Details

Process Gas Chromatographs


Process Gas Chromatographs

Fundamentals, Design and Implementation
1. Aufl.

von: Tony Waters

122,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 28.04.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119633006
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

<p><b>A guide to the fundamentals of applied gas chromatography and the process gas chromatograph, with practical procedures for design and troubleshooting</b></p> <p>This comprehensive resource provides the theory that underpins a full understanding of the fundamental techniques of gas chromatography and the process analyzer. Without relying on complex mathematics, the book addresses hands-on applications of gas chromatographs within process industries. The author – a noted expert on the topic – details both the scientific information needed to grasp the material presented and the practical applications for professionals working in the field.</p> <p><i>Process Gas Chromatographs:</i> <i>Fundamentals, Design and Implementation</i> comprises 15 chapters, a glossary of terms and a series of self-assessment questions and quizzes. This important resource:</p> <ul> <li>Describes practical procedures for design and troubleshooting</li> <li>Contains concise chapters that provide a structured course for advanced students in process engineering</li> <li>Reviews the fundamentals of applied gas chromatography</li> <li>Details the operation and maintenance of process gas chromatographs</li> <li>Offers a summary, and self-assessment questions, for every chapter</li> <li>Is written by an international expert in the field with extensive industry knowledge and teaching experience in courses on process sampling systems and gas chromatography</li> </ul> <p>Written for process analyzer engineers and technicians, application engineers, and industrial environmental engineers, <i>Process Gas Chromatographs:</i> <i>Fundamentals, Design and Implementation</i> offers an essential guide to the basics of gas chromatography and reviews the applications of process gas chromatographs in industry today.</p>
<p>Preface xix</p> <p>Contributors xxi</p> <p>Acknowledgments xxvii</p> <p><b>Part One PGC fundamentals 1</b></p> <p><b>1 An introduction 3</b></p> <p>Chromatographic separation 3</p> <p>The gas chromatograph 4</p> <p>The basic instrument 4</p> <p>The process instrument 5</p> <p>The oven 7</p> <p>Temperature control 7</p> <p>Temperature programming 7</p> <p>The sample injection valve 8</p> <p>Laboratory and online practice 8</p> <p>Plug injection 8</p> <p>Gas sample injection 9</p> <p>Liquid sample injection 9</p> <p>The column 10</p> <p>The separating device 10</p> <p>It takes time 10</p> <p>Multiple columns 11</p> <p>SCI-FILE: On Column Types 12</p> <p>Introduction to SCI-FILEs 12</p> <p>Two kinds of column 12</p> <p>Packed columns 12</p> <p>Open-tubular columns 12</p> <p>The detector 13</p> <p>Making the measurements 13</p> <p>The chromatogram 14</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 18</p> <p>Did you get it? 19</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 01 19</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 01 20</p> <p>References 21</p> <p>Cited 21</p> <p>Figures 22</p> <p>New technical terms 22</p> <p><b>2 Peakshape 25</b></p> <p>How columns work 25</p> <p>What happens inside the column 26</p> <p>How gas and liquid interact 26</p> <p>Troubleshooting tips 28</p> <p>How peaks form 28</p> <p>Forming an equilibrium 28</p> <p>The effect of movement 30</p> <p>A peak appears 31</p> <p>Effect of more equilibria 33</p> <p>Some conclusions 34</p> <p>Identical molecules – different behavior 34</p> <p>All peaks are symmetrical 35</p> <p>More equilibria – narrower peaks 35</p> <p>More equilibria – taller peaks 35</p> <p>Retention at the apex 36</p> <p>More equilibria – same retention time 36</p> <p>SCI-FILE: On Solubility 36</p> <p>Solubility 36</p> <p>Partition 36</p> <p>Distribution 37</p> <p>Limitations 37</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 37</p> <p>Did you get it? 38</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 02 38</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 02 38</p> <p>References 40</p> <p>Figures 40</p> <p>Equation 41</p> <p>Symbols 41</p> <p>New technical terms 41</p> <p><b>3 Separation 43</b></p> <p>How peaks get separated 43</p> <p>A more realistic explanation 43</p> <p>A challenge question 46</p> <p>Significance of the air peak 47</p> <p>The answer 48</p> <p>Measurements from chromatograms 50</p> <p>A practical task 50</p> <p>Typical calculations 51</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 52</p> <p>Did you get it? 53</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 03 53</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 03 53</p> <p>References 55</p> <p>Figures 55</p> <p>Equations 55</p> <p>Symbols 55</p> <p>New technical terms 55</p> <p><b>4 Peakpatterns 57</b></p> <p>Migration rate 57</p> <p>Predictable patterns in peak position 57</p> <p>Space or time 57</p> <p>Spatial or temporal separation 58</p> <p>Predictable patterns in peak width 59</p> <p>Distance or duration 59</p> <p>SCI-FILE: On Chemical Names 60</p> <p>Hydrocarbons 60</p> <p>Shorthand notation 61</p> <p>Predictable patterns in retention 61</p> <p>The doubling rule 61</p> <p>Challenge question 62</p> <p>A process of elimination 62</p> <p>Temperature programming 64</p> <p>Relative retention 66</p> <p>Separation and resolution 67</p> <p>Resolution 67</p> <p>Predictable patterns in resolution 69</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 71</p> <p>Did you get it? 72</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 04 72</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 04 72</p> <p>References 74</p> <p>Figures 74</p> <p>Equations 74</p> <p>Symbols 74</p> <p>New technical terms 74</p> <p><b>Part Two PGC analytics 77</b></p> <p><b>5 Industrial gas chromatographs 79</b></p> <p>Process analyzers 79</p> <p>Introduction to process analysis 79</p> <p>The measurement of quality 80</p> <p>Process gas chromatographs 81</p> <p>Versatile and reliable 81</p> <p>PGC development 82</p> <p>The value of analysis 83</p> <p>Competing technologies 84</p> <p>Gas chromatograph or spectrophotometer? 84</p> <p>Speed of response 86</p> <p>The outlook 87</p> <p>The PGC analytics unit 87</p> <p>Introduction 87</p> <p>Carrier gas supply system 88</p> <p>Sample injection system 89</p> <p>Chromatographic valves 89</p> <p>Column system 89</p> <p>Detectors 89</p> <p>Temperature-controlled ovens 90</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 90</p> <p>Did you get it? 91</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 05 91</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 05 92</p> <p>References 93</p> <p>Cited 93</p> <p>Table 93</p> <p>Figures 93</p> <p>Symbol 94</p> <p>New technical terms 94</p> <p><b>6 Carrier gas system 95</b></p> <p>Choice of carrier gas 95</p> <p>Carrier gas purpose 95</p> <p>Choice of carrier gas 95</p> <p>Mixed carrier gases 97</p> <p>Carrier gas purity 97</p> <p>Analytical effect of impurities 98</p> <p>Damaging effect of impurities 100</p> <p>Maintenance of gas cleaners 101</p> <p>Carrier gas supply system 101</p> <p>Carrier gas supply line 102</p> <p>Pressure regulation 103</p> <p>Mechanical pressure regulators 103</p> <p>Electronic pressure controllers 104</p> <p>Flow regulation 104</p> <p>Measuring the carrier gas flow rates 104</p> <p>Setting the flow rates 105</p> <p>Optimum flow rate 106</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 106</p> <p>Did you get it? 107</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 06 107</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 06 108</p> <p>References 109</p> <p>Cited 109</p> <p>Table 110</p> <p>Figures 110</p> <p>Symbols 110</p> <p>New technical terms 111</p> <p><b>7 Sample injection 113</b></p> <p>Introduction 113</p> <p>Injecting gas samples 114</p> <p>Gas sample volume 114</p> <p>Gas sample temperature 115</p> <p>Gas sample pressure 116</p> <p>Injecting liquid samples 118</p> <p>Less preferred 118</p> <p>Vaporizing a liquid sample 118</p> <p>Liquid sample volume 119</p> <p>Liquid sample temperature 120</p> <p>Liquid sample pressure 121</p> <p>Other techniques 122</p> <p>Sample splitting 122</p> <p>Remote sample injection 122</p> <p>Normalization 122</p> <p>SCI-FILE: On Analytic Units 123</p> <p>A fable 123</p> <p>Constant sample size 123</p> <p>Different ratio units 124</p> <p>Injected quantity 124</p> <p>Conversion of units 125</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 126</p> <p>Did you get it? 127</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 07 127</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 07 128</p> <p>References 130</p> <p>Cited 130</p> <p>Tables 130</p> <p>Figures 130</p> <p>Symbols 130</p> <p>New technical terms 131</p> <p><b>8 Chromatographic valves 133</b></p> <p>Valve technology 133</p> <p>Evolution 133</p> <p>The strange effect of competition 134</p> <p>Valve types 135</p> <p>Solenoid instrument valves 135</p> <p>Spool or piston valves 135</p> <p>Slide valves 136</p> <p>Rotary valves 139</p> <p>Diaphragm valves 141</p> <p>Plunger valves for liquid injection 143</p> <p>Other switching techniques 145</p> <p>Valve leaks 146</p> <p>About leaks 146</p> <p>Valve leak mitigation 148</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 149</p> <p>Did you get it? 151</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 08 151</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 08 151</p> <p>References 153</p> <p>Cited 153</p> <p>Table 154</p> <p>Figures 154</p> <p>New technical terms 155</p> <p><b>9 Column systems 157</b></p> <p>Two fundamental issues 157</p> <p>The general elution problem 157</p> <p>The temperature ramp solution 158</p> <p>The multiple column solution 159</p> <p>The choice 160</p> <p>Delayed injection 161</p> <p>Four types of column system 161</p> <p>Recognizing the functions performed 161</p> <p>Type A: A single column 162</p> <p>Type B: Multiple columns, single detector 163</p> <p>Type C: Multiple detectors, single injector 164</p> <p>Type D: Multiple sample injectors 166</p> <p>Elemental column systems 168</p> <p>Useful techniques 168</p> <p>Backflush column system 168</p> <p>Distribution column system 170</p> <p>Heartcut column system 171</p> <p>Trap-and-hold column system 173</p> <p>The real power 174</p> <p>Endnote 175</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 176</p> <p>Did you get it? 177</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 09 177</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 09 177</p> <p>References 180</p> <p>Cited 180</p> <p>Table 180</p> <p>Figures 180</p> <p>New technical terms 181</p> <p><b>10 Detectors 183</b></p> <p>Introduction 183</p> <p>Types of detector 183</p> <p>Two measured variables 183</p> <p>Concentration detectors 184</p> <p>Rate-of-arrival detectors 185</p> <p>Multiple detectors 186</p> <p>Signal capture 186</p> <p>SCI-FILE: On Detectors 187</p> <p>Signal noise 187</p> <p>Speed of response 187</p> <p>Sensitivity 188</p> <p>Thermal conductivity detector 189</p> <p>TCD application 189</p> <p>TCD basic function 190</p> <p>TCD detection principle 191</p> <p>TCD thermal elements 192</p> <p>TCD electrical arrangement 194</p> <p>TCD electrical improvements 194</p> <p>TCD performance enhancement 195</p> <p>Flame ionization detector 197</p> <p>FID application 197</p> <p>FID detection principle 198</p> <p>FID makeup gases 199</p> <p>FID sensitivity 199</p> <p>FID vent arrangements 200</p> <p>FID methanator 200</p> <p>Flame photometric detector 202</p> <p>FPD application 202</p> <p>FPD detection principle 202</p> <p>FPD concerns 203</p> <p>Other detectors 205</p> <p>Electron capture detector 205</p> <p>Helium ionization detector 206</p> <p>Photoionization detector 207</p> <p>Pulsed discharge detector 207</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 210</p> <p>Did you get it? 213</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 10 213</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 10 214</p> <p>References 216</p> <p>Cited 216</p> <p>Tables 217</p> <p>Figures 217</p> <p>Equations 217</p> <p>Symbols 218</p> <p>New technical terms 218</p> <p><b>11 Temperature control 221</b></p> <p>Need for stability 221</p> <p>Sample volume 221</p> <p>Retention times 221</p> <p>The air-bath oven 223</p> <p>Heating with air purging 223</p> <p>The airless oven 225</p> <p>Heating without air 225</p> <p>The 2008 ABB PGC1000 227</p> <p>The 2014 Rosemount Danalyzer 370XA PGC 227</p> <p>The 2009 Rosemount 700XA PGC 227</p> <p>The 2002 Maxum Edition II 228</p> <p>Direct column heating 228</p> <p>Resistive heating 228</p> <p>The ABB approach 229</p> <p>The Teledyne Falcon approach 230</p> <p>A few cautions 231</p> <p>Summary of heating methods 231</p> <p>PGC standardization 231</p> <p>Realities of the market 231</p> <p>The applications engineering conundrum 232</p> <p>MEMS technology 233</p> <p>The 2002 siemens MicroSAM 234</p> <p>A closing thought 234</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 235</p> <p>Did you get it? 236</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 11 236</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 11 237</p> <p>References 238</p> <p>Cited 238</p> <p>Table 239</p> <p>Figures 239</p> <p>New technical terms 240</p> <p><b>Part Three PGC control 241</b></p> <p><b>12 Event scheduling 243</b></p> <p>A sequence of actions 243</p> <p>Program timing 243</p> <p>Autozero 245</p> <p>Atmospheric referencing 245</p> <p>Sample injection 245</p> <p>Step stream 246</p> <p>Column switching 247</p> <p>Peak gating 247</p> <p>Initiate a calculation 248</p> <p>Data transmission 248</p> <p>Alarm notifications 248</p> <p>End-of-cycle 248</p> <p>Event markers 248</p> <p>Calendar events 248</p> <p>Timing mechanisms 249</p> <p>Mechanical programmers 249</p> <p>Electronic timers 249</p> <p>Microprocessor control 250</p> <p>The program or method 250</p> <p>Control of analyzer operation 250</p> <p>Temperature control 251</p> <p>Pressure control 251</p> <p>Peak identification 251</p> <p>Fixed-time gating 252</p> <p>Retention time tracking 253</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 254</p> <p>Did you get it? 256</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 12 256</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 12 256</p> <p>References 258</p> <p>Cited 258</p> <p>Figures 258</p> <p>New technical terms 259</p> <p><b>13 Data display techniques 261</b></p> <p>The chromatogram display 261</p> <p>Detector signal 261</p> <p>Digitized chromatograms 262</p> <p>Chromatogram autozero 263</p> <p>Peak height calibration 263</p> <p>Peak area calibration 264</p> <p>The bargraph display 265</p> <p>The paper saver 265</p> <p>The trend record 266</p> <p>Analog peak processing 266</p> <p>Digital signal processing 267</p> <p>The minicomputer story 267</p> <p>The ubiquitous microprocessor 268</p> <p>A regression perhaps? 269</p> <p>Central maintenance station 271</p> <p>Continuous analyzer controllers 271</p> <p>PGC function alarms 272</p> <p>Indicators 272</p> <p>Alarm notifications 272</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 273</p> <p>Did you get it? 274</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ13 274</p> <p>Student evaluation questions: SET-13 275</p> <p>References 276</p> <p>Cited 276</p> <p>Table 277</p> <p>Figures 278</p> <p>New technical terms 278</p> <p><b>14 Peak area integration 279</b></p> <p>Digital chromatogram processing 279</p> <p>Pulse frequency digitization 279</p> <p>Signal noise measurement 281</p> <p>Signal noise reduction 281</p> <p>Quantifying the analyte peaks 283</p> <p>Forced integration 284</p> <p>Slope detection 285</p> <p>Errors from baseline disturbances 286</p> <p>Troubleshooting aids 287</p> <p>Measuring overlapping peaks 287</p> <p>Avoiding the problem 287</p> <p>Tackling the problem 288</p> <p>Perpendicular drop method 289</p> <p>Don’t integrate to a valley point 290</p> <p>Angular drop or allocated area 292</p> <p>Tangent skim method 292</p> <p>Effect of setup mistakes 293</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 294</p> <p>Did you get it? 296</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 14 296</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 14 296</p> <p>References 298</p> <p>Cited 298</p> <p>Figures 299</p> <p>New technical terms 299</p> <p><b>15 Calibration 301</b></p> <p>Measurement principles 301</p> <p>Terminology 301</p> <p>Random error 302</p> <p>Systematic error 302</p> <p>Uncertainty 302</p> <p>Accurate calibration 304</p> <p>Calibration and validation 304</p> <p>Calibration methods 307</p> <p>External standard method 307</p> <p>Normalization 308</p> <p>Calibrating a composite peak 309</p> <p>Grab sample calibration 310</p> <p>Internal standard method 310</p> <p>Area percentage method 311</p> <p>SCI-FILE: On Response Factors 312</p> <p>External standard 312</p> <p>Normalization 312</p> <p>Internal standard 312</p> <p>Area percentage 313</p> <p>Knowledge Gained 313</p> <p>Did you get it? 314</p> <p>Self-assessment quiz: SAQ 15 314</p> <p>Student evaluation test: SET 15 314</p> <p>References 317</p> <p>Cited 317</p> <p>Figure 317</p> <p>Equations 317</p> <p>Symbols 318</p> <p>New technical terms 318</p> <p>Answers to self-assessment questions 319</p> <p>Bibliography 329</p> <p>Glossary 331</p> <p>Index 367</p>
<p><b>Tony Waters</b> owns Analyzer Consulting Engineers, LLC in USA and is an Elected Fellow of International Society of Automation.<b></b> Since 2000, he has been a Consultant in Process Analysis assisting refiners and chemical processors to achieve optimal use of process analyzers. He has twenty-five years' experience of working in the industry before setting up his own company, Measurementation, Inc. in 1986 to manufacture process analyzer systems.
<p><b>A guide to the fundamentals of applied gas chromatography and the process gas chromatograph, with practical procedures for design and troubleshooting</b> <p>This comprehensive resource provides the theory that underpins a full understanding of the fundamental techniques of gas chromatography and the process analyzer. Without relying on complex mathematics, the book addresses hands-on applications of gas chromatographs within process industries. The author – a noted expert on the topic – details both the scientific information needed to grasp the material presented and the practical applications for professionals working in the field. <p><i>Process Gas Chromatographs:</i> <i>Fundamentals, Design and Implementation</i> comprises 15 chapters, a glossary of terms and a series of self-assessment questions and quizzes. This important resource: <ul> <li>Describes practical procedures for design and troubleshooting</li> <li>Contains concise chapters that provide a structured course for advanced students in process engineering</li> <li>Reviews the fundamentals of applied gas chromatography</li> <li>Details the operation and maintenance of process gas chromatographs</li> <li>Offers a summary, and self-assessment questions, for every chapter</li> <li>Is written by an international expert in the field with extensive industry knowledge and teaching experience in courses on process sampling systems and gas chromatography</li> </ul> <p>Written for process analyzer engineers and technicians, application engineers, and industrial environmental engineers, <i>Process Gas Chromatographs:</i> <i>Fundamentals, Design and Implementation</i> offers an essential guide to the basics of gas chromatography and reviews the applications of process gas chromatographs in industry today.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Hot-Melt Extrusion
Hot-Melt Extrusion
von: Dennis Douroumis
PDF ebook
126,99 €
Hot-Melt Extrusion
Hot-Melt Extrusion
von: Dennis Douroumis
EPUB ebook
126,99 €
Kunststoffe
Kunststoffe
von: Wilhelm Keim
PDF ebook
99,99 €