Details

Polymer Waste Management


Polymer Waste Management


1. Aufl.

von: Johannes Karl Fink

150,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Scrivener
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 30.08.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119536383
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 366

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Beschreibungen

With the huge amount of plastics floating in the oceans, fish and other sea creatures are directly suffering the consequences. On land, city leaders and planners are banning one-use plastics as well as plastic bags from grocery stores in an effort to stem the use.  Many countries have made official announcements and warnings concerning the pollution caused from plastic wastes.  These urgent developments have stimulated the author to study the problem and write Polymer Waste Management.    Plastic recycling refers to a method that retrieves the original plastic material. However, there are many sophisticated methods available for the treatment and management of waste plastics such as basic primary recycling, where the materials are sorted and collected individually. In chemical recycling, the monomers and related compounds are processed by special chemical treatments. Other methods, such as pyrolysis, can produce fuels from waste plastics. These methods and others are treated comprehensively in the book This ground-breaking book also discusses: General aspects, such as amount of plastics production, types of waste plastics, analysis procedures for identification of waste plastic types, standards for waste treatment, contaminants in recycled plastics. Environmental aspects, such as pollution in the marine environment and landfills. The advantages of the use of bio-based plastics. Recycling methods for individual plastic types and special catalysts.
Preface xi 1 General Aspects 1 1.1 History of the Literature 2 1.2 Amount of Wastes 2 1.3 Metal Content in Wastes 4 1.3.1 Waste Poly(ethylene) and Pure High Density Poly(ethylene) 4 1.4 Analysis Procedures 4 1.4.1 Fluorescence Labeling 4 1.4.2 Time-Gated Fluorescence Spectroscopy 6 1.4.3 Content of Flame Retardants 6 1.4.4 Identification of Black Plastics 7 1.4.5 Raman Spectroscopy 9 1.4.6 Life Cycle Assessment 10 1.4.7 Analysis of Contaminated Mixed Waste Plastics 12 1.4.8 Construction and Household Plastic Waste 14 1.4.9 Models for Forecasting the Composition of Waste Materials 14 1.5 Standards 16 1.5.1 Circular Economy Package 16 1.5.2 SPI Codes 17 1.5.3 Test Samples for Biodegradation 19 1.5.4 Mixed Municipal Waste 21 1.5.5 Aerobic Composting 21 1.5.6 Contaminants in Recycled Plastics 22 1.6 Special Problems with Plastics 22 1.6.1 Stability of Plastics 22 1.6.2 Additives 23 1.6.3 Plastics in Food 24 1.6.4 Seawater 25 1.6.5 Landfill 37 1.6.6 Electronic Waste 38 References 40 2 Environmental Aspects 51 2.1 Pollution of the Marine Environment 51 2.1.1 Pathways of Plastics into the Marine Environment 54 2.1.2 Deleterious Effects on the Marine Environment 55 2.1.3 Reports Concerning Special Locations 55 2.1.4 Analysis Methods 56 2.1.5 Plastic Preproduction Pellets 59 2.1.6 Leaching of Plastics 60 2.1.7 Micro-plastics 60 2.1.8 Marine Animals 65 2.2 Pollution of the Terrestrial Environment 71 2.2.1 Waste Generation 71 2.2.2 Disposal in Landfills 71 2.2.3 Plastic Materials for Packaging 72 References 73 3 Recycling Methods 79 3.1 Alternative Plastic Materials 80 3.2 Mechanical Recycling 81 3.2.1 Poly(lactic acid) 81 3.2.2 Nanocellulose Coated Poly(ethylene) Films 84 3.2.3 Electric Uses 84 3.3 Primary Recycling 86 3.4 Renewable Polymer Synthesis 87 3.4.1 Natural Solvents for Expanded Poly(styrene) 94 3.4.2 Landfill Methane Recycling 97 3.4.3 Anaerobic Landfill 97 3.4.4 Simulated Semi-aerobic Landfill 99 3.5 Preparation and Regeneration of Catalysts 100 3.5.1 Reuse of ZSM-5 Zeolite 100 3.5.2 Modification of Zeolites 100 3.6 Pyrolysis Methods 101 3.6.1 Fluidized-Bed Reactor 104 3.7 Metallized Plastics Waste 105 3.7.1 Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis 106 3.8 Mixed Plastics 108 3.8.1 Grinding and Cleaning 108 3.8.2 Reductant in Ironmaking 109 3.9 Separation Processes 111 3.9.1 Automated Sorting of Waste 111 3.9.2 Sorting According to Density 112 3.9.3 Hydrocyclonic Separation of Waste Plastics 114 3.9.4 Froth Flotation 114 3.10 Triboelectrostatic Separation 126 3.11 Wet Gravity Separation 127 3.11.1 Selective Dissolution/Precipitation Technique  for Polymer Recycling 128 3.12 Supercritical Water 129 3.13 Solvent Treatment 132 References 136 4 Recovery of Monomers 145 4.1 Process for Obtaining a Polymerizable Monomer 145 4.2 Pyrolysis in Carrier Gas 146 4.3 Fluidized Bed Method 147 4.4 Recovery of Monomers from Waste Gas Streams 147 4.5 Polyolefins 148 4.6 Poly(styrene) 149 4.6.1 Methods with Supercritical Materials 149 4.6.2 Volcanic Tuff and Florisil Catalysts 150 4.6.3 Base-Promoted Iron Catalysis 151 4.6.4 Composite Catalysts 151 4.6.5 Fluidized-Bed Reactor 152 4.6.6 Catalytic Acid and Basic Active Centers 153 4.7 Phenolic Resins 154 4.8 Poly(carbonate) 155 4.8.1 Poly(bisphenol A carbonate) 156 4.9 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) 157 4.9.1 Acrylic Monomers 157 4.9.2 Acrylic Aromatic Amide Oligomers 159 4.9.3 Terephthalic Acid 159 4.9.4 Terephthalic dihydrazide 160 4.9.5 Aminolytic Depolymerization 161 4.9.6 Hydrogenation Reaction 163 4.10 Nylon 163 4.10.1 Recovery of Caprolactam 163 4.10.2 Hexamethylene diamine 164 4.11 Poly(urethane) 165 4.12 Sequential Processes for Mixed Plastics 166 4.13 Waste Fiber Reinforced Plastics 167 4.13.1 Supercritical Methyl Alcohol 167 4.13.2 Ionic Liquid Treatment 168 4.13.3 N,N-Dimethylaminopyridine for Depolymerization 168 4.13.4 Subcritical Water 169 4.13.5 Fiber-Matrix Separation for Carbon Fiber Recycling 170 References 170 5 Recovery into Fuels 175 5.1 Poly(ethylene) 175 5.1.1 Aromatic Fuel Oils from Poly(ethylene) 175 5.2 Thermal and Catalytic Processes 176 5.2.1 Optimization of Temperature and Catalyst 177 5.3 Mixed Waste Plastics 180 5.3.1 Fuel-like Feedstocks 181 5.3.2 Production of Transportation Fuels 5.3.3 Co-pyrolysis of Waste Vegetable Oil 183 and Waste Poly(ethylene) Plastics 186 5.3.4 Refining Method for Recycling Waste Plastics 186 5.4 Hydrocarbon Fuels 189 5.4.1 Pyrolysis into Premium Oil Products 189 5.4.2 Gasoline, Kerosene, and Diesel 189 5.4.3 Two-Stage Pyrolysis Catalysis 193 5.4.4 Continuous Preparation 194 5.4.5 Continuous Cracking Technology 195 5.5 High-Value Hydrocarbon Products 196 5.6 Purified Crude Oil 198 5.7 Lubricating Oil 204 5.8 Waxes and Grease Base Stocks 206 5.9 Co-pyrolysis of Landfill Recovered Plastic Wastes  and Used Lubrication Oils 208 5.10 PVC Wastes 209 5.11 Iron Oxide Catalyst 210 5.12 Landfill 210 5.12.1 Landfill Mining Project 210 5.12.2 Slow Pyrolysis 211 5.12.3 Pyrolysis Oils from Landfill Waste 212 References 214 6 Specific Materials 219 6.1 Catalysts for Recycling 219 6.2 Polyolefins 219 6.2.1 Thermal and Catalytic Conversion 220 6.2.2 Catalytic Cracking of Polyolefins 220 6.2.3 Fast Pyroylysis of PolyolefinWastes 225 6.2.4 Low Density Poly(ethylene) 225 6.2.5 High Density Poly(ethylene) 232 6.2.6 Poly(propylene) 259 6.3 Poly(styrene) 261 6.3.1 Influence of Temperature in Pyrolysis 262 6.3.2 Degradation of Poly(styrene) in the Presence of Hydrogen 262 6.3.3 Production of Enhanced Amounts of Aromatic Compounds 264 6.3.4 Poly(styrene) with Flame Retardants 267 6.4 Poly(carbonate) 268 6.4.1 Effect of Metal Chlorides 268 6.5 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) 271 6.5.1 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flakes 271 6.5.2 Chemical Recycling 272 6.5.3 Flake and Pellet Process 275 6.5.4 Bio-based Plastics 275 6.6 Poly(vinyl chloride) 276 6.6.1 Separation Techniques for PVC Waste Plastics 276 6.6.2 Surface Treatment 276 6.7 Pyrolysis of Mixed Plastics 278 6.7.1 Pyrolysis of PE and PVC Mixtures 279 6.7.2 Waste Catalyst for Hazardous Chlorine-Containing Plastic 280 6.7.3 Catalytic Hydrocracking of Post-Consumer Plastic Waste 280 6.7.4 Debromination of Pyrolysis Oil 282 6.7.5 Commingled Post-Consumer Polymer 283 6.7.6 Waste Packaging Separation 285 6.7.7 Hospital Wastes 286 6.7.8 Agricultural Plastic Film Wastes 287 6.8 Technical Biopolymers 288 6.8.1 Mechanical Recyclability 288 6.8.2 Hydrolytic Degradation 288 6.8.3 Measurement of Renewable Bio-source Content 289 6.9 Co-processing of Waste Plastics and Petroleum Residue 291 6.9.1 Co-processing with Light Arabian Crude Oil 291 6.10 Automotive Waste Plastics 292 6.10.1 Lightweight Aggregates 294 6.10.2 Titanium Nitride Film on Steel Substrate 297 6.11 Phthalates 297 6.12 Enzymatic Degradation 298 6.13 ElectronicWaste 299 6.13.1 Main Plastics in Electronic Waste 302 6.13.2 Recycling of Compact Discs 302 6.13.3 Liquid Crystal Displays 304 6.13.4 Pyrolysis of Printed Circuit Boards 305 6.13.5 Metal Recovery 305 6.13.6 Influence of Virgin Poly(carbonate) and Impact Modifier 309 6.14 Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics 309 6.15 Usage in Concrete 314 6.15.1 Plastic Waste as Fuel in Cement Production 314 6.15.2 Constructional Works 315 6.15.3 Lightweight Concrete 316 6.15.4 Bakelite Plastic Waste 316 6.15.5 Plastics from Waste of Electric and Electronic Equipment 317 6.15.6 Plastic Aggregates 318 6.15.7 Waste Plastics as Fiber 318 6.15.8 Fiber Reinforced Plastic Waste Powder 319 6.15.9 Domestic Waste Plastics 320 6.15.10 Usage in Pavement 321 6.15.11 Usage in Gypsum Blocks 324 6.16 Recycling of Floor Coverings 324 References 326 Index 337 Acronyms 337 Chemicals 340 General Index 345
Johannes Karl Fink is Professor of Macromolecular Chemistry at Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria. His industry and academic career spans more than 30 years in the fields of polymers, and his research interests include characterization, flame retardancy, thermodynamics and the degradation of polymers, pyrolysis, and adhesives. Professor Fink has published 12 books on physical chemistry and polymer science with Wiley-Scrivener including A Concise Introduction to Additives for Thermoplastic Polymers, Polymeric Sensors and Actuators, The Chemistry of Biobased Polymers and Materials, Chemicals and Methods for Dental Applications.
The world is literally awash with plastics and this book practically provides a broad overview of plastic recycling procedures and waste management. With the huge amount of plastics floating in the oceans, fish and other sea creatures are directly suffering the consequences. On land, city leaders and planners are banning one-use plastics as well as plastic bags from grocery stores in an effort to stem the use. Many countries have made official announcements and warnings concerning the pollution caused from plastic wastes. These urgent developments have stimulated the author to study the problem and write Polymer Waste Management. Plastic recycling refers to a method that retrieves the original plastic material. However, there are many sophisticated methods available for the treatment and management of waste plastics such as basic primary recycling, where the materials are sorted and collected individually. In chemical recycling, the monomers and related compounds are processed by special chemical treatments. Other methods, such as pyrolysis, can produce fuels from waste plastics. These methods and others are treated comprehensively in the book. This groundbreaking book also discusses: General aspects, such as amount of plastics production, types of waste plastics, analysis procedures for identification of waste plastic types, standards for waste treatment, contaminants in recycled plastics. Environmental aspects, such as pollution in the marine environment and landfills. The advantages of the use of bio-based plastics. Recycling methods for individual plastic types and special catalysts. Audience This text will be important to scientists (polymer and materials scientists, environmental and sustainability engineers) as well as policy managers and civic leaders, engaged in the problems of plastics waste management. The book is an ideal course book for students who are interested in the current problems of plastics recycling.

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