Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism
The authoritative reference to bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism, revised and updated Now in its ninth edition, The Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism offers an updated and comprehensive guide to bone and mineral health. Since it was first published 30 years ago, the Primer has become the leading reference on the topic. With contributions from noted experts, the text explores basic biological factors of healthy development and disease states and makes the information accessible for clinical interventions. The ninth edition provides concise coverage of the widest possible spectrum of metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. The new edition of this invaluable reference expands coverage and includes the most recent developments in the field that help to strengthen its usefulness and ensure that the Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism maintains its place as the pre-eminent reference on bone and mineral health. This vital resource: Provides the most accurate, up-to-date evidence-based information on basic and clinical bone science Includes more than 10 new chapters and contributions from 300 authors from wide-ranging international research centers Captures the very cutting edge of research covering mineral homeostasis, osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases, skeletal measurement technologies, and genetics Presents a new companion website with useful supplementary materials at www.asbmrprimer.com Written for advanced students, clinicians, and researchers working in the field of bone health and disease, Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism is the definitive, one-stop reference for anyone working in the field of bone health and disease.
Contributors xi Preface to the Ninth Edition of the Primer:John P. Bilezikian xxiv About ASBMR xxv President’s Preface Michael J. Econs xxvi About the Companion Website xxvii Section I Molecular and Cellular Determinants of Bone Structure and Function 1Section Editor Karen Lyons 1 Early Skeletal Morphogenesis in Embryonic Development 3Yingzi Yang 2 Endochondral Ossification 12Courtney M. Karner and Matthew J. Hilton 3 Local and Circulating Osteoprogenitor Cells and Lineages 20Naomi Dirckx and Christa Maes 4 Osteoblasts Function, Development, and Regulation 31Elizabeth W. Bradley, Jennifer J. Westendorf, Andre J. van Wijnen, and Amel Dudakovic 5 Osteocytes 38Lynda F. Bonewald 6 Osteoclast Biology and Bone Resorption 46Hiroshi Takayanagi 7 Signal Transduction Cascades Controlling Osteoblast Differentiation 54David J.J. de Gorter, Gonzalo Sánchez?Duffhues, and Peter ten Dijke 8 The TGF?? Superfamily in Bone Formation and Maintenance 60Ce Shi and Yuji Mishina 9 Recent Developments in Understanding the Role of Wnt Signaling in Skeletal Development and Disease 68Zhendong A. Zhong, Nicole J. Ethen, and Bart O. Williams 10 Mechanotransduction in Bone Formation and Maintenance 75Whitney A. Bullock, Lilian I. Plotkin, Alexander G. Robling, and Fredrick M. Pavalko 11 The Composition of Bone 84Adele L. Boskey and Pamela G. Robey 12 Assessment of Bone Mass, Structure, and Quality in Rodents 93Jeffry S. Nyman and Deepak Vashishth 13 Skeletal Healing Cellular and Molecular Determinants 101Alayna E. Loiselle and Michael J. Zuscik 14 Biomechanics of Fracture Healing 108Elise F. Morgan, Amira I. Hussein, and Thomas A. Einhorn Section II Skeletal Physiology 115Section Editor Ego Seeman 15 Human Fetal and Neonatal Bone Development 117Tao Yang, Monica Grover, Kyu Sang Joeng, and Brendan Lee 16 Skeletal Growth a Major Determinant of Bone’s Structural Diversity in Women and Men 123Ego Seeman 17 Racial Differences in the Acquisition and Age?related Loss of Bone Strength 131Shane A. Norris, Marcella D. Walker, Kate Ward, Lisa K. Micklesfield, and John M. Pettifor 18 Calcium, Vitamin D, and Other Nutrients During Growth 135Tania Winzenberg and Graeme Jones 19 Mechanical Loading and the Developing Skeleton 141Mark R. Forwood 20 Pregnancy and Lactation 147Christopher S. Kovacs and Henry M. Kronenberg 21 Menopause and Age?related Bone Loss 155Carlos M. Isales and Ego Seeman Section III Mineral Homeostasis 163Section Editors David Goltzman and Harald Jüppner 22 Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis 165Line Vautour and David Goltzman 23 Magnesium Homeostasis 173Aliya Aziz Khan, Asiya Sbayi, and Karl Peter Schlingmann 24 Fetal Calcium Metabolism 179Christopher S. Kovacs 25 FGF23 and the Regulation of Phosphorus Metabolism 187Kenneth E. White and Michael J. Econs 26 Gonadal Steroids 194Stavros C. Manolagas and Maria Schuller Almeida 27 Parathyroid Hormone 205Thomas J. Gardella, Robert A. Nissenson, and Harald Jüppner 28 Parathyroid Hormone?Related Protein 212John J. Wysolmerski and T. John Martin 29 Calcium?Sensing Receptor 221Geoffrey N. Hendy 30 Vitamin D Production, Metabolism, Action, and Clinical Requirements 230Daniel D. Bikle, John S. Adams, and Sylvia Christakos Section IV Investigation of Metabolic Bone Diseases 241Section Editors Douglas C. Bauer and Klaus Engelke 31 Techniques of Bone Mass Measurement in Children with Risk Factors for Osteoporosis 243Nicola J. Crabtree and Leanne M. Ward 32 Standard Techniques of Bone Mass Measurement in Adults 252E. Michael Lewiecki, Paul D. Miller, and Nelson B. Watts 33 Advanced Techniques of Bone Mass Measurements and Strength in Adults 260Kyle K. Nishiyama, Enrico Dall’Ara, and Klaus Engelke 34 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone 272Sharmila Majumdar 35 Trabecular Bone Score 277Barbara C. Silva and William D. Leslie 36 Reference Point Indentation 287Adolfo Diez?Perez and Joshua N. Farr 37 Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Osteoporosis 293Pawel Szulc, Douglas C. Bauer, and Richard Eastell 38 Scintigraphy and PET in Metabolic Bone Disease 302Lorenzo Nardo, Paola A. Erba, and Benjamin L. Franc 39 Bone Histomorphometry in Clinical Practice 310Robert R. Recker and Carolina Aguiar Moreira 40 Diagnosis and Classification of Vertebral Fracture 319James F. Griffith and Harry K. Genant 41 FRAX Assessment of Fracture Risk 331John A. Kanis, Eugene V. McCloskey, Nicholas C. Harvey, and William D. Leslie Section V Genetics of Bone 341Section Editor Rajesh V. Thakker 42 Introduction to Genetics 343Paul J. Newey, Michael P. Whyte, and Rajesh V. Thakker 43 Animal Models Genetic Manipulation 351Karen Lyons 44 Animal Models Allelic Determinants for Bone Mineral Density 359J. H. Duncan Bassett, Graham R. Williams, and Robert D. Blank 45 Transcriptional Profiling for Genetic Assessment 367Aimy Sebastian and Gabriela G. Loots 46 Approaches to Genetic Testing 373Christina Jacobsen, Yiping Shen, and Ingrid A. Holm 47 Human Genome?Wide Association Studies 378Douglas P. Kiel, Emma L. Duncan, and Fernando Rivadeneira 48 Translational Genetics of Osteoporosis From Population Association to Individualized Assessment 385Bich Tran, Jacqueline R. Center, and Tuan V. Nguyen Section VI Osteoporosis 393Section Editors Paul D. Miller, Socrates E. Papapoulos, and Michael R. McClung 49 Osteoporosis an Overview 395Michael R. McClung, Paul D. Miller, and Socrates E. Papapoulos 50 The Epidemiology of Osteoporotic Fractures 398Nicholas C. Harvey, Elizabeth M. Curtis, Elaine M. Dennison, and Cyrus Cooper 51 Fracture Liaison Service 405Piet Geusens, John A. Eisman, Andrea Singer, and Joop van den Bergh 52 Sex Steroids and the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis 412Matthew T. Drake and Sundeep Khosla 53 Juvenile Osteoporosis 419Francis H. Glorieux and Craig Munns 54 Transplantation Osteoporosis 424Peter R. Ebeling 55 Premenopausal Osteoporosis 436Adi Cohen and Elizabeth Shane 56 Osteoporosis in Men 443Eric S. Orwoll and Robert A. Adler 57 Bone Stress Injuries 450Stuart J. Warden and David B. Burr 58 Inflammation?Induced Bone Loss in the Rheumatic Diseases 459 Ellen M. Gravallese and Steven R. Goldring 59 Glucocorticoid?Induced Osteoporosis 467Kenneth Saag and Robert A. Adler 60 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Bone 474Michael T. Yin and Todd T. Brown 61 Effects on the Skeleton from Medications Used to Treat Nonskeletal Disorders 482Nelson B. Watts 62 Diabetes and Fracture Risk 487Serge Ferrari, Nicola Napoli, and Ann Schwartz 63 Obesity and Skeletal Health 492Juliet Compston 64 Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis 498Gustavo Duque and Neil Binkley 65 Management of Osteoporosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 505Paul D. Miller 66 Other Secondary Causes of Osteoporosis 510Neveen A. T. Hamdy and Natasha M. Appelman?Dijkstra 67 Exercise for Osteoporotic Fracture Prevention and Management 517Robin M. Daly and Lora Giangregorio 68 Prevention of Falls 526Heike A. Bischoff?Ferrari 69 Nutritional Support for Osteoporosis 534Connie M. Weaver, Bess Dawson?Hughes, Rene Rizzoli, and Robert P. Heaney 70 Estrogens, Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators, and Tissue?Selective Estrogen Complex 541Tobias J. de Villiers 71 Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis 545Andrea Giusti and Socrates E. Papapoulos 72 Denosumab 553Aline Granja Costa, E. Michael Lewiecki, and John P. Bilezikian 73 Parathyroid Hormone and Abaloparatide Treatment for Osteoporosis 559Felicia Cosman and Susan L. Greenspan 74 Combination Anabolic and Antiresorptive Therapy for Osteoporosis 567Joy N. Tsai and Benjamin Z. Leder 75 Strontium Ranelate and Calcitonin 573Leonardo Bandeira and E. Michael Lewiecki 76 Adverse Effects of Drugs for Osteoporosis 579Bo Abrahamsen and Daniel Prieto?Alhambra 77 Orthopedic Principles of Fracture Management 588Manoj Ramachandran and David G. Little 78 Adherence to Osteoporosis Therapies 593Stuart L. Silverman and Deborah T. Gold 79 Cost?Effectiveness of Osteoporosis Treatment 597Anna N.A. Tosteson 80 Future Therapies 603Michael R. McClung Section VII Metabolic Bone Diseases 611Section Editors Suzanne M. Jan de Beur and Peter R. Ebeling 81 Approach to Parathyroid Disorders 613John P. Bilezikian 82 Primary Hyperparathyroidism 619Shonni J. Silverberg, Francisco Bandeira, Jianmin Liu, Claudio Marcocci, and Marcella D. Walker 83 Familial States of Primary Hyperparathyroidism 629Andrew Arnold, Sunita K. Agarwal, and Rajesh V. Thakker 84 Non?Parathyroid Hypercalcemia 639Mara J. Horwitz 85 Hypocalcemia Definition, Etiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management 646Anne L. Schafer and Dolores M. Shoback 86 Hypoparathyroidism 654Tamara Vokes, Mishaela R. Rubin, Karen K. Winer, Michael Mannstadt, Natalie E. Cusano, Harald Jüppner, and John P. Bilezikian 87 Pseudohypoparathyroidism 661Agnès Linglart, Michael A. Levine, and Harald Jüppner 88 Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis 674Mary D. Ruppe and Suzanne M. Jan de Beur 89 Rickets and Osteomalacia 684Michaël R. Laurent, Nathalie Bravenboer, Natasja M. Van Schoor, Roger Bouillon, John M. Pettifor, and Paul Lips 90 Pathophysiology and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder 695Mark R. Hanudel, Sharon M. Moe, and Isidro B. Salusky 91 Disorders of Mineral Metabolism in Childhood 705Thomas O. Carpenter and Nina S. Ma 92 Paget Disease of Bone 713Julia F. Charles, Ethel S. Siris, and G. David Roodman 93 Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Nephrolithiasis 721Murray J. Favus and David A. Bushinsky 94 Immobilization and Burns Other Conditions Associated with Osteoporosis 730William A. Bauman, Christopher Cardozo, and Gordon L. Klein Section VIII Cancer and Bone 737Section Editors Theresa Guise and G. David Roodman 95 Mechanisms of Osteolytic and Osteoblastic Skeletal Lesions 739G. David Roodman and Theresa Guise 96 Clinical and Preclinical Imaging in Osseous Metastatic Disease 743Siyang Leng and Suzanne Lentzsch 97 Metastatic Tumors and Bone 752Julie A. Sterling and Rachelle W. Johnson 98 Myeloma Bone Disease and Other Hematological Malignancies 760Claire M. Edwards and Rebecca Silbermann 99 Osteogenic Osteosarcoma 768Yangjin Bae, Huan?Chang Zeng, Linchao Lu, Lisa L. Wang, and Brendan Lee 100 Skeletal Complications of Breast and Prostate Cancer Therapies 775Catherine Van Poznak and Pamela Taxel 101 Bone Cancer and Pain 781Denis Clohisy and Lauren M. MacCormick 102 Radiotherapy?Induced Osteoporosis 788Laura E. Wright 103 Skeletal Complications of Childhood Cancer 793Manasa Mantravadi and Linda A. DiMeglio 104 Medical Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases 799Catherine Handforth, Stella D’Oronzo, and Janet Brown 105 Radiotherapy of Skeletal Metastases 809Srinivas Raman, K. Liang Zeng, Oliver Sartor, Edward Chow, and Øyvind S. Bruland 106 Concepts and Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Bone Disease 816Kristy Weber and Scott L. Kominsky Section IX Sclerosing and Dysplastic Bone Diseases 823Section Editor Michael P. Whyte 107 Sclerosing Bone Disorders 825Michael P. Whyte 108 Fibrous Dysplasia 839Michael T. Collins, Alison M. Boyce, and Mara Riminucci 109 The Osteochondrodysplasias 848Fabiana Csukasi and Deborah Krakow 110 Ischemic and Infiltrative Disorders of Bone 853Michael P. Whyte 111 Tumoral Calcinosis – Dermatomyositis 861Nicholas J. Shaw 112 Genetic Disorders of Heterotopic Ossification: Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva and Progressive OsseousHeteroplasia 865Frederick S. Kaplan, Robert J. Pignolo, Mona Al Mukaddam, and Eileen M. Shore 113 Osteogenesis Imperfecta 871Joan C. Marini 114 Fibrillinopathies Skeletal Manifestations of Marfan Syndrome and Marfan?Related Conditions 878Gary S. Gottesman and Michael P. Whyte 115 Hypophosphatasia and Other Enzyme Deficiencies Affecting the Skeleton 886Michael P. Whyte Section X Oral and Maxillofacial Biology and Pathology 891Section Editor Laurie McCauley 116 Craniofacial Morphogenesis 893Erin Ealba Bumann and Vesa Kaartinen 117 Development and Structure of Teeth and Periodontal Teeth 901Petros Papagerakis and Thimios Mitsiadis 118 Genetic Craniofacial Disorders Affecting the Dentition 911Yong?Hee Patricia Chun, Paul H. Krebsbach, and James P. Simmer 119 Pathology of the Hard Tissues of the Jaws 918Paul C. Edwards 120 Osteonecrosis of the Jaw 927Sotirios Tetradis, Laurie McCauley, and Tara Aghaloo 121 Alveolar Bone Homeostasis in Health and Disease 933Chad M. Novince and Keith L. Kirkwood 122 Oral Manifestations of Metabolic Bone Diseases 941Erica L. Scheller, Charles Hildebolt, and Roberto Civitelli 123 Dental Implants and Osseous Healing in the Oral Cavity 949Takashi Matsuura and Junro Yamashita Section XI Integrative Physiology of the Skeleton 957Section Editors Mone Zaidi and Clifford J. Rosen 124 Integrative Physiology of the Skeleton 959Clifford J. Rosen and Mone Zaidi 125 The Hematopoietic Niche and Bone 966Stavroula Kousteni, Benjamin J. Frisch, Marta Galan?Diez, and Laura M. Calvi 126 Adipocytes and Bone 974Clarissa S. Craft, Natalie K. Wee, and Erica L. Scheller 127 The Vasculature and Bone 983Marie Hélène Lafage?Proust and Bernard Roche 128 Immunobiology and Bone 992Roberto Pacifici and M. Neale Weitzmann 129 Cellular Bioenergetics of Bone 1004Wen?Chih Lee and Fanxin Long 130 Endocrine Bioenergetics of Bone 1012Patricia F. Ducy and Gerard Karsenty 131 Central Neuronal Control of Bone Remodeling 1020Hiroki Ochi, Paul Baldock, and Shu Takeda 132 Peripheral Neuronal Control of Bone Remodeling 1028Katherine J. Motyl and Mary F. Barbe 133 The Pituitary–Bone Axis in Health and Disease 1037Mone Zaidi, Tony Yuen, Wahid Abu?Amer, Peng Liu, Terry F. Davies, Maria I. New, Harry C. Blair, Alberta Zallone, Clifford J. Rosen, and Li Sun 134 Neuropsychiatric Disorders and the Skeleton 1047Madhusmita Misra and Anne Klibanski 135 Interactions Between Muscle and Bone 1055Marco Brotto Index 1063
John P. Bilezikian is the Dorothy L. and Daniel H. Silberberg Professor of Medicine and Professor of Pharmacology at the College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University. He is Chief Emeritus of the Division of Endocrinology and Vice-chair of the Department of Medicine for International Research and Education. He is also Director Emeritus of the Metabolic Bone Diseases Program at Columbia University Medical Center.
THE AUTHORITATIVE REFERENCE TO BONE DISEASES AND DISORDERS OF MINERAL METABOLISM, REVISED AND UPDATED Now in its ninth edition, the Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism offers an updated and comprehensive guide to bone and mineral health. Since it was first published 30 years ago, the Primer has become the leading reference on the topic. With contributions from noted experts, the text explores basic biological factors of healthy development and disease states and makes the information accessible for clinical interventions. The ninth edition provides concise coverage of the widest possible spectrum of metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. The new edition of this invaluable reference expands coverage and includes the most recent developments in the field that help to strengthen its usefulness and ensure that the Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism maintains its place as the pre-eminent reference on bone and mineral health. This vital resource: Provides the most accurate, up-to-date evidence-based information on basic and clinical bone science Includes more than 10 new chapters and contributions from 300 authors from wide-ranging international research centers Captures the very cutting edge of research covering mineral homeostasis, osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases, skeletal measurement technologies, and genetics Presents a new companion website with useful supplementary materials at www.wiley.com/go/asbmrprimer Written for advanced students, clinicians, and researchers, the Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism is the definitive, one-stop reference for anyone working in the field of bone health and disease.
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