Details

Power System Protection


Power System Protection


IEEE Press Series on Power and Energy Systems 2. Aufl.

von: Paul M. Anderson, Charles Henville, Rasheek Rifaat, Brian Johnson, Sakis Meliopoulos

192,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 29.12.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119513131
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 1456

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Beschreibungen

<b>A newly updated guide to the protection of power systems in the 21st century</b> <p><i>Power System Protection, 2nd Edition</i> combines brand new information about the technological and business developments in the field of power system protection that have occurred since the last edition was published in 1998. <p>The new edition includes updates on the effects of short circuits on: <ul> <li>Power quality</li> <li>Multiple setting groups</li> <li>Quadrilateral distance relay characteristics</li> <li>Loadability</li> </ul> <p>It also includes comprehensive information about the impacts of business changes, including deregulation, disaggregation of power systems, dependability, and security issues. <i>Power System Protection</i> provides the analytical basis for design, application, and setting of power system protection equipment for today's engineer. Updates from protection engineers with distinct specializations contribute to a comprehensive work covering all aspects of the field. <p>New regulations and new components included in modern power protection systems are discussed at length. Computer-based protection is covered in-depth, as is the impact of renewable energy systems connected to distribution and transmission systems.
<p>Author Biographies xxv</p> <p>Preface to the Second Edition xxvii</p> <p>List of Symbols xxix</p> <p><b>Part I Protective Devices and Controls </b><b>1</b></p> <p><b>1 Introduction </b><b>3</b></p> <p>1.1 Power System Protection 3</p> <p>1.2 Prevention and Control of System Failure 3</p> <p>1.3 Protective System Design Considerations 8</p> <p>1.4 Definitions Used in System Protection 9</p> <p>1.5 System Disturbances 11</p> <p>1.6 Book Contents 12</p> <p>Problems 14</p> <p>References 15</p> <p><b>2 Protection Measurements and Controls </b><b>17</b></p> <p>2.1 Graphic Symbols and Device Identification 17</p> <p>2.2 Typical Relay Connections 19</p> <p>2.3 Circuit Breaker Control Circuits 22</p> <p>2.4 Instrument Transformers 23</p> <p>2.5 Relay Control Configurations 37</p> <p>2.6 Optical Communications 38</p> <p>Problems 42</p> <p>References 44</p> <p><b>3 Protective Device Characteristics </b><b>47</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 47</p> <p>3.2 Fuse Characteristics 48</p> <p>3.3 Relay Characteristics 61</p> <p>3.4 Power Circuit Breakers 87</p> <p>3.5 Automatic Circuit Reclosers 93</p> <p>3.6 Automatic Line Sectionalizers 98</p> <p>3.7 Circuit Switchers 100</p> <p>3.8 Digital Fault Recorders 101</p> <p>Problems 103</p> <p>References 103</p> <p><b>4 Relay Logic </b><b>109</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 109</p> <p>4.2 Electromechanical Relay Logic 110</p> <p>4.3 Electronic Logic Circuits 111</p> <p>4.4 Analog Relay Logic 125</p> <p>4.5 Digital Relay Logic 128</p> <p>4.6 Hybrid Relay Logic 139</p> <p>4.7 Relays as Comparators 140</p> <p>Problems 153</p> <p>References 157</p> <p><b>5 System Characteristics </b><b>163</b></p> <p>5.1 Power System Faults 163</p> <p>5.2 Station Arrangements 176</p> <p>5.3 Overhead Line Impedances 182</p> <p>5.4 Computation of Available Fault Current 184</p> <p>5.5 System Equivalent for Protection Studies 188</p> <p>5.6 The Compensation Theorem 202</p> <p>5.7 Compensation Applications in Fault Studies 205</p> <p>Problems 210</p> <p>References 214</p> <p><b>Part II Protection Concepts </b><b>215</b></p> <p><b>6 Fault Protection of Radial Lines </b><b>217</b></p> <p>6.1 Radial Distribution Systems 217</p> <p>6.2 Radial Distribution Coordination 219</p> <p>6.3 Radial Line Fault Current Calculations 222</p> <p>6.4 Radial System Protective Strategy 233</p> <p>6.5 Coordination of Protective Devices 236</p> <p>6.6 Relay Coordination on Radial Lines 241</p> <p>6.7 Coordinating Protective Devices Measuring Different Parameters 258</p> <p>Problems 269</p> <p>References 276</p> <p><b>7 Introduction to Transmission Protection </b><b>277</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 277</p> <p>7.2 Protection with Overcurrent Relays 278</p> <p>7.3 Distance Protection of Lines 285</p> <p>7.4 Unit Protection 299</p> <p>7.5 Ground Fault Protection 301</p> <p>7.6 Summary 310</p> <p>Problems 311</p> <p>References 315</p> <p><b>8 Complex Loci in the <i>Z </i>and <i>Y </i>Planes </b><b>317</b></p> <p>8.1 The Inverse <i>Z </i>Transformation 317</p> <p>8.2 Line and Circle Mapping 320</p> <p>8.3 The Complex Equation of a Line 327</p> <p>8.4 The Complex Equation of a Circle 328</p> <p>8.5 Inversion of an Arbitrary Admittance 330</p> <p>8.6 Inversion of a Straight Line Through (1, 0) 333</p> <p>8.7 Inversion of an Arbitrary Straight Line 335</p> <p>8.8 Inversion of a Circle with Center at (1, 0) 336</p> <p>8.9 Inversion of an Arbitrary Circle 338</p> <p>8.10 Summary of Line and Circle Inversions 340</p> <p>8.11 Angle Preservation in Conformal Mapping 341</p> <p>8.12 Orthogonal Trajectories 342</p> <p>8.13 Impedance at the Relay 346</p> <p>Problems 348</p> <p>References 350</p> <p><b>9 Impedance at the Relay </b><b>351</b></p> <p>9.1 The Relay Apparent Impedance, <i>Z<sub>R</sub> </i>351</p> <p>9.2 Protection Equivalent M Parameters 353</p> <p>9.3 The Circle Loci <i>Z </i>= <i>P</i>/(1±<i>Y<sub>K</sub></i>) 356</p> <p>9.4 <i>Z<sub>R</sub> </i>Loci Construction 357</p> <p>9.5 Relay Apparent Impedance 363</p> <p>9.6 Relay Impedance for a Special Case 371</p> <p>9.7 Construction of M Circles 375</p> <p>9.8 Phase Comparison Apparent Impedance 378</p> <p>Problems 384</p> <p>References 388</p> <p><b>10 Admittance at the Relay </b><b>391</b></p> <p>10.1 Admittance Diagrams 391</p> <p>10.2 Input Admittance Loci 392</p> <p>10.3 The Relay Admittance Characteristic 395</p> <p>10.4 Parallel Transmission Lines 400</p> <p>10.5 Typical Admittance Plane Characteristics 404</p> <p>10.6 Summary of Admittance Characteristics 407</p> <p>Problems 408</p> <p>Reference 411</p> <p><b>Part III Transmission Protection </b><b>413</b></p> <p><b>11 Analysis of Distance Protection </b><b>415</b></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 415</p> <p>11.2 Analysis of Transmission Line Faults 415</p> <p>11.3 Impedance at the Relay 429</p> <p>11.4 Distance Relay Settings 439</p> <p>11.5 Ground Distance Protection 447</p> <p>11.6 Distance Relay Coordination 449</p> <p>Problems 452</p> <p>References 454</p> <p><b>12 Transmission Line Mutual Induction </b><b>457</b></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 457</p> <p>12.2 Line Impedances 458</p> <p>12.3 Effect of Mutual Coupling 469</p> <p>12.4 Short Transmission Line Equivalents 476</p> <p>12.5 Long Transmission Lines 484</p> <p>12.6 Long Transmission Line Equivalents 493</p> <p>12.7 Solution of the Long-line Case 501</p> <p>Problems 504</p> <p>References 507</p> <p><b>13 Pilot Protection Systems </b><b>509</b></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 510</p> <p>13.2 Physical Systems for Pilot Protection 512</p> <p>13.3 Non-unit Pilot Protection Schemes 523</p> <p>13.4 Unit Protection Pilot Schemes 536</p> <p>13.5 An Example of EHV Line Protection 548</p> <p>13.6 Pilot Protection Settings 554</p> <p>13.7 Traveling Wave Relays 561</p> <p>13.8 Monitoring of Pilot Performance 567</p> <p>Problems 567</p> <p>References 569</p> <p><b>14 Complex Transmission Protection </b><b>573</b></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 573</p> <p>14.2 Single-phase Switching of Extra-high-voltage Lines 573</p> <p>14.3 Protection of Multiterminal Lines 581</p> <p>14.4 Protection of Mutually Coupled Lines 590</p> <p>Problems 613</p> <p>References 617</p> <p><b>15 Series Compensated Line Protection </b><b>619</b></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 619</p> <p>15.2 Faults with Unbypassed Series Capacitors 621</p> <p>15.3 Series Capacitor Bank Protection 634</p> <p>15.4 Relay Problems Due to Compensation 653</p> <p>15.5 Protection of Series Compensated Lines 674</p> <p>15.6 Line Protection Experience 678</p> <p>Problems 680</p> <p>References 683</p> <p><b>Part IV Apparatus Protection </b><b>685</b></p> <p><b>16 Bus Protection </b><b>687</b></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 687</p> <p>16.2 Bus Configurations and Faults 688</p> <p>16.3 Bus Protection Requirements 689</p> <p>16.4 Bus Protection by Backup Line Relays 691</p> <p>16.5 Bus Differential Protection 692</p> <p>16.6 Other Types of Bus Protection 708</p> <p>16.7 Auxiliary Tripping Relays 716</p> <p>16.8 Summary 717</p> <p>Problems 717</p> <p>References 719</p> <p><b>17 Transformer and Reactor Protection </b><b>721</b></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 721</p> <p>17.2 Transformer Faults 722</p> <p>17.3 Magnetizing Inrush 729</p> <p>17.4 Protection Against Incipient Faults 732</p> <p>17.5 Protection Against Active Faults 735</p> <p>17.6 Combined Line and Transformer Schemes 748</p> <p>17.7 Regulating Transformer Protection 750</p> <p>17.8 Shunt Reactor Protection 752</p> <p>17.9 Static Var Compensator Protection 755</p> <p>Problems 759</p> <p>References 761</p> <p><b>18 Generator Protection </b><b>763</b></p> <p>18.1 Introduction 763</p> <p>18.2 Generator System Configurations and Types of Protection 764</p> <p>18.3 Stator Protection 766</p> <p>18.4 Rotor Protection 781</p> <p>18.5 Loss of Excitation Protection 785</p> <p>18.6 Other Generator Protection Systems 789</p> <p>18.7 Summary of Generator Protection 794</p> <p>Problems 800</p> <p>References 803</p> <p><b>19 Motor Protection </b><b>805</b></p> <p>19.1 Introduction 805</p> <p>19.2 Induction Motor Analysis 806</p> <p>19.3 Induction Motor Heating 824</p> <p>19.4 Motor Problems 837</p> <p>19.5 Classifications of Motors 843</p> <p>19.6 Stator Protection 845</p> <p>19.7 Rotor Protection 851</p> <p>19.8 Other Motor Protections 852</p> <p>19.9 Summary of Large Motor Protections 853</p> <p>Problems 854</p> <p>References 858</p> <p><b>Part V System Aspects of Protection </b><b>861</b></p> <p><b>20 Protection Against Abnormal System Frequency </b><b>863</b></p> <p>20.1 Abnormal Frequency Operation 863</p> <p>20.2 Effects of Frequency on the Generator 864</p> <p>20.3 Frequency Effects on the Turbine 866</p> <p>20.4 A System Frequency Response Model 869</p> <p>20.5 Off Normal Frequency Protection 886</p> <p>20.6 Steam Turbine Frequency Protection 887</p> <p>20.7 Underfrequency Protection 889</p> <p>Problems 903</p> <p>References 905</p> <p><b>21 Protective Schemes for Stability Enhancement </b><b>909</b></p> <p>21.1 Introduction 909</p> <p>21.2 Review of Stability Fundamentals 909</p> <p>21.3 System Transient Behavior 918</p> <p>21.4 Automatic Reclosing 929</p> <p>21.5 Loss of Synchronism Protection 949</p> <p>21.6 Voltage Stability and Voltage Collapse 957</p> <p>21.7 System Integrity Protection Schemes (SIPS) 960</p> <p>21.8 Summary 968</p> <p>Problems 968</p> <p>References 970</p> <p><b>22 Line Commutated Converter HVDC Protection </b><b>973</b></p> <p>22.1 Introduction 973</p> <p>22.2 LCC Dc Conversion Fundamentals 974</p> <p>22.3 Converter Station Design 992</p> <p>22.4 Ac Side Protection 999</p> <p>22.5 Dc Side Protection Overview 1002</p> <p>22.6 Special HVDC Protections 1012</p> <p>22.7 HVDC Protection Settings 1015</p> <p>22.8 Summary 1016</p> <p>Problems 1016</p> <p>References 1018</p> <p><b>23 Voltage Source Converter HVDC Protection </b><b>1021</b></p> <p>23.1 Introduction 1021</p> <p>23.2 VSC HVDC Fundamentals 1022</p> <p>23.3 Converter Control Systems 1028</p> <p>23.4 HVDC Response to Ac System Faults 1030</p> <p>23.5 Ac System Protection 1031</p> <p>23.6 Dc Faults 1035</p> <p>23.7 Multiterminal Systems 1037</p> <p>23.8 Hybrid LCC–VSC Systems 1037</p> <p>23.9 Summary 1038</p> <p>Problems 1038</p> <p>References 1039</p> <p><b>24 Protection of Independent Power Producer Interconnections </b><b>1041</b></p> <p>24.1 Introduction 1041</p> <p>24.2 Renewable Resources 1042</p> <p>24.3 Transmission Interconnections 1042</p> <p>24.4 Distribution Interconnections 1053</p> <p>24.5 Summary 1060</p> <p>Problems 1061</p> <p>References 1061</p> <p><b>25 SSR and SSCI Protection </b><b>1063</b></p> <p>25.1 Introduction 1063</p> <p>25.2 SSR Overview 1063</p> <p>25.3 SSR and SSCI System Countermeasures 1073</p> <p>25.4 SSR Source Countermeasures 1079</p> <p>25.5 Summary 1093</p> <p>Problems 1093</p> <p>References 1095</p> <p><b>Part VI Reliability of Protective Systems </b><b>1101</b></p> <p><b>26 Basic Reliability Concepts </b><b>1103</b></p> <p>26.1 Introduction 1103</p> <p>26.2 Probability Fundamentals 1103</p> <p>26.3 Random Variables 1110</p> <p>26.4 Failure Definitions and Failure Modes 1127</p> <p>26.5 Reliability Models 1129</p> <p>Problems 1141</p> <p>References 1143</p> <p><b>27 Reliability Analysis </b><b>1145</b></p> <p>27.1 Reliability Block Diagrams 1145</p> <p>27.2 Fault Trees 1154</p> <p>27.3 Reliability Evaluation 1166</p> <p>27.4 Other Analytical Methods 1174</p> <p>27.5 State Space and Markov Processes 1182</p> <p>Problems 1190</p> <p>References 1195</p> <p><b>28 Reliability Concepts in System Protection </b><b>1197</b></p> <p>28.1 Introduction 1197</p> <p>28.2 System Disturbance Models 1197</p> <p>28.3 Time-Independent Reliability Models 1208</p> <p>28.4 Time-Dependent Reliability Models 1246</p> <p>Problems 1256</p> <p>References 1259</p> <p><b>29 Fault Tree Analysis of Protective Systems </b><b>1261</b></p> <p>29.1 Introduction 1261</p> <p>29.2 Fault Tree Analysis 1262</p> <p>29.3 Analysis of Transmission Protection 1273</p> <p>29.4 Fault Tree Evaluation 1297</p> <p>Problems 1306</p> <p>References 1310</p> <p><b>30 Markov Modeling of Protective Systems </b><b>1311</b></p> <p>30.1 Introduction 1311</p> <p>30.2 Testing of Protective Systems 1312</p> <p>30.3 Modeling of Inspected Systems 1317</p> <p>30.4 Monitoring and Self-testing 1331</p> <p>30.5 The Unreadiness Probability 1337</p> <p>30.6 Protection Abnormal Unavailability 1341</p> <p>30.7 Evaluation of Safeguard Systems 1350</p> <p>References 1356</p> <p><b>Appendix A Protection Terminology </b><b>1359</b></p> <p>A.1 Protection Terms and Definitions 1359</p> <p>A.2 Relay Terms and Definitions 1361</p> <p>A.3 Classification of Relay Systems 1363</p> <p>A.4 Circuit Breaker Terms and Definitions 1366</p> <p>References 1368</p> <p><b>Appendix B Protective Device Classification </b><b>1371</b></p> <p>B.1 Device Function Numbers 1371</p> <p>B.2 Devices Performing More than One Function 1371</p> <p>B.2.1 Suffix Numbers 1373</p> <p>B.2.2 Suffix Letters 1373</p> <p>B.2.3 Representation of Device Contacts on Electrical Diagrams 1374</p> <p><b>Appendix C Overhead Line Impedances </b><b>1375</b></p> <p>References 1387</p> <p><b>Appendix D Transformer Data </b><b>1389</b></p> <p><b>Appendix E 500 kV Transmission Line Data </b><b>1393</b></p> <p>E.1 Tower Design 1393</p> <p>E.2 Unit Length Electrical Characteristics 1393</p> <p>E.3 Total Line Impedance and Admittance 1394</p> <p>E.4 Nominal Pi 1395</p> <p>E.5 <i>ABCD </i>Parameters 1395</p> <p>E.6 Equivalent Pi 1395</p> <p>E.7 Surge Impedance Loading 1397</p> <p>E.8 Normalization 1399</p> <p>E.9 Line Ratings and Operating Limits 1399</p> <p>References 1400</p> <p>Index 1401</p>
<p><b>PAUL M. ANDERSON,</B> PhD, (deceased) served as a professor of engineering at Iowa State University, Arizona State University, and as a visiting professor at Washington State University. He also founded consulting firm Power Math Associates, and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2009. Dr. Anderson passed away in 2011. </p> <p><b>CHARLES F. HENVILLE </b>is the President and Principal Engineer of Henville Consulting, Inc. He is a Fellow of the IEEE Power and Energy Systems Society, and past Chairman of the Power Systems Relaying Committee of the IEEE Power and Energy Systems Society. <p><b>RASHEEK RIFAAT </b>is a Technical Director, Electrical with more than 40 years of Canadian and overseas experience with various projects, ranging from installation of control panels and 600 V MCCs for material handling systems to large 800 MW thermal generating stations. <p><b>BRIAN JOHNSON,</B> PhD, is a University Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Endowed Chair in Power Engineering. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, and an Individual Member of CIGRE. <p><b>SAKIS MELIOPOULOS,</B> PhD, is a Distinguished Professor at Georgia Tech. He is the co-inventor of the Smart Ground Multimeter and the Macrodyne PMU-based Harmonic Measurement System for transmission networks.
<p><b>A newly updated guide to the protection of power systems in the 21<sup>st</sup> century</b></p> <p><i>Power System Protection, 2nd Edition</i> combines brand new information about the technological and business developments in the field of power system protection that have occurred since the last edition was published in 1998. <p>The new edition includes updates on the effects of short circuits on: <ul><li>Power quality</li> <li>Multiple setting groups</li> <li>Quadrilateral distance relay characteristics</li> <li>Loadability</li></ul> <p>It also includes comprehensive information about the impacts of business changes, including deregulation, disaggregation of power systems, dependability, and security issues. <i>Power System Protection</i> provides the analytical basis for design, application, and setting of power system protection equipment for today’s engineer. Updates from protection engineers with distinct specializations contribute to a comprehensive work covering all aspects of the field. <p>New regulations and new components included in modern power protection systems are discussed at length. Computer-based protection is covered in-depth, as is the impact of renewable energy systems connected to distribution and transmission systems.

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