

The Wiley Handbooks in Education offer a capacious and comprehensive overview of higher education in a global context. These state‐of‐the‐art volumes offer a magisterial overview of every sector, sub‐field and facet of the discipline‐from reform and foundations to K‐12 learning and literacy. The Handbooks also engage with topics and themes dominating today's educational agenda‐mentoring, technology, adult and continuing education, college access, race and educational attainment. Showcasing the very best scholarship that the discipline has to offer, The Wiley Handbooks in Education will set the intellectual agenda for scholars, students, researchers for years to come.

The Wiley Handbook of Christianity and Education
by William Jeynes (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of Ethnography of Education
by Dennis Beach (Editor), Carl Bagley (Editor), and Sofia Marques da Silva (Editor)

he Wiley Handbook of Diversity in Special Education
by Marie Tejero Hughes (Editor) and Elizabeth Talbott (Editor)

The Wiley International Handbook of Educational Leadership
by Duncan Waite (Editor) and Ira Bogotch (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of Social Studies Research
by Meghan McGlinn Manfra (Editor) and Cheryl Mason Bolick (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of School Choice
by Robert A. Fox (Editor) and Nina K. Buchanan (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of Home Education
by Milton Gaither (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of Cognition and Assessment: Frameworks, Methodologies, and Applications
by Andre A. Rupp (Editor) and Jacqueline P. Leighton (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of Learning Technology
by Nick Rushby (Editor) and Dan Surry (Editor)

The Wiley Handbook of Christianity and Education

Edited by William Jeynes

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Notes on Contributors

Nathan F. Alleman, PhD, is Associate Professor of Higher Education Studies at Baylor University and a Research Fellow with the Texas Hunger Initiative. He studies marginal and marginalized groups and institutions in higher education. He recently co‐authored the book Restoring the Soul of the University: Unifying Christian Higher Education in a Fragmented Age.

Eric Ambroso is currently a doctoral student in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College at Arizona State University. His research focuses on educational opportunities available to immigrants, refugees, and asylees in the United States. Eric’s current research projects include examining how existing language policies and support structures affect the experiences of forcibly displaced children in public schools.

Rene Antrop‐González is Dean and Professor of Urban Education in the School of Urban Education at Metropolitan State University in St. Paul, Minnesota. Rene is the author of numerous articles centered on urban education and the schooling of Latino youth in national and international refereed journals, book chapters, and a book. He also has presented in numerous conferences internationally and nationally, often focusing on educational issues and their intersections with race/ethnicity and language. He is the recipient of numerous grants to fund research on topics involving urban education. In addition, he finds time to contribute to community service organizations, both locally and on the national level.

Fred W. Beuttler is Associate Dean for Liberal Arts Programs at the Graham School for Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies at the University of Chicago, where he received his Ph.D. in history. From 2005 to 2010 he was the Deputy Historian of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Mark Brow has a doctorate in Curriculum and Instruction (Ed.D.) from Azusa Pacific University and a Master’s degree in Measurement, Evaluation, Statistics, and Assessment (MESA) from the University of Illinois at Chicago. He is currently earning a Ph.D. in MESA and teaching at the university.

Kenneth Calvert is a member of the History Faculty at Hillsdale College. He also serves as the Headmaster of Hillsdale Academy, a private, Classical, K‐12 day school. His research interests include the Roman Republic, the History of Christianity, as well as Classical education in the United States.

Dick Carpenter II is a Professor of Leadership, Research, and Foundations at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs.

Monica Cole‐Jackson has a doctoral degree in Educational Leadership from California State University, Long Beach. She has been an educator for 20 years and has taught kindergarten, elementary, middle, high, community college and university students. She believes the development of students’ spiritual, social and emotional aptitude is a missing component from public education curricula. Dr. Cole‐Jackson works to provide supports to increase resilience in students.

Rev. Louis A. DelFra, C.S.C. serves on the faculty and as Director of Pastoral Life for the Alliance for Catholic Education. He currently publishes in the fields of religion and literature, teacher education, and spirituality. He gives retreats and workshops on the intersection of faith and education throughout the country.

Craig S. Engelhardt has a background in private education and a Ph.D. from Baylor University in Religion, Politics, and Society. From this vantage point, Craig recognizes the perspectival nature of education and how secular public education has shaped the citizenry. He currently directs SACE, an organization devoted to strengthening civic philosophy.

Amanda Forbes has helped build Trinity Education from the ground‐up, working with leaders in multiple countries and shaping a global educational/discipleship model that can be deployed in marginalized contexts. She holds degrees from Pepperdine University (B.A.), Vanderbilt University (M.Ed.), and the University of Minnesota, where she completed her Ph.D. in international education (2011).

Perry L. Glanzer is Professor of Educational Foundations at Baylor University and a resident scholar with Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion. He recently co‐authored Restoring the Soul of the University: Unifying Christian Higher Education in a Fragmented Age and The Quest for Purpose: The Collegiate Search for a Meaningful Life.

Charles L. Glenn is Professor Emeritus of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Boston University. From 1970 to 1991 he was director of urban education and equity for the Massachusetts Department of Education. Glenn’s dozen books include The Myth of the Common School (1988), The Ambiguous Embrace: Government and Faith‐based Schools and Social Agencies (2000), and (edited with Jan De Groof) Balancing Freedom, Autonomy, and Accountability in Education (2012), with chapters on 65 national systems of education in four volumes.

Daniel Hamlin is a doctoral candidate in Educational Leadership and Policy at the University of Toronto. His areas of expertise are school choice, parental involvement, and urban education policy. In his research, he uses quantitative and qualitative methods and draws on conceptual tools from economics, sociology, and public policy.

Jamie Kay Jakubowski‐Tungyoo has a doctoral degree in Educational Leadership from California State University, Long Beach and earned her master’s degree in Secondary Math Education and bachelor’s degree in Curriculum and Instruction at Arizona State University. She has served as an assistant principal and classroom teacher for a total of ten years.

William Jeynes is a Senior Fellow at the Witherspoon Institute in Princeton and a Professor of Education at California State University in Long Beach. He graduated first in his class at Harvard University and received the Rosenberger Award at the University of Chicago for being his cohort’s most outstanding student. He has about 165 academic publications, including 14 books. He has spoken and written for the White House and several US Government Departments, under three US presidents. He has been a consultant for the governments of the US, the EU, South Korea, and other major countries. His 4‐point plan presented to the Acting President of South Korea passed the Korean Parliament and became the core of the nation’s economic stimulus package that helped it emerge from the greatest Asian economic crisis since World War II. He has been quoted or interviewed by most of the nation’s foremost newspapers, as well as many leading foreign ones. He received the “Distinguished Scholar Award” from the California State Senate and the California State Assembly. His work has been cited by the US Congress, the British Parliament, the EU, and many State Supreme Courts across the United States.

Byron R. Johnson is Distinguished Professor of the Social Sciences at Baylor University. He is the founding director of the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion. His newest books are The Angola Prison Seminary (Routledge, 2016) and The Quest for Purpose: The Collegiate Search for a Meaningful Life (SUNY Press, 2017).

Rebecca S. Keith, Ph.D., is an Adjunct Instructor and a Research Assistant at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs. She is also a Biology and Mathematics Instructor at St. Mary’s High School in Colorado Springs and an author of a published children’s science fiction/fantasy series.

Daniel D. Liou is an Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership at the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College at Arizona State University. His research focuses on issues of school reform and effectiveness, and the stratifying effects of educators’ expectations for student learning along the P‐20 educational pipeline. By drawing on critical theories and ecological frameworks, Dr. Liou examines how educators’ expectancy practices contribute to teacher‐student relationships, schoolwide excellence, and effective organizational leadership to instill confidence and expand educational opportunities with and for diverse populations.

Michelle C. Louis is an Associate Professor in the Doctoral Programs in Higher Education at Azusa Pacific University. She was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Noel Academy for Strengths‐Based Leadership and Education, and has served as an educational consultant to Gallup as well as Associate Editor at The Journal of Positive Psychology. She is co‐editor of the volume entitled Thriving in Transitions: A Research‐based Approach to College Student Success. Her experience in teaching at the undergraduate, masters, and doctoral levels has prompted her to be curious about research inquiries that lie at the intersection of Psychology and Education, as well as topics related to the scholarship of teaching and learning.

William C. Mattison III is Senior Advisor of Theological Formation at the Alliance for Catholic Education and Associate Professor of Theology in the Department of Theology at the University of Notre Dame. His latest book is The Sermon on the Mount and Moral Theology: A Virtue Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

Sean McGraw, C.S.C. is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Notre Dame. He co‐founded the Alliance for Catholic Education with Fr. Tim Scully, C.S.C. His research interests are political parties, religion, and politics, Irish politics, and education policy. He has published one book, How Parties Win: Shaping the Irish Political Arena (University of Michigan Press, 2015).

Wendy Naylor worked in the Netherlands for over ten years, helping to establish two Christian schools in Amsterdam. She has also traveled extensively to assist teacher training projects, primarily in Europe, and South America. Her dissertation was on the educational thought and work of Abraham Kuyper, a Dutch statesman and social philosopher. Since moving back to Chicago, she has also worked on the board of a new Christian school, and served there as acting principal. She currently lives in Chicago with her husband, Tim, and is working on several writing projects.

Robert Osburn has spent over 30 years in the higher education arena, both as an adjunct instructor at the University of Minnesota, as well as a campus minister among international and graduate students, as well as faculty. His Ph.D. is in International Education from the University of Minnesota (2005).

Tommy M. Phillips is an Associate Professor of Human Development and Family Studies and coordinator of the graduate program in HDFS in the School of Human Sciences at Mississippi State University. He earned his Ph.D. in Human Development and Family Studies at Auburn University. Dr. Phillips’ primary research and teaching interests lie in the area of youth development and wellbeing.

Mary Poplin is a Professor of Education at the Claremont Graduate University. Her work includes analyzing worldviews dominant in education and the larger culture, as well as research on the most highly effective teachers with low‐income students. She is also the author of both Is Reality Secular? and Finding Calcutta both published by InterVarsity Press.

David W. Robinson is a historian, teacher, and professor with over 40 years of experience. His specialty is American history, focusing on education, worldview, and the effects of industrialization/technology on higher education since the Civil War. The Christian faith, culture, and the classroom is of particular interest.

Paulo Romeiro was awarded a B.A. degree in Journalism from Brás Cubas University, an M.Div. from Gordon‐Conwell Theological Seminary in Boston, MA, and a Ph.D. from the Methodist University in São Paulo, Brazil. He is a Professor of Theology at Mackenzie Presbyterian University in São Paulo, Brazil and is also the founder and Senior Pastor of the Trinity Christian Church. He researches New Religious Movements and the author of several books.

Charles J. Russo, M. Div., J.D., Ed. D., the Joseph Panzer Chair in Education in the School of Education and Health Services, Director of its Ph.D. Program, and Adjunct Professor in the School of Law at the University of Dayton. has authored or co‐authored more than 280 articles in peer‐reviewed journals and has authored, co‐authored, edited, or co‐edited 60 books, and more than 1,000 publications.

Timothy R. Scully, C.S.C. is a Professor of Political Science at the University of Notre Dame where he also serves as Hackett Director of the Institute for Educational Initiatives. Scully founded the Alliance for Catholic Education in 1993 with Fr. Sean McGraw, C.S.C. His research and graduate teaching focuses on comparative political institutions, especially political parties.

Lou Selzer, D.Min. has pastored a church near Detroit for almost 28 years. His ministry underscores the importance of Christian mentoring, pastoral counseling, and preaching and teaching with a sound biblical exegesis. He especially enjoys promoting Christian education, while serving as a lead pastor and as an adjunct Bible college professor.

Betty J. Talbert is Managing Editor of Philosophia Christi, the journal of the Evangelical Philosophical Society. She holds master’s degrees in New Testament, Talbot School of Theology, and Christian Apologetics, Simon Greenleaf School of Law. Her news media career spans more than 15 years. She worked as an editor for many years at the Orange County Register, the nation’s fourteenth largest newspaper.

Osie L. Wood, Jr. obtained a Ph.D. in Educational Studies at Claremont Graduate University. Over the past 50 years, Dr. Wood has served the communities of Southern California as an educator, community activist, social program provider, college chaplain and church pastor. As an educator, Dr. Wood has served as the Dean of the Trade and Industrial Division for Long Beach City College, Coordinator of Continuing Education and Director of the Education Opportunity Program, Director of the first Educational Opportunity Center in the western states, and counselor for Vietnam Veterans at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Director of the U.S. Office of Education Talent Search Program funded through the University of California, Los Angeles.


I am very thankful to many individuals who played a large role in making this work possible. I want to thank numerous people in the academic world at Harvard University and the University of Chicago for helping me give birth to this project and in guiding me through the early stages of planning this book. I especially want to thank the late Bob Jewell for his encouragement. I want to thank a couple of academics for their input into this project. These individuals include Byron Johnson and James Hartwick. In addition, I deeply appreciate President Obama and President G. W. Bush for inviting me to speak on these issues. I also want to thank several dear friends whose encouragement with respect to this project touched me deeply. Among these friends are Wayne Ruhland, Jean Donohue, Larry and Vada DeWerd, Joyce Decker, Jessica Choi, Tim and Sarah Kim, Charles and Marion Patterson, and Mike and Dee Fitzpatrick.

I count myself fortunate to have been married for 32 years to my wife, Hyelee, whose support has been exemplary. We have three wonderful boys, whom I thank for their love and inspiration. I also want to thank God for giving me the strength and providence to complete this project. May this book open many eyes and hearts.


The Handbook of Christianity and Education was birthed several years ago when some of the leaders of Wiley‐Blackwell Publishing contacted William (Bill) and asked him if he would consider organizing and editing this prodigious work. On the one hand, William seemed like a natural fit because he had served as the Chair of the Religion and Education group for the American Educational Research Association for a number of years. In addition, William believed that part of his “call” was to draw together some of the leaders in the fields of Christianity, missions, education, and discipleship and have them write and present on their expertise.

On the other hand, William was extremely busy both speaking and writing for the White House and speaking for other U.S. government departments at the time. In fact, it was one of the busier periods in William’s life. However, William has always been impressed with Wiley‐Blackwell books and therefore could not turn down such a wonderful opportunity. He gathered together some of the finest leaders in the field to produce this book. The authors of these chapters therefore believe that the contents of this book will touch many minds and hearts.

Part I
Major Issues in Christian Education

In The Movement Away from God in American Education, Kenneth Calvert writes a vital overview covering American education’s trending away from God over time. He elaborates on the Christian foundation established by the Puritans and other settlers, the founders of the nation, and educators throughout the 1600s, 1700s, and 1800s. Dr. Calvert then elaborates on what people and forces contributed to the turning away from this Christian foundation, and the price the United States has paid for this direction.

William Jeynes writes an interesting piece pointing to the American historical belief in The Two Biological Parent Family, Christianity, and Economic Prosperity. This worldview was widely accepted in the United States for many years. Dr. Jeynes draws from both logic and data to demonstrate that the relationship between the three is as real today as it ever has been.

David W. Robinson writes an intriguing chapter entitled, The Christian Pastoral‐Artisanal vs. Academic Industrial Models of Education in America. He argues that the Christian instructional model emphasizes the whole person and is considerably more effective than the industrial model that especially gained adherents in the early 1900s and focuses on profits, revenue, and productivity more than it does on what is good for people and society overall.

Continuing on the theme of a Christian‐based broader approach to education than is currently practiced, Michelle C. Louis contributes an interesting piece. In Engaging Questions of Purpose: The Resurgence of Vocational Exploration and Its Integrative Potential for Higher Education, Dr. Louis argues that people are pondering an approach to education that includes integrating more vocational approaches.

Byron R. Johnson addresses a very penetrating topic when he examines the education of prisoners, juvenile delinquents, and lawbreakers. He presents evidence that suggests that Christian education can reduce recidivism and crime. He investigates this issue in the chapter: Why Religion and Religious Freedom is Good for Society, Offenders, and Prisons.

Perry L. Glanzer and Nathan F. Alleman pen a very practical chapter entitled, The Integration of Faith Tradition and Teaching in Christian Higher Education. There is no question that good research can guide Christian teaching practices and this chapter spells out how.

Lou Selzer, who is both an academic and a professor, writes a very practical and informative chapter on A Christian Mentoring Program for Character Education of African American Teens and Young Adults from Detroit. Dr. Selzer shares a convincing chapter on how the application of biblical principles in mentoring can change the lives of adolescents and young people.

Jamie Kay Jakubowski‐Tungyoo and William Jeynes examine the history of character education in schools in the United States in their chapter, Character Education Traced Throughout American History. They share about its Christian foundation from the early 1600s until its largely de facto removal from public schools due to the reactions of educators to U.S. Supreme Court decisions in 1962 and 1963. Although these decisions did not specifically remove character education from the public school curriculum, for reasons elaborated on by the authors, school leaders generally retreated from teaching it in the classrooms. The authors believe that character education can still be taught in the public schools, not based on a religious rubric, but rather by focusing on certain values that are common to virtually all human beings including honesty, sincerity, compassion, and responsibility.

Daniel Hamlin presents a very unique chapter entitled, Publicly Funded Charter Schools with Religious Ties. The number of religious schools is in decline, while the number of public charter schools has risen substantially since the early 1990s. With these two trends in place, part of the reason for this trend is due to the presence of public charter schools with religious connections. This chapter elaborates on this development.