Details

Power Generation, Operation, and Control


Power Generation, Operation, and Control


3. Aufl.

von: Allen J. Wood, Bruce F. Wollenberg, Gerald B. Sheblé

111,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 18.12.2013
ISBN/EAN: 9781118733912
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 656

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Beschreibungen

<p><b>A thoroughly revised new edition of the definitive work on power systems best practices</b> <p>In this eagerly awaited new edition, Power Generation, Operation, and Control continues to provide engineers and academics with a complete picture of the techniques used in modern power system operation. Long recognized as the standard reference in the field, the book has been thoroughly updated to reflect the enormous changes that have taken place in the electric power industry since the Second Edition was published seventeen years ago. <p>With an emphasis on both the engineering and economic aspects of energy management, the Third Edition introduces central "terminal" characteristics for thermal and hydroelectric power generation systems, along with new optimization techniques for tackling real-world operating problems. Readers will find a range of algorithms and methods for performing integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis, as well as modern methods for power system analysis, operation, and control. Special features include: <ul> <li>State-of-the-art topics such as market simulation, multiple market analysis, contract and market bidding, and other business topics</li> <li>Chapters on generation with limited energy supply, power flow control, power system security, and more</li> <li>An introduction to regulatory issues, renewable energy, and other evolving topics</li> <li>New worked examples and end-of-chapter problems</li> <li>A companion website with additional materials, including MATLAB programs and power system sample data sets</li> </ul>
<p>Preface to the Third Edition xvii</p> <p>Preface to the Second Edition xix</p> <p>Preface to the First Edition xxi</p> <p>Acknowledgment xxiii</p> <p><b>1 Introduction 1</b></p> <p>1.1 Purpose of the Course 1</p> <p>1.2 Course Scope 2</p> <p>1.3 Economic Importance 2</p> <p>1.4 Deregulation: Vertical to Horizontal 3</p> <p>1.5 Problems: New and Old 3</p> <p>1.6 Characteristics of Steam Units 6</p> <p>1.6.1 Variations in Steam Unit Characteristics 10</p> <p>1.6.2 Combined Cycle Units 13</p> <p>1.6.3 Cogeneration Plants 14</p> <p>1.6.4 Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Reactor Units 17</p> <p>1.6.5 Hydroelectric Units 18</p> <p>1.6.6 Energy Storage 21</p> <p>1.7 Renewable Energy 22</p> <p>1.7.1 Wind Power 23</p> <p>1.7.2 Cut-In Speed 23</p> <p>1.7.3 Rated Output Power and Rated Output Wind Speed 24</p> <p>1.7.4 Cut-Out Speed 24</p> <p>1.7.5 Wind Turbine Efficiency or Power Coefficient 24</p> <p>1.7.6 Solar Power 25</p> <p><b>Appendix 1A Typical Generation Data 26</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 1B Fossil Fuel Prices 28</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 1C Unit Statistics 29</b></p> <p>References for Generation Systems 31</p> <p>Further Reading 31</p> <p><b>2 Industrial Organization, Managerial Economics, and Finance 35</b></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 35</p> <p>2.2 Business Environments 36</p> <p>2.2.1 Regulated Environment 37</p> <p>2.2.2 Competitive Market Environment 38</p> <p>2.3 Theory of the Firm 40</p> <p>2.4 Competitive Market Solutions 42</p> <p>2.5 Supplier Solutions 45</p> <p>2.5.1 Supplier Costs 46</p> <p>2.5.2 Individual Supplier Curves 46</p> <p>2.5.3 Competitive Environments 47</p> <p>2.5.4 Imperfect Competition 51</p> <p>2.5.5 Other Factors 52</p> <p>2.6 Cost of Electric Energy Production 53</p> <p>2.7 Evolving Markets 54</p> <p>2.7.1 Energy Flow Diagram 57</p> <p>2.8 Multiple Company Environments 58</p> <p>2.8.1 Leontief Model: Input–Output Economics 58</p> <p>2.8.2 Scarce Fuel Resources 60</p> <p>2.9 Uncertainty and Reliability 61</p> <p>Problems 61</p> <p>Reference 62</p> <p><b>3 Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units and Methods of Solution 63</b></p> <p>3.1 The Economic Dispatch Problem 63</p> <p>3.2 Economic Dispatch with Piecewise Linear Cost Functions 68</p> <p>3.3 LP Method 69</p> <p>3.3.1 Piecewise Linear Cost Functions 69</p> <p>3.3.2 Economic Dispatch with LP 71</p> <p>3.4 The Lambda Iteration Method 73</p> <p>3.5 Economic Dispatch Via Binary Search 76</p> <p>3.6 Economic Dispatch Using Dynamic Programming 78</p> <p>3.7 Composite Generation Production Cost Function 81</p> <p>3.8 Base Point and Participation Factors 85</p> <p>3.9 Thermal System Dispatching with Network Losses Considered 88</p> <p>3.10 The Concept of Locational Marginal Price (LMP) 92</p> <p>3.11 Auction Mechanisms 95</p> <p>3.11.1 PJM Incremental Price Auction as a Graphical Solution 95</p> <p>3.11.2 Auction Theory Introduction 98</p> <p>3.11.3 Auction Mechanisms 100</p> <p>3.11.4 English (First-Price Open-Cry = Ascending) 101</p> <p>3.11.5 Dutch (Descending) 103</p> <p>3.11.6 First-Price Sealed Bid 104</p> <p>3.11.7 Vickrey (Second-Price Sealed Bid) 105</p> <p>3.11.8 All Pay (e.g., Lobbying Activity) 105</p> <p><b>Appendix 3A Optimization Within Constraints 106</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 3B Linear Programming (LP) 117</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 3C Non-Linear Programming 128</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 3D Dynamic Programming (DP) 128</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 3E Convex Optimization 135</b></p> <p>Problems 138</p> <p>References 146</p> <p><b>4 Unit Commitment 147</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 147</p> <p>4.1.1 Economic Dispatch versus Unit Commitment 147</p> <p>4.1.2 Constraints in Unit Commitment 152</p> <p>4.1.3 Spinning Reserve 152</p> <p>4.1.4 Thermal Unit Constraints 153</p> <p>4.1.5 Other Constraints 155</p> <p>4.2 Unit Commitment Solution Methods 155</p> <p>4.2.1 Priority-List Methods 156</p> <p>4.2.2 Lagrange Relaxation Solution 157</p> <p>4.2.3 Mixed Integer Linear Programming 166</p> <p>4.3 Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) 167</p> <p>4.4 Daily Auctions Using a Unit Commitment 167</p> <p><b>Appendix 4A Dual Optimization on a Nonconvex Problem 167</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 4B Dynamic-Programming Solution to Unit Commitment 173</b></p> <p>4B.1 Introduction 173</p> <p>4B.2 Forward DP Approach 174</p> <p>Problems 182</p> <p><b>5 Generation with Limited Energy Supply 187</b></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 187</p> <p>5.2 Fuel Scheduling 188</p> <p>5.3 Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Contract 188</p> <p>5.4 Complex Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Models 194</p> <p>5.4.1 Hard Limits and Slack Variables 194</p> <p>5.5 Fuel Scheduling by Linear Programming 195</p> <p>5.6 Introduction to Hydrothermal Coordination 202</p> <p>5.6.1 Long-Range Hydro-Scheduling 203</p> <p>5.6.2 Short-Range Hydro-Scheduling 204</p> <p>5.7 Hydroelectric Plant Models 204</p> <p>5.8 Scheduling Problems 207</p> <p>5.8.1 Types of Scheduling Problems 207</p> <p>5.8.2 Scheduling Energy 207</p> <p>5.9 The Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem 211</p> <p>5.9.1 Hydro-Scheduling with Storage Limitations 211</p> <p>5.9.2 Hydro-Units in Series (Hydraulically Coupled) 216</p> <p>5.9.3 Pumped-Storage Hydroplants 218</p> <p>5.10 Hydro-Scheduling using Linear Programming 222</p> <p><b>Appendix 5A Dynamic-Programming Solution to hydrothermal Scheduling 225</b></p> <p>5.A.1 Dynamic Programming Example 227</p> <p>5.A.1.1 Procedure 228</p> <p>5.A.1.2 Extension to Other Cases 231</p> <p>5.A.1.3 Dynamic-Programming Solution to Multiple Hydroplant</p> <p>Problem 232</p> <p>Problems 234</p> <p><b>6 Transmission System Effects 243</b></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 243</p> <p>6.2 Conversion of Equipment Data to Bus and Branch Data 247</p> <p>6.3 Substation Bus Processing 248</p> <p>6.4 Equipment Modeling 248</p> <p>6.5 Dispatcher Power Flow for Operational Planning 251</p> <p>6.6 Conservation of Energy (Tellegen’s Theorem) 252</p> <p>6.7 Existing Power Flow Techniques 253</p> <p>6.8 The Newton–Raphson Method Using the Augmented Jacobian Matrix 254</p> <p>6.8.1 Power Flow Statement 254</p> <p>6.9 Mathematical Overview 257</p> <p>6.10 AC System Control Modeling 259</p> <p>6.11 Local Voltage Control 259</p> <p>6.12 Modeling of Transmission Lines and Transformers 259</p> <p>6.12.1 Transmission Line Flow Equations 259</p> <p>6.12.2 Transformer Flow Equations 260</p> <p>6.13 HVDC links 261</p> <p>6.13.1 Modeling of HVDC Converters and FACT Devices 264</p> <p>6.13.2 Definition of Angular Relationships in HVDC Converters 264</p> <p>6.13.3 Power Equations for a Six-Pole HVDC Converter 264</p> <p>6.14 Brief Review of Jacobian Matrix Processing 267</p> <p>6.15 Example 6A: AC Power Flow Case 269</p> <p>6.16 The Decoupled Power Flow 271</p> <p>6.17 The Gauss–Seidel Method 275</p> <p>6.18 The “DC” or Linear Power Flow 277</p> <p>6.18.1 DC Power Flow Calculation 277</p> <p>6.18.2 Example 6B: DC Power Flow Example on the Six-Bus Sample System 278</p> <p>6.19 Unified Eliminated Variable Hvdc Method 278</p> <p>6.19.1 Changes to Jacobian Matrix Reduced 279</p> <p>6.19.2 Control Modes 280</p> <p>6.19.3 Analytical Elimination 280</p> <p>6.19.4 Control Mode Switching 283</p> <p>6.19.5 Bipolar and 12-Pulse Converters 283</p> <p>6.20 Transmission Losses 284</p> <p>6.20.1 A Two-Generator System Example 284</p> <p>6.20.2 Coordination Equations, Incremental Losses, and Penalty Factors 286</p> <p>6.21 Discussion of Reference Bus Penalty Factors 288</p> <p>6.22 Bus Penalty Factors Direct from the AC Power Flow 289</p> <p>Problems 291</p> <p><b>7 Power System Security 296</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 296</p> <p>7.2 Factors Affecting Power System Security 301</p> <p>7.3 Contingency Analysis: Detection of Network Problems 301</p> <p>7.3.1 Generation Outages 301</p> <p>7.3.2 Transmission Outages 302</p> <p>7.4 An Overview of Security Analysis 306</p> <p>7.4.1 Linear Sensitivity Factors 307</p> <p>7.5 Monitoring Power Transactions Using “Flowgates” 313</p> <p>7.6 Voltage Collapse 315</p> <p>7.6.1 AC Power Flow Methods 317</p> <p>7.6.2 Contingency Selection 320</p> <p>7.6.3 Concentric Relaxation 323</p> <p>7.6.4 Bounding 325</p> <p>7.6.5 Adaptive Localization 325</p> <p><b>Appendix 7A AC Power Flow Sample Cases 327</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 7B Calculation of Network Sensitivity Factors 336</b></p> <p>7B.1 Calculation of PTDF Factors 336</p> <p>7B.2 Calculation of LODF Factors 339</p> <p>7B.2.1 Special Cases 341</p> <p>7B.3 Compensated PTDF Factors 343</p> <p>Problems 343</p> <p>References 349</p> <p><b>8 Optimal Power Flow 350</b></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 350</p> <p>8.2 The Economic Dispatch Formulation 351</p> <p>8.3 The Optimal Power Flow Calculation Combining Economic Dispatch and the Power Flow 352</p> <p>8.4 Optimal Power Flow Using the DC Power Flow 354</p> <p>8.5 Example 8A: Solution of the DC Power Flow OPF 356</p> <p>8.6 Example 8B: DCOPF with Transmission Line Limit Imposed 361</p> <p>8.7 Formal Solution of the DCOPF 365</p> <p>8.8 Adding Line Flow Constraints to the Linear Programming Solution 365</p> <p>8.8.1 Solving the DCOPF Using Quadratic Programming 367</p> <p>8.9 Solution of the ACOPF 368</p> <p>8.10 Algorithms for Solution of the ACOPF 369</p> <p>8.11 Relationship Between LMP, Incremental Losses, and Line Flow Constraints 376</p> <p>8.11.1 Locational Marginal Price at a Bus with No Lines Being Held at Limit 377</p> <p>8.11.2 Locational Marginal Price with a Line Held at its Limit 378</p> <p>8.12 Security-Constrained OPF 382</p> <p>8.12.1 Security Constrained OPF Using the DC Power Flow and Quadratic Programming 384</p> <p>8.12.2 DC Power Flow 385</p> <p>8.12.3 Line Flow Limits 385</p> <p>8.12.4 Contingency Limits 386</p> <p><b>Appendix 8A Interior Point Method 391</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 8B Data for the 12-Bus System 393</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 8C Line Flow Sensitivity Factors 395</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 8D Linear Sensitivity Analysis of the AC Power Flow 397</b></p> <p>Problems 399</p> <p><b>9 Introduction to State Estimation in Power Systems 403</b></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 403</p> <p>9.2 Power System State Estimation 404</p> <p>9.3 Maximum Likelihood Weighted Least-Squares Estimation 408</p> <p>9.3.1 Introduction 408</p> <p>9.3.2 Maximum Likelihood Concepts 410</p> <p>9.3.3 Matrix Formulation 414</p> <p>9.3.4 An Example of Weighted Least-Squares State Estimation 417</p> <p>9.4 State Estimation of an Ac Network 421</p> <p>9.4.1 Development of Method 421</p> <p>9.4.2 Typical Results of State Estimation on an AC Network 424</p> <p>9.5 State Estimation by Orthogonal Decomposition 428</p> <p>9.5.1 The Orthogonal Decomposition Algorithm 431</p> <p>9.6 An Introduction to Advanced Topics in State Estimation 435</p> <p>9.6.1 Sources of Error in State Estimation 435</p> <p>9.6.2 Detection and Identification of Bad Measurements 436</p> <p>9.6.3 Estimation of Quantities Not Being Measured 443</p> <p>9.6.4 Network Observability and Pseudo-measurements 444</p> <p>9.7 The Use of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUS) 447</p> <p>9.8 Application of Power Systems State Estimation 451</p> <p>9.9 Importance of Data Verification and Validation 454</p> <p>9.10 Power System Control Centers 454</p> <p><b>Appendix 9A Derivation of Least-Squares Equations 456</b></p> <p>9A.1 The Overdetermined Case (<i>N</i>m > <i>N</i>s) 457</p> <p>9A.2 The Fully Determined Case (<i>N</i>m = <i>N</i>s) 462</p> <p>9A.3 The Underdetermined Case (<i>N</i>m < <i>N</i>s) 462</p> <p>Problems 464</p> <p><b>10 Control of Generation 468</b></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 468</p> <p>10.2 Generator Model 470</p> <p>10.3 Load Model 473</p> <p>10.4 Prime-Mover Model 475</p> <p>10.5 Governor Model 476</p> <p>10.6 Tie-Line Model 481</p> <p>10.7 Generation Control 485</p> <p>10.7.1 Supplementary Control Action 485</p> <p>10.7.2 Tie-Line Control 486</p> <p>10.7.3 Generation Allocation 489</p> <p>10.7.4 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) Implementation 491</p> <p>10.7.5 AGC Features 495</p> <p>10.7.6 NERC Generation Control Criteria 496</p> <p>Problems 497</p> <p>References 500</p> <p><b>11 Interchange, Pooling, Brokers, and Auctions 501</b></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 501</p> <p>11.2 Interchange Contracts 504</p> <p>11.2.1 Energy 504</p> <p>11.2.2 Dynamic Energy 506</p> <p>11.2.3 Contingent 506</p> <p>11.2.4 Market Based 507</p> <p>11.2.5 Transmission Use 508</p> <p>11.2.6 Reliability 517</p> <p>11.3 Energy Interchange between Utilities 517</p> <p>11.4 Interutility Economy Energy Evaluation 521</p> <p>11.5 Interchange Evaluation with Unit Commitment 522</p> <p>11.6 Multiple Utility Interchange Transactions—Wheeling 523</p> <p>11.7 Power Pools 526</p> <p>11.8 The Energy-Broker System 529</p> <p>11.9 Transmission Capability General Issues 533</p> <p>11.10 Available Transfer Capability and Flowgates 535</p> <p>11.10.1 Definitions 536</p> <p>11.10.2 Process 539</p> <p>11.10.3 Calculation ATC Methodology 540</p> <p>11.11 Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) 550</p> <p>11.11.1 Loads and Generation in a Spot Market Auction 550</p> <p>11.11.2 Shape of the Two Functions 552</p> <p>11.11.3 Meaning of the Lagrange Multipliers 553</p> <p>11.11.4 The Day-Ahead Market Dispatch 554</p> <p>11.12 Auction Emulation using Network LP 555</p> <p>11.13 Sealed Bid Discrete Auctions 555</p> <p>Problems 560</p> <p><b>12 Short-Term Demand Forecasting 566</b></p> <p>12.1 Perspective 566</p> <p>12.2 Analytic Methods 569</p> <p>12.3 Demand Models 571</p> <p>12.4 Commodity Price Forecasting 572</p> <p>12.5 Forecasting Errors 573</p> <p>12.6 System Identification 573</p> <p>12.7 Econometric Models 574</p> <p>12.7.1 Linear Environmental Model 574</p> <p>12.7.2 Weather-Sensitive Models 576</p> <p>12.8 Time Series 578</p> <p>12.8.1 Time Series Models Seasonal Component 578</p> <p>12.8.2 Auto-Regressive (AR) 580</p> <p>12.8.3 Moving Average (MA) 581</p> <p>12.8.4 Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA): Box-Jenkins 582</p> <p>12.8.5 Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA): Box-Jenkins 584</p> <p>12.8.6 Others (ARMAX, ARIMAX, SARMAX, NARMA) 585</p> <p>12.9 Time Series Model Development 585</p> <p>12.9.1 Base Demand Models 586</p> <p>12.9.2 Trend Models 586</p> <p>12.9.3 Linear Regression Method 586</p> <p>12.9.4 Seasonal Models 588</p> <p>12.9.5 Stationarity 588</p> <p>12.9.6 WLS Estimation Process 590</p> <p>12.9.7 Order and Variance Estimation 591</p> <p>12.9.8 Yule-Walker Equations 592</p> <p>12.9.9 Durbin-Levinson Algorithm 595</p> <p>12.9.10 Innovations Estimation for MA and ARMA Processes 598</p> <p>12.9.11 ARIMA Overall Process 600</p> <p>12.10 Artificial Neural Networks 603</p> <p>12.10.1 Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks 604</p> <p>12.10.2 Artificial Neurons 605</p> <p>12.10.3 Neural network applications 606</p> <p>12.10.4 Hopfield Neural Networks 606</p> <p>12.10.5 Feed-Forward Networks 607</p> <p>12.10.6 Back-Propagation Algorithm 610</p> <p>12.10.7 Interior Point Linear Programming Algorithms 613</p> <p>12.11 Model Integration 614</p> <p>12.12 Demand Prediction 614</p> <p>12.12.1 Hourly System Demand Forecasts 615</p> <p>12.12.2 One-Step Ahead Forecasts 615</p> <p>12.12.3 Hourly Bus Demand Forecasts 616</p> <p>12.13 Conclusion 616</p> <p>Problems 617</p> <p>Index 620</p>
<p>“Without a doubt, this book makes admirable progress in integrating the ­traditional with the new, and, as such, it is a worthy addition to professional libraries. It is a valuable text for a one- or two-course sequence in a graduate curriculum in power systems. Reasonable resource support for both student and instructor is available through the publisher.” (<i>IEEE</i>, 1 July 2014)</p> <p> </p>
<p><b><small>ALLEN </small>J.<small> WOOD </small></b>joined Power Technologies, Inc., in 1969 as a Principal Engineer and Director. He was a Life Fellow of IEEE and served as an adjunct professor in the Electric Power Engineering graduate program at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Wood passed away in 2011. <p><b><small>BRUCE F. WOLLENBERG </small></b>joined the University of Minnesota in 1989 and made original contributions to the understanding of electric power market structures. He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. <p><b><small>GERALD B. SHEBLÉ </small></b>joined Auburn University in 1990 to conduct research in power system, space power, and electric auction market research. He joined Iowa State University to conduct research in the interaction of markets and power system operation. His academic research has continued to center on the action of the markets based on the physical operation of the power system. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.
<p><b>A thoroughly revised new edition of the definitive work on power systems best practices</b> <p>In this eagerly awaited new edition, Power Generation, Operation, and Control continues to provide engineers and academics with a complete picture of the techniques used in modern power system operation. Long recognized as the standard reference in the field, the book has been thoroughly updated to reflect the enormous changes that have taken place in the electric power industry since the Second Edition was published seventeen years ago. <p>With an emphasis on both the engineering and economic aspects of energy management, the Third Edition introduces central "terminal" characteristics for thermal and hydroelectric power generation systems, along with new optimization techniques for tackling real-world operating problems. Readers will find a range of algorithms and methods for performing integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis, as well as modern methods for power system analysis, operation, and control. Special features include: <ul> <li>State-of-the-art topics such as market simulation, multiple market analysis, contract and market bidding, and other business topics</li> <li>Chapters on generation with limited energy supply, power flow control, power system security, and more</li> <li>An introduction to regulatory issues, renewable energy, and other evolving topics</li> <li>New worked examples and end-of-chapter problems</li> <li>A companion website with additional materials, including MATLAB programs and power system sample data sets</li> </ul>

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