Practical Testing and Evaluation of Plastics
INTRODUCTION TO PLASTICS Plastics Structure and Behavior of Plastics: Influence of Molecular Weight on Material Properties, Homo- and Co-Polymers, Polymer Blends Melting Polymers Mechanical Behavior of Polymers: Creep, Glass Transition Temperature, Melt, Solidification, Time Dependent Deformation, Time Dependence and Thermal Activation Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behavior Molding Compounds Material Selection Processing of Polymers: Preconditioning, Production Processes, Effects on Quality MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MANUFACTURED PLASTIC COMPONENTS Introduction Materials Characterization Typical Flaws: Filamentation, Cold Slogs, Jetting, Inclusions, Diesel Effect, Incomplete Fill, Shrink Marks, Flash, Contraction Cavities, Bubbles, Weld Lines, Flow Figures, Dark Spots, Record Effect, Exfoliation, Fouling, Demolding Errors, Warpage, Shrinkage, Whitening, Cracking Problems and Possible Solutions: Material Qualification, Component Qualification, Material Identification, Fillers, Recyclate Processing, Material Degradation, Environmental Compatibility, Swelling, Inconsistent Workability, Pre-Drying, Thermal History, Effects of Color and Color Changes, Effects of Impact Toughness Modifiers, Orientation, Internal Stresses, Warpage, Quality Control, Failure Analysis, Internal Flaws, Tribological Properties, Tool Construction and Design, Manufacturing Process MATERIALS TESTING Purpose of Material Testing Test Planning Sample Preparation and Test Execution: Sampling, Types of Samples, Test Execution Presentation of Results / Report Testing Macromolecular Properties: Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Solution Viscometry Evaluating Melt Properties: Rheometry, Viscometry Evaluating the Geometry of Molded Parts: Dimensions, Shrinkage, Warpage Evaluating the Structure of Molded Parts: Orientation, Morphology, Atomic Force Microscopy, Ultrasound, X-Ray Mechanical Testing: Quasi-Static Stress, Impact Testing, Long-Term Static Load, Long-Term Dynamic Loading, Temperature Effects Optical Evaluation: Visual Inspection, Microscopic Inspection, Color Measurement Thermal Analysis: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Thermomechanic Analysis (TMA) - Dilatometry, Hot Stage Microscopy, Determining Operating Temperatures Chemical Testing: Chemical Resistance, Stress Cracking Physical Properties: Density, Mass, Moisture and Water Absorption, Determining Ash Content, Weathering Tribological Tests Flammability Tests: Flammability, UL Flammability, Evaluating Burn Behavior by Oxygen Index Method Electrical Testing APPENDIX Thermoanalytic Data for Polymers Standards References Index
Achim Frick has obtained his academic degrees (MSc, PhD) from the University of Stuttgart, Germany. He spent several years in industry before taking up his present professorship at Aalen University. Professor Frick is Head of the Institute of Polymer Science and Processing and has authored more than seventy scientific papers and two book publications. Being also Head of the Polymer Engineering Transfer Center PETZ, he has served national and international industries with more than 300 material science reports. Since more than ten years he is also offering training courses to industry in polymer engineering subjects. Claudia Stern has obtained her PhD from University of Twente, The Netherlands. She is senior scientist in Research & Development in the field of polymer engineering field at ElringKlinger Kunststofftechnik AG and has authored several scientific publications and two books. Ricardo Zednik obtained his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from Stanford University, USA. He is a senior engineer with Exponent Engineering and Scientific Consulting and lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Santa Clara University. He is particularly interested in the mechanical behavior of materials, including thin-films and functional coatings, metals, and engineering ceramics. He has worked in the electronics industry for Fujitsu Laboratories Limited in Atsugi, Japan, and in the energy industry for Halliburton Energy Services in Houston, Texas, and Manchester, England.
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